(1) In the Bible, as in modern times, barley was a characteristic product of Israel--"a land of wheat and barley, and vines and fig-trees," etc. (Dt 8:8), the failure of whose crop was a national disaster (Joel 1:11). It was, and is, grown chiefly as provender for horses and asses (1 Ki 4:28), oats being practically unknown, but it was, as it now is, to some extent, the food of the poor in country districts (Ruth 2:17; 2 Ki 4:42; Jn 6:9,13). Probably this is the meaning of the dream of the Midianite concerning Gideon: "Behold, I dreamed a dream; and, lo, a cake of barley bread tumbled into the camp of Midian, and came unto the tent, and smote it so that it fell, and turned it upside down, so that the tent lay flat. And his fellow answered and said, This is nothing else save the sword of Gideon, the son of Joash, a man of Israel" (Jdg 7:13 f). Here the barley loaf is type of the peasant origin of Gideons army and perhaps, too, of his own lowly condition.
Barley was (Ezek 4:9) one of the ingredients from which the prophet was to make bread and "eat it as barley cakes" after having baked it under repulsive conditions (Ezek 4:12), as a sign to the people. The false prophetesses (Ezek 13:19) are said to have profaned God among the people for "handfuls of barley and for pieces of bread."
Barley was also used in the ORDEAL OF JEALOUSY (s.v.). It was with five barley loaves and two fishes that our Lord fed the five thousand (Jn 6:9,10).
(2) Several varieties of barley are grown in Israel The Hordeum distichum or two-rowed barley is probably the nearest to the original stock, but Hordeum tetrastichum, with grains in four rows, and Hordeum hexastichum, with six rows, are also common and ancient; the last is found depicted upon Egyptian monuments.
Barley is always sown in the autumn, after the "early rains," and the barley harvest, which for any given locality precedes the wheat harvest (Ex 9:31 f), begins near Jericho in April--or even March--but in the hill country of Israel is not concluded until the end of May or beginning of June.
The barley harvest was a well-marked season of the year (see TIME) and the barley-corn was a well-known measure of length.
See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
E. W. G. Masterman