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每日一詞 主題辭典 聖經人名 聖經地名 聖經英文

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目前本系統共收錄了 1,856 個聖經相關人名
以及 HDBN 包含了 2,616 個姓名的意義解釋。


中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
亞列利 ARELI
代表
創46:16 民26:17
ISBE
a-re-li (areli, apparently the gentilic form of a compound that would mean "Gods lioness," or "Gods hearth"): One of the sons of Gad the son of Jacob (Gen 46:16; Nu 26:17). "Arelites" (which see) is exactly the same word.
HDBN
the light or vision of God
SBD
(heroic ), a son of Gad. ( Genesis 46:16 ; Numbers 26:17 ) His descendants are called Arelites. Numb 26:17.
亞別 ABIEL
代表
撒上9:1 撒上14:51 代上11:32
ISBE
a-bi-el, ab-yel, a-bi-el (abhiel, "my father is God," or "God is father"):
(1) A descendant of Benjamin the son of Jacob. Father of Kish the father of King Saul, and also, apparently, the father of Ner the father of Sauls general, Abner (1 Sam 9:1; 14:51).
(2) One of Davids mighty men (1 Ch 11:32), called ABI-ALBON, which see, in 2 Sam 23:31.
Easton
father (i.e., "possessor") of God = "pious." (1.) The son of Zeror and father of Ner, who was the grandfather of Saul (1 Sam. 14:51; 1 Chr. 8:33; 9:39). In 1 Sam. 9:1, he is called the "father," probably meaning the grandfather, of Kish. (2.) An Arbathite, one of David's warriors (1 Chr. 11:32); called also Abi-albon (2 Sam. 23:31).
HDBN
God my father
亞利代 ARIDAI
代表
斯9:9 斯9:13
ISBE
ar-i-di, a-rid-a-i (aridhay: a son of Haman (Est 9:9)): The name may be related to the Persian Hari-dayas, "delight of Hari"; the text is very uncertain.
亞利伊勒 ARIEL
代表
撒下23:20 代上11:22
ISBE
a-ri-el (ariyel or ariel, "lioness of God"): But the word occurs in Ezek 43:15,16, and is there translated in the Revised Version (British and American) "ALTAR HEARTH."
(1) According to the Revised Version (British and American) a man of Moab whose two sons were slain by Davids warrior Benaiah the son of Jehoiada (2 Sam 23:20; 1 Ch 11:22). Here the King James Version translates "two lionlike men of Moab."
(2) A name applied to Jerusalem (Isa 29:1,2,7). The many explanations of the name are interesting, but mainly conjectural.
(3) One of the members of the delegation sent by Ezra to the place Casiphia, to secure temple ministers for his expedition to Jerusalem (Ezr 8:16).
Willis J. Beecher
Easton
the lion of God. (1.) One of the chief men sent by Ezra to procure Levites for the sanctuary (Ezra 8:16). (2.) A symbolic name for Jerusalem (Isa. 29:1, 2, 7) as "victorious under God," and in Ezek. 43:15, 16, for the altar (marg., Heb. 'ariel) of burnt offerings, the secret of Israel's lion-like strength.
HDBN
altar; light or lion of God
SBD
(lion of God ). One of the "chief men" who under Ezra directed the caravan which he led back from Babylon to Jerusalem. ( Ezra 8:16 ) (B.C. 459.) The word occurs also in reference to two Moabites slain by Benaiah. ( 2 Samuel 23:20 ; 1 Chronicles 11:22 ) Many regard the word as an epithet, "lion-like;" but it seems better to look upon it as a proper name, and translate "two [sons] of Ariel." A designation given by Isaiah to the city of Jerusalem. ( Isaiah 29:1 Isaiah 29:2 Isaiah 29:7 ) We must understand by it either "lion of God," as the chief city, or "hearth of God," a synonym for the altar of burnt offering. On the whole it seems most probable that, as a name given to Jerusalem, Ariel means "lion of God," whilst the word used by Ezekiel, ( Ezekiel 43:15 Ezekiel 43:16 ) means "hearth of God."
亞利多布 ARISTOBULUS
代表
羅16:16
ISBE
ar-is-to-bu-lus (Aristoboulos, "best counselor"):
(1) Son of the Maccabean, John Hyrcanus, who assumed the power and also the title of king after his fathers death (105 BC) and associated with him, as co-regent, his brother Antigonus (Ant., XIII, xi), though by the will of his father the government was entrusted to his mother. Three other brothers and his mother he cast into prison, where they died of starvation. He murdered Antigonus, and died conscience-stricken himself in 104 BC.
See MACCABEES.
(2) Aristobulus, nephew of the former, dethroned his mother, Alexandra (69 BC), and forced his brother Hyrcanus to renounce the crown and mitre in his favor. In 64 Pompey came to Israel and supported the cause of Hyrcanus. See HYRCANUS. Aristobulus was defeated and taken prisoner, and Hyrcanus was appointed ethnarch in 63 BC. Aristobulus and his two daughters were taken to Rome, where he graced the triumph of Pompey. The father escaped later (56 BC) and appeared in Israel again as a claimant to the throne. Many followers flocked to his standard, but he was finally defeated, severely wounded and taken prisoner a second time and with his son, Antigonus, again taken to Rome. Julius Caesar not only restored him to freedom (49 BC), but also gave him two legions to recover Judea, and to work in his interest against Pompey. But Quintus Metellus Scipio, who had just received Syria as a province, had Aristobulus poisoned as he was on his way to Israel.CR #(3) Grandson of the preceding, and the last of the Maccabean family.
See ASMONEANS.
(4) The Jewish teacher of Ptol. VII (2 Macc 1:10).
(5) An inhabitant of Rome, certain of whose household are saluted by Paul (Rom 16:10). He was probably a grandson of Herod and brother of Herod Agrippa, a man of great wealth, and intimate with the emperor Claudius. Lightfoot (Philippians, 172) suggests that "the household of Aristobulus" were his slaves, and that upon his death they had kept together and had become the property of the emperor either by purchase or as a legacy, in which event, however, they might, still retain the name of their former master. Among these were Christians to whom Paul sends greeting.
M. O. Evans
Easton
a Roman mentioned in Paul's Epistle to the Romans (16:10), whose "household" is saluated.
HDBN
a good counselor
SBD
(the best counsellor ), a resident at Rome, some of whose household are greeted in ( Romans 16:10 ) Tradition makes him one of the 70 disciples and reports that he preached the gospel in Britain.
亞利大他 ARIDATHA
代表
斯9:9 斯9:13
ISBE
ar-i-da-tha, a-rid-a-tha (aridhatha): A son of Haman (Est 9:8). It may be related to the Persian Hari-data, "given by Hari." The Septuagint reads Pharadatha.
SBD
sixth son of Haman. ( Esther 9:8 )
亞利耶 ARIEH
代表
王下15:25
ISBE
a-ri-e: "(the) Lion."
See ARGOB.
Easton
the lion, the name of one of the body-guard slain with Pekahiah at Samaria (2 Kings 15:25) by the conspirator Pekah.
SBD
(lion ). Either one of the accomplices of Pekah in his conspiracy against Pekahiah, or one of the princes of Pekahiah who was put to death with him. ( 2 Kings 15:20 ) (B.C. 757.)
亞利賽 ARISAI
代表
斯9:9 斯9:13
ISBE
ar-i-sai, a-ris-a-i (aricai): Probably a Persian word of unknown meaning. One of Hamans sons, slain by the Jews (Est 9:9).
亞力山大 ALEXANDER
代表
可15:21 徒4:6 徒19:32 提後4:14 提前1:20
ISBE
al-eg-zan-der (Alexandros, literal meaning "defender of men." This word occurs five times in the New Testament, Mk 15:21; Acts 4:6; 19:33; 1 Tim 1:19,20; 2 Tim 4:14): It is not certain whether the third, fourth and fifth of these passages refer to the same man.
1. A Son of Simon of Cyrene:
The first of these Alexanders is referred to in the passage in Mk, where he is said to have been one of the sons of Simon of Cyrene, the man who carried the cross of Christ. Alexander therefore may have been a North African by birth. Matthew, Mark, and Luke all record the fact, with varying detail, that Simon happened to be passing at the time when Christ was being led out of the city, to be crucified on Calvary. Mark alone tells that Simon was the father of Alexander and Rufus. From this statement of the evangelist, it is apparent that at the time the Second Gospel was written, Alexander and Rufus were Christians, and that they were well known in the Christian community. Mark takes it for granted that the first readers of his Gospel will at once understand whom he means.
There is no other mention of Alexander in the New Testament, but it is usually thought that his brother Rufus is the person mentioned by Paul in Rom 16:13, "Salute Rufus the chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine." If this identification is correct, then it follows, not only that the sons of Simon were Christians, but that his wife also was a Christian, and that they had all continued faithful to Christ for many years. It would also follow that the households were among the intimate friends of Paul, so much so that the mother of the family is affectionately addressed by him as "Rufus mother and mine." The meaning of this is, that in time past this lady had treated Paul with the tender care which a mother feels and shows to her own son.
This mention of Rufus and his mother is in the list of names of Christians resident in Rome. Lightfoot (Comm. on Phil, 176) writes: "There seems no reason to doubt the tradition that Mk wrote especially for the Romans; and if so, it is worth remarking that he alone of the evangelists describes Simon of Cyrene, as `the father of Alexander and Rufus. A person of this name therefore (Rufus) seems to have held a prominent place among the Roman Christians; and thus there is at least fair ground for identifying the Rufus of Paul with the Rufus of Mark. The inscriptions exhibit several members of the household (of the emperor) bearing the names Rufus and Alexander, but this fact is of no value where both names are so common."
To sum up, Alexander was probably by birth a North African Jew; he became a Christian, and was a well-known member of the church, probably the church in Rome. His chief claim to recollection is that he was a son of the man who carried the cross of the Saviour of the world.
2. A Relative of Annas:
The second Alexander, referred to in Acts 4:6, was a relative of Annas the Jewish high priest. He is mentioned by Lk, as having been present as a member of the Sanhedrin, before which Peter and John were brought to be examined, for what they had done in the cure of the lame man at the gate of the temple. Nothing more is known of this Alexander than is here given by Luke. It has been conjectured that he may have been the Alexander who was a brother of Philo, and who was also the alabarch or magistrate of the city of Alexandria. But this conjecture is unsupported by any evidence at all.
3. Alexander and the Riot at Ephesus:
The third Alexander is mentioned in Acts 19:33: "And some of the multitude instructed Alexander, the Jews putting him forward. And Alexander beckoned with the hand, and would have made defense unto the people. But when they perceived that he was a Jew, all with one voice," etc., the Revised Version, margin. In the matter of the riot in Ephesus the whole responsibility rested with Demetrius the silversmith. In his anger against the Christians generally, but specially against Paul, because of his successful preaching of the gospel, he called together a meeting of the craftsmen; the trade of the manufacture of idols was in jeopardy. From this meeting there arose the riot, in which the whole city was in commotion. The Jews were wholly innocent in the matter: they had done nothing to cause any disturbance. But the riot had taken place, and no one could tell what would happen. Modern anti-Semitism, in Russia and other European countries, gives an idea of an excited mob stirred on by hatred of the Jews. Instantly recognizing that the fury of the Ephesian people might expend itself in violence and bloodshed, and that in that fury they would be the sufferers, the Jews "put forward" Alexander, so that by his skill as a speaker he might clear them, either of having instigated the riot, or of being in complicity with Paul. "A certain Alexander was put forward by the Jews to address the mob; but this merely increased the clamor and confusion. There was no clear idea among the rioters what they wanted: an anti-Jewish and an anti-Christian demonstration were mixed up, and probably Alexanders retention was to turn the general feeling away from the Jews. It is possible that he was the worker in bronze, who afterward did Paul much harm" (Ramsay, Paul the Traveler, etc., 279).
4. Alexander an Ephesian Heretic:
The fourth of the New Testament Alexanders is one of two heretical teachers at Ephesus--the other being Hymeneus: see article under the word--against whom Paul warns Timothy in 1 Tim 1:19,20. The teaching of Hymeneus and Alexander was to the effect that Christian morality was not required--antinomianism. They put away--"thrust from them," the Revised Version (British and American)--faith and a good conscience; they willfully abandoned the great central facts regarding Christ, and so they "made shipwreck concerning the faith."
5. His Heresy Incipient Gnosticism:
In 2 Tim 2:17,18, Hymeneus is associated with Philetus, and further details are there given regarding their false teaching. What they taught is described by Paul as "profane babblings," as leading to more ungodliness, and as eating "as doth a gangrene." Their heresy consisted in saying that the resurrection was past already, and it had been so far successful, that it had overthrown the faith of some. The doctrine of these three heretical teachers, Hymeneus, Alexander and Philetus, was accordingly one of the early forms of Gnosticism. It held that matter was originally and essentially evil; that for this reason the body was not an essential part of human nature; that the only resurrection was that of each man as he awoke from the death of sin to a righteous life; that thus in the case of everyone who has repented of sin, "the resurrection was past already," and that the body did not participate in the blessedness of the future life, but that salvation consisted in the souls complete deliverance from all contact with a material world and a material body.
So pernicious were these teachings of incipient Gnosticism in the Christian church, that they quickly spread, eating like a gangrene. The denial of the future resurrection of the body involved also the dental of the bodily resurrection of Christ, and even the fact of the incarnation. The way in which therefore the apostle dealt with those who taught such deadly error, was that he resorted to the same extreme measures as he had employed in the case of the immoral person at Corinth; he delivered Hymeneus and Alexander to Satan, that they might learn not to blaspheme. Compare 1 Cor 5:5.
6. Alexander the Coppersmith:
The fifth and last occurrence of the name Alexander is in 2 Tim 4:14,15, "Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil: the Lord will render to him according to his works: of whom do thou also beware (the King James Version "of whom be thou ware also"); for he greatly withstood our words." This Alexander was a worker in copper or iron, a smith. It is quite uncertain whether Alexander number 5 should be identified with Alexander number 4, and even with Alexander number 3. In regard to this, it should be remembered that all three of these Alexanders were resident in Ephesus; and it is specially to be noticed that the fourth and the fifth of that name resided in that city at much the same time; the interval between Pauls references to these two being not more than a year or two, as not more than that time elapsed between his writing 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy. It is therefore quite possible these two Alexanders may be one and the same person.
In any case, what is stud of this last Alexander is that he had shown the evil which was in him by doing many evil deeds to the apostle, evidently on the occasion of a recent visit paid by Paul to Ephesus. These evil deeds had taken the form of personally opposing the apostles preaching. The personal antagonism of Alexander manifested itself by his greatly withstanding the proclamation of the gospel by Paul. As Timothy was now in Ephesus, in charge of the church there, he is strongly cautioned by the apostle to be on his guard against this opponent.
John Rutherfurd
Easton
man-defender. (1.) A relative of Annas the high priest, present when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Acts 4:6). (2.) A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of Christ (Mark 15:21). (3.) A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33). The Jews put him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no sympathy with Paul any more than the Ephesians had. It is possible that this man was the same as the following. (4.) A coppersmith who, with Hymenaeus and others, promulgated certain heresies regarding the resurrection (1 Tim. 1:19; 2 Tim. 4:14), and made shipwreck of faith and of a good conscience. Paul excommunicated him (1 Tim. 1:20; comp. 1 Cor. 5:5).
HDBN
one who assists men
SBD
Son of Simon the Cyrenian, who was compelled to bear the cross for our Lord. ( Mark 15:21 ) One of the kindred of Annas the high priest. ( Acts 4:6 ) A Jew at Ephesus whom his countrymen put forward during the tumult raised by Demetrius the silversmith, ( Acts 19:33 ) to plead their cause with the mob. An Ephesian Christian reprobated by St. Paul in ( 1 Timothy 1:20 ) as having, together with one Hymenaeus, put from him faith and a good conscience, and so made shipwreck concerning the faith. This may be the same with Alexander the coppersmith, mentioned by the same apostle, ( 2 Timothy 4:14 ) as having done him many mischiefs.
亞勒 ATHLAI
代表
拉10:28
ISBE
ath-la-i `athlay, "afflicted?"): A Jew, the son of Bebai, who was influenced by Ezra to put away his wife (Ezr 10:28).
HDBN
my hour or time
亞勒 ARD
代表
民26:40 創46:21
ISBE
ard (ard, meaning unknown): Either directly or more remotely a son of Benjamin. Nu 26:38-40 mentions five sons of Benjamin, together with Ard and Naaman, the sons of Bela, Benjamins oldest son, counting all seven as ancestors of Benjamite families. In 1 Ch 8:1-3 Addar and Naaman are mentioned, with others, as sons of Bela, Addar and Ard being apparently the same name with the consonants transposed. In Gen 46:21 ten sons of Benjamin are counted, including at least the three grandsons, Ard and Naaman and Gera.
Easton
descent, a grandson of Benjamin (Num. 26:38-40). In 1 Chr. 8:3 he is called Addar. His descendants are mentioned in Num. 26:40.
HDBN
one that commands; he that descends
SBD
(one that descending ), the son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin. ( Genesis 46:21 ; Numbers 26:40 ) In ( 1 Chronicles 8:3 ) he is called ADDAR.
亞勒文 ALVAN
代表
創36:23 代上:40
ISBE
al-van (`alwan, "tall"?): A son of Shobal, the Horite (Gen 36:23). In 1 Ch 1:40 the name is written Alian, Septuagint Olam. It is probably the same as Alvah of Gen 36:23, which appears in 1 Ch 1:51 as Aliah.
SBD
(tall ), a Horite, son of Shobal, ( Genesis 36:23 ) written ALIAN in ( 1 Chronicles 1:40 )
亞勒瓦 ALVAH
代表
創36:40 代上:51
ISBE
al-va (`alwah): A chief (the King James Version duke) of Edom (Gen 36:40), called "Aliah" in 1 Ch 1:51. Probably the same as Alvan, or Ahan, son of Shobal son of Seir (Gen 36:23; 1 Ch 1:40).
HDBN
his rising up; his highness
SBD
(evil ), a duke of Edom, ( Genesis 36:40 ) written ALIAH in ( 1 Chronicles 1:51 )
亞勒腓 ALPHAEUS
代表
太10:3 太9:9 可2:17
ISBE
al-fe-us (Alphaios; Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in Greek, Halphaios):
(1) The father of the second James in the list of the apostles (Mt 10:3; Mk 3:18; Lk 6:15; Acts 1:13).
(2) The father of Levi, the publican (Mk 2:14). Levi is designated as Matthew in the Gospel of Mt (9:9). There is no other reference to this Alpheus.
Some writers, notably Weiss, identify the father of Levi with the father of the second James. He says that James and Levi were undoubtedly brothers; but that seems improbable. If they were brothers they would quite likely be associated as are James and John, Andrew and Peter. Chrysostom says James and Levi had both been tax-gatherers before they became followers of Jesus. This tradition would not lend much weight as proof that they were brothers, for it might arise through identifying the two names, and the western manuscripts do identify them and read James instead of Levi in Mk 2:14. This, however, is undoubtedly a corruption of the text. If it had been the original it would be difficult to explain the substitution of an unknown Levi for James who is well known.
Many writers identify Alpheus, the father of the second James, with Clopas of Jn 19:25. This had early become a tradition, and Chrysostom believed they were the same person. This identity rests on four suppositions, all of which are doubtful:
(a) That the Mary of Clopas was the same as the Mary who was the mother of the second James. There is a difference of opinion as to whether "Mary of Clopas" should be understood to be the wife of Clopas or the daughter of Clopas, but the former is more probable. We know from Mt 27:56 and Mk 15:40 that there was a James who was the son of Mary, and that this Mary belonged to that little group of women that was near Jesus it the time of the crucifixion. It is quite likely that this Mary is the one referred to in Jn 19:25. That would make James, the son of Mary of Mt 27:56, the son of Mary of Clopas. But Mary was such a common name In the New Testament that this supposition cannot be proven.
(b) That the James, who was the son of Mary, was the same person as the James, the son of Alpheus. Granting the supposition under (a), this would not prove the identity of Clopas and Alpheus unless this supposition can also be proven, but it seems impossible to either prove it or disprove it.
(c) That Alpheus and Clopas are different variations of a common original, and that the variation has arisen from different pronunciations of the first letter ("ch") of the Aramaic original. There are good scholars who both support and deny this theory.
(d) That Clopas had two names as was common at that time; but there is nothing to either substantiate or disprove this theory.
See CLOPAS.
It seems impossible to determine absolutely whether or not Alpheus, the father of the second James, and Clopas of Jn 19:25 are the same person, but it is quite probable that they are.
A. W. Fortune
Easton
(1.) The father of James the Less, the apostle and writer of the epistle (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13), and the husband of Mary (John 19:25). The Hebrew form of this name is Cleopas, or Clopas (q.v.). (2.) The father of Levi, or Matthew (Mark 2:14).
SBD
(changing ) the father of the apostle James the Less, ( Matthew 10:3 ; Mark 3:18 ; Luke 6:15 ; Acts 1:13 ) and husband of Mary. ( John 19:25 ) [MARY] In this latter place he is called Clopas (not, as in the Authorized Version, Cleophas). indicates this entry was also found in Easton's Bible Dictionary
亞古士督 AUGUSTUS
代表
路2:1
ISBE
o-gus-tus Augoustos:
(1) The first Roman emperor, and noteworthy in Bible history as the emperor in whose reign the Incarnation took place (Lk 2:1). His original name was Caius Octavius Caepias and he was born in 63 BC, the year of Ciceros consulship. He was the grand-nephew of Julius Caesar, his mother Atia having been the daughter of Julia, Caesars younger sister. He was only 19 years of age when Caesar was murdered in the Senate house (44 BC), but with a true instinct of statesmanship he steered his course through the intrigues and dangers of the closing years of the republic, and after the battle of Actium was left without a rival. Some difficulty was experienced in finding a name that would exactly define the position of the new ruler of the state. He himself declined the names of rex and dictator, and in 27 BC he was by the decree of the Senate styled Augustus. The epithet implied respect and veneration beyond what is bestowed on human things:
"Sancta vocant augusta patres: augusta vocantur
Templa sacerdotum rite dicata manu."
--Ovid Fasti. 609; compare Dion Cass., 5316
The Greeks rendered the word by Sebastos, literally, "reverend" Acts 25:21,25). The name was connected by the Romans with augur--"one consecrated by religion"--and also with the verb augere. In this way it came to form one of the German imperial titles "Mehrer des Reichs" (extender of the empire). The length of the reign of Augustus, extending as it did over 44 years from the battle of Actium (31 BC) to his death (14 AD), doubtless contributed much to the settlement and consolidation of the new regime after the troubled times of the civil wars.
It is chiefly through the connection of Judea and Israel with the Roman Empire that Augustus comes in contact with early Christianity, or rather with the political and religious life of the Jewish people at the time of the birth of Christ: "Now it came to pass in those days, there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be enrolled" (Lk 2:1). During the reign of Herod the Great the government of Israel was conducted practically without interference from Rome except, of course, as regarded the exaction of the tribute; but on the death of that astute and capable ruler (4 BC) none of his three sons among whom his kingdom was divided showed the capacity of their father. In the year 6 AD the intervention of Augustus was invited by the Jews themselves to provide a remedy for the incapacity of their ruler, Archelaus, who was deposed by the emperor from the rule of Judea; at the same time, while Caesarea was still the center of the Roman administration, a small Roman garrison was stationed permanently in Jerusalem. The city, however, was left to the control of the Jewish Sanhedrin with complete judicial and executive authority except that the death sentence required confirmation by the Roman procurator. There is no reason to believe that Augustus entertained any specially favorable appreciation of Judaism, but from policy he showed himself favorable to the Jews in Israel and did everything to keep them from feeling the pressure of the Roman yoke. To the Jews of the eastern Diaspora he allowed great privileges. It has even been held that his aim was to render them pro-Rom, as a counterpoise in some degree to the pronounced Hellenism of the East; but in the West autonomous bodies of Jews were never allowed (see Mommsen, Provinces of the Roman Empire, chapter 11).
(2) For Augustus in Acts 25:21,25 the King James Version, see EMPEROR.
J. Hutchison
Easton
the cognomen of the first Roman emperor, C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, during whose reign Christ was born (Luke 2:1). His decree that "all the world should be taxed" was the divinely ordered occasion of Jesus' being born, according to prophecy (Micah 5:2), in Bethlehem. This name being simply a title meaning "majesty" or "venerable," first given to him by the senate (B.C. 27), was borne by succeeding emperors. Before his death (A.D. 14) he associated Tiberius with him in the empire (Luke 3:1), by whom he was succeeded.
HDBN
increased
SBD
(venerable ) Caesar , the first Roman emperor. He was born A.U.C. 691, B.C. 63. His father was Caius Octavius; his mother Atia, daughter of Julia the sister of C. Julius Caesar. He was principally educated by his great-uncle Julius Caesar, and was made his heir. After his murder, the young Octavius, then Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was taken into the triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus, and, after the removal of the latter, divided the empire with Antony. The struggle for the supreme power was terminated in favor of Octavianus by the battle of Actium, B.C. 31. On this victory he was saluted imperator by the senate, who conferred on him the title Augustus, B.C. 27. The first link binding him to New Testament history is his treatment of Herod after the battle of Actium. That prince, who had espoused Antonys side, found himself pardoned, taken into favor and confirmed, nay even increased, in his power. After Herods death, in A.D. 4, Augustus divided his dominions, almost exactly according to his dying directions, among his sons. Augustus died in Nola in Campania, Aug. 19, A.U.C. 767, A.D. 14, in his 76th year; but long before his death he had associated Tiberius with him in the empire.
亞古珥 AGUR
代表
箴30:1
ISBE
a-gur (aghur, seeming, from comparison with Arabic roots, to mean either "hireling," or "collector," "gatherer"): One of the contributors to Proverbs; his words being included in Prov 30. He takes an agnostic attitude toward God and transcendent things, and in general the range of his thought, as compared with that of other authors, is pedestrian. He shows, however, a tender reverence and awe. His most notable utterance, perhaps, is the celebrated Prayer of Agur (Prov 30:7-9), which gives expression to a charming golden mean of practical ideal. His sayings are constructed on a rather artificial plan; having the form of the so-called numerical proverb.
See under PROVERBS, THE BOOK OF, II, 6.
John Franklin Genung
Easton
gatherer; the collector, mentioned as author of the sayings in Prov. 30. Nothing is known of him beyond what is there recorded.
HDBN
stranger; gathered together
SBD
(a gatherer, i.e. together of wise men ), The son of Jakeh, an unknown Hebrew sage who uttered or collected the sayings of wisdom recorded in Prov 30.
亞吉 ACHISH
代表
撒上21:10 撒上21:11 撒上21:12 撒上21:13 撒上21:14 撒上21:15 撒上27:1 撒上27:2 撒上27:3 撒上27:4 撒上27:5 撒上27:6 撒上27:7 撒上27:8 撒上27:9 撒上27:10 撒上27:11 撒上27:12 撒上29:1 撒上29:2 撒上29:3 撒上29:4 撒上29:5 撒上29:6 撒上29:7 撒上29:8 撒上29:9 撒上29:10 撒上29:11 王下2:39
ISBE
a-kish (akhish): King of the city of Gath in the days of David. His fathers name is given as Maoch (1 Sam 27:2), and Maacah (1 Ki 2:39). David sought the protection of Achish when he first fled from Saul, and just after his visit to Nob (1 Sam 21:10-15). Fearing rough treatment or betrayal by Achish, he feigned madness. But this made him unwelcome, whereupon he fled to the Cave of Adullam (1 Sam 22:1). Later in his fugitive period David returned to Gath to be hospitably received by Achish (1 Sam 27:1 ff), who gave him the town of Ziklag for his home. A year later, when the Philistines invaded the land of Israel, in the campaign which ended so disastrously for Saul (1 Sam 31), Achish wished David to participate (1 Sam 28:1-2), but the lords of the Philistines objected so strenuously, when they found him and his men with the forces of Achish, that Achish was compelled to send them back. Achish must have been a young man at this time, for he was still ruling forty years later at the beginning of Solomons reign (1 Ki 2:39). He is mentioned as Abimelech in the title of Ps 34.
See ABIMELECH.
Edward Mack
Easton
angry, perhaps only a general title of royalty applicable to the Philistine kings. (1.) The king with whom David sought refuge when he fled from Saul (1 Sam. 21:10-15). He is called Abimelech in the superscription of Ps. 34. It was probably this same king to whom David a second time repaired at the head of a band of 600 warriors, and who assigned him Ziklag, whence he carried on war against the surrounding tribes (1 Sam. 27:5-12). Achish had great confidence in the valour and fidelity of David (1 Sam. 28:1,2), but at the instigation of his courtiers did not permit him to go up to battle along with the Philistine hosts (1 Sam. 29:2-11). David remained with Achish a year and four months. (2.) Another king of Gath, probably grandson of the foregoing, to whom the two servants of Shimei fled. This led Shimei to go to Gath in pursuit of them, and the consequence was that Solomon put him to death (1 Kings 2:39-46).
HDBN
thus it is; how is this
SBD
(angry ), a Philistine king of Gath, who in the title of the 34th Psalm is called Abimelech. David twice found a refuge with him when he fled from Saul. (B.C. 1061.) On the first occasion he was alarmed for his safety, feigned madness, and was sent away.
亞哈 AHAB
代表
王上16:28 王上21:19 王上21:24 王上22:38 王下9:24 王下9:25 王上9:334 王上9:35 王上9:36 王上9:37 耶29:21 耶29:22 耶29:23
ISBE
a-hab (achabh, Assyrian a-cha-ab-bu; Septuagint Achaab, but Jer 29:21 f, Achiab, which, in analogy with -h-y-m-l-k, ()-h-y--l, etc., indicates an original achiabh, meaning "the father is my brother"): The compound probably signifies that "the father," referring to God, has been chosen as a brother.
1. Ahabs Reign:
Ahab, son of Omri, the seventh king of Israel, who reigned for twenty-two years, from 876 to 854 (1 Ki 16:28 ff), was one of the strongest and at the same time one of the weakest kings of Israel. With his kingdom he inherited also the traditional enemies of the kingdom, who were no less ready to make trouble for him than for his predecessors. Occupying a critical position at the best, with foes ever ready to take advantage of any momentary weakness, the kingdom, during the reign of Ahab, was compelled to undergo the blighting effects of misfortune, drought and famine. But Ahab, equal to the occasion, was clever enough to win the admiration and respect of friend and foe, strengthening the kingdom without and within. Many of the evils of his reign, which a stronger nature might have overcome, were incident to the measures that he took for strengthening the kingdom.
2. His Foreign Policy:
In the days of David and Solomon a beneficial commercial intercourse existed between the Hebrews and the Phoenicians. Ahab, recognizing the advantages that would accrue to his kingdom from an alliance with the foremost commercial nation of his time, renewed the old relations with the Phoenicians and cemented them by his marriage with Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, king of Tyre (the Ithobalos, priest of Astarte mentioned by Meander).
He next turns his attention to the establishment of peaceful and friendly relations with the kindred and neighboring kingdom of Judah. For the first time since the division of the kingdoms the hereditary internecine quarrels are forgotten, "and Jehoshaphat," the good king of Judah, "made peace with the king of Israel." This alliance, too, was sealed by a marriage relationship, Jehoram, the crown-prince of Judah, being united in marriage with the princess Athaliah, daughter of Ahab.
Perhaps some additional light is thrown upon Ahabs foreign policy by his treatment of Benhadad, king of Damascus. An opportunity was given to crush to dust the threatening power of Syria. But when Benhadad in the garb of a suppliant was compelled to sue for his life, Ahab received into kindly as his brother, and although denounced by the prophets for his leniency, spared his enemy and allowed him to depart on the condition that he would restore the cities captured from Omri, and concede certain "streets" in Damascus as a quarter for Israelite residents. No doubt Ahab thought that a king won as a friend by kindness might be of greater service to Israel than a hostile nation, made still more hostile, by having its king put to death. Whatever Ahabs motives may have been, these hereditary foes really fought side by side against the common enemy, the king of Assyria, in the battle at Karkar on the Orontes in the year 854, as is proved by the inscription on the monolith of Shalmaneser II, king of Assyria.
3. His Religious Policy:
Ahabs far-sighted foreign policy was the antithesis of his short-sighted religious policy. Through his alliance with Phoenicia he not only set in motion the currents of commerce with Tyre, but invited Phoenician religion as well. The worship of Yahweh by means of the golden calves of Jeroboam appeared antiquated to him. Baal, the god of Tyre, the proud mistress of the seas and the possessor of dazzling wealth, was to have an equal place with Yahweh, the God of Israel. Accordingly he built in Samara a temple to Baal and in it erected an altar to that god, and at the side of the altar a pole to Asherab (1 Ki 16:32,33). On the other hand he tried to serve Yahweh by naming his children in his honor--Ahaziah ("Yah holds"), Jehoram ("Yah is high"), and Athaliah ("Yah is strong"). However, Ahab failed to realize that while a coalition of nations might be advantageous, a syncretism of their religions would be disastrous. He failed to apprehend the full meaning of the principle, "Yahweh alone is the God of Israel." In Jezebel, his Phoenician wife, Ahab found a champion of the foreign culture, who was as imperious and able as she was vindictive and unscrupulous. She was the patron of the prophets of Baal and of the devotees of Asherab (1 Ki 18:19,20; 19:1,2) At her instigation the altars of Yahweh were torn down. She inaugurated the first great religious persecution of the church, killing off the prophets of Yahweh with the sword. In all this she aimed at more than a syncretism of the two religions; she planned to destroy the religion of Yahweh root and branch and put that of Baal in its place. In this Ahab did not oppose her, but is guilty of conniving at the policy of his unprincipled wife, if not of heartily concurring in it.
4. The Murder of Naboth:
Wrong religious principles have their counterpart in false ethical ideals and immoral civil acts. Ahab, as a worshipper of Baal, not only introduced a false religion, but false social ideals as well. The royal residence was in Jezreel, which had probably risen in importance through his alliance with Phoenicia. Close to the royal palace was a vineyard (1 Ki 21:1) owned by Naboth, a native of Jezreel. This piece of ground was coveted by Ahab for a vegetable garden. He demanded therefore that Naboth should sell it to into or exchange it for a better piece of land. Naboth declined the offer. Ahab, a Hebrew, knowing the laws of the land, was stung by the refusal and went home greatly displeased. Jezebel, however, had neither religious scruples nor any regard for the civil laws of the Hebrews. Accordingly she planned a high-handed crime to gratify the whim of Ahab. In the name and by the authority of the king she had Naboth falsely accused of blasphemy against God and the king, and had him stoned to death by the local authorities. The horror created by this judicial murder probably did as much to finally overthrow the house of Omri as did the favor shown to the Tyrian Baal.
5. Ahab and Elijah:
Neither religious rights nor civil liberties can be trampled under foot without Divine retribution. The attempt to do so calls forth an awakened and quickened conscience, imperatively demanding that the right be done. Like an accusing conscience, Elijah appeared before Ahab. His very name ("my God is Yah") inspired awe. "As Yahweh, the God of Israel liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years," was the conscience-troubling message left on the mind of Ahab for more than three years. On Elijahs reappearance, Ahab greets into as the troubler of Israel. Elijah calmly reforms him that the kings religious policy has caused the trouble in Israel. The proof for it is to be furnished on Mount Carmel. Ahab does the bidding of Elijah. The people shall know whom to serve. Baal is silent. Yahweh answers with fire. A torrent of rain ends the drought. The victory belongs to Yahweh.
Once more Elijahs indignation flashes against the house of Ahab. The judicial murder of Naboth calls it forth. The civil rights of the nation must be protected. Ahab has sold himself to do evil in the sight of Yahweh. Therefore Ahabs house shall fall. Jezebels carcass shall be eaten by dogs; the kings posterity shall be cut off; the dogs of the city or the fowls of the air shall eat their bodies (1 Ki 21:20-26). Like thunderbolts the words of Elijah strike home. Ahab "fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and went softly." But the die was cast. Yahweh is vindicated. Never again, in the history of Israel can Baal, the inspirer of injustice, claim a place at the side of Yahweh, the God of righteousness.
6. Ahabs Building Operations:
In common with oriental monarchs, Ahab displayed a taste for architecture, stimulated, no doubt, by Phoenician influence. Large building operations were undertaken in Samaria (1 Ki 16:32; 2 Ki 10:21). Solomon had an ivory throne, but Ahab built for himself, in Jezreel, a palace adorned with woodwork and inlaid with ivory (1 Ki 21:1; 22:39). Perhaps Amos, one hundred years later, refers to the work of Ahab when he says, "The houses of ivory shall perish" (Am 3:15). In his day Hiel of Bethel undertook to rebuild Jericho, notwithstanding the curse of Joshua (1 Ki 16:33,34). Many cities were built during his reign (1 Ki 22:39).
7. Ahabs Military Career:
Ahab was not only a splendor-loving monarch, but a great military leader as well. He no doubt began his military policy by fortifying the cities of Israel (1 Ki 16:34; 22:39). Benhadad (the Dadidri of the Assyrian annals; Hadadezer and Barhadad are Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic forms of the same name), the king of Syria, whose vassals the kings of Israel had been (1 Ki 15:19), promptly besieges Samaria, and sends Ahab an insulting message. Ahab replies, "Let not him that girdeth on his armor boast himself as he that putteth it off." At the advice of a prophet of Yahweh, Ahab, with 7,000 men under 232 leaders, inflicts a crushing defeat upon Benhadad and his 32 feudal kings, who had resigned themselves to a drunken carousal (1 Ki 20 through 21).
In the following year, the Syrian army, in spite of its overwhelming superiority, meets another defeat at the hands of Ahab in the valley, near Aphek. On condition that Benhadad restore all Israelite territory and grant the Hebrews certain rights in Damascus, Ahab spares his life to the great indignation of the prophet (1 Ki 20:22 f).
In the year 854, Ahab with 2,000 chariots and 10,000 men, fights shoulder to shoulder with Benhadad against Shalmaneser II, king of Assyria. At Karkar, on the Orontes, Benhadad, with his allied forces, suffered an overwhelming defeat (COT, II, i, 183 f).
Perhaps Benhadad blamed Ahab for the defeat. At any rate he fails to keep his promise to Ahab (1 Ki 22:3; 20:34). Lured by false prophets, but against the dramatic warning of Micaiah, Ahab is led to take up the gauntlet against Syria once more. His friend, Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, joins him in the conflict. For the first time since the days of David all Israel and Judah stand united against the common foe.
8. Ahabs Death:
Possibly the warning of Micaiah gave Ahab a premonition that this would be has last fight. He enters the battle in disguise, but in vain. An arrow, shot at random, inflicts a mortal wound. With the fortitude of a hero, in order to avoid a panic, Ahab remains in his chariot all day and dies at sunset. His body is taken to Samaria for burial. A great king had died, and the kingdom declined rapidly after his death. He had failed to comprehend the greatness of Yahweh; he failed to stand for the highest justice, and his sins are visited upon has posterity (1 Ki 22:29 f).
9. Ahab and Archaeology:
(1) The Moabite Stone
The Moabite Stone (see MOABITE STONE) bears testimony (lines 7, 8) that Omri and his son (Ahab) ruled over the land of Mehdeba for forty years. When Ahab was occupied with the Syriac wars, Moab rose in insurrection. Mesha informs us in an exaggerated manner that "Israel perished with an everlasting destruction." Mesha recognizes Yahweh as the God of Israel.
(2) The Monolith of Shalmaneser II
The Monolith of Shalmaneser II (Brit Mus; see ASSYRIA) informs us that in 854 Shalmaneser II came in conflict with the kingdom of Hamath, and that Benhadad II with Ahab of Israel and others formed a confederacy to resist the Assyrian advance. The forces of the coalition were defeated at Karkar.
(3) Recent Excavations.
Under the direction of Harvard University, excavations have been carried on in Samaria since 1908. In 1909 remains of a Hebrew palace were found. In this palace two grades of construction have been detected. The explorers suggest that they have found the palace of Omri, enlarged and improved by Ahab. This may be the "ivory house" built by Ahab. In August, 1910, about 75 potsherds were found in a building adjacent to Ahabs palace containing writing. The script is the same as that of the Moabite Stone, the words being divided by ink spots. These ostraca seem to be labels attached to jars kept in a room adjoining Ahabs palace. One of them reads, "In the ninth year. From Shaphtan. For Ba`al-zamar. A jar of old wine." Another reads, "Wine of the vineyard of the Tell." These readings remind one of Naboths vineyard. In another room not far from where the ostraca were found, "was found an alabaster vase inscribed with the name of Ahabs contemporary, Osorkon II of Egypt." Many proper names are found on the ostraca, which have their equivalent in the Old Testament. It is claimed that the writing is far greater than all other ancient Hebrew writing yet known. Perhaps with the publication of all these writings we may expect much light upon Ahabs reign. (See OSTRACA; Harvard Theological Review, January, 1909, April, 1910, January, 1911; Sunday School Times, January 7, 1911; The Jewish Chronicle, January 27, 1911.)
S. K. Mosiman
Easton
father's brother. (1.) The son of Omri, whom he succeeded as the seventh king of Israel. His history is recorded in 1 Kings 16-22. His wife was Jezebel (q.v.), who exercised a very evil influence over him. To the calf-worship introduced by Jeroboam he added the worship of Baal. He was severely admonished by Elijah (q.v.) for his wickedness. His anger was on this account kindled against the prophet, and he sought to kill him. He undertook three campaigns against Ben-hadad II., king of Damascus. In the first two, which were defensive, he gained a complete victory over Ben-hadad, who fell into his hands, and was afterwards released on the condition of his restoring all the cities of Israel he then held, and granting certain other concessions to Ahab. After three years of peace, for some cause Ahab renewed war (1 Kings 22:3) with Ben-hadad by assaulting the city of Ramoth-gilead, although the prophet Micaiah warned him that he would not succeed, and that the 400 false prophets who encouraged him were only leading him to his ruin. Micaiah was imprisoned for thus venturing to dissuade Ahab from his purpose. Ahab went into the battle disguised, that he might if possible escape the notice of his enemies; but an arrow from a bow "drawn at a venture" pierced him, and though stayed up in his chariot for a time he died towards evening, and Elijah's prophecy (1 Kings 21:19) was fulfilled. He reigned twenty-three years. Because of his idolatry, lust, and covetousness, Ahab is referred to as pre-eminently the type of a wicked king (2 Kings 8:18; 2 Chr. 22:3; Micah 6:16). (2.) A false prophet referred to by Jeremiah (Jer. 29:21), of whom nothing further is known.
HDBN
uncle
SBD
(uncle ). Son of Omri, seventh king of Israel, reigned B.C. 919-896. He married Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal king of Tyre; and in obedience to her wishes, caused temple to be built to Baal in Samaria itself; and an oracular grove to be consecrated to Astarte. See ( 1 Kings 18:19 ) One of Ahabs chief tastes was for splendid architecture which he showed by building an ivory house and several cities. Desiring to add to his pleasure-grounds at Jezreel the vineyard of his neighbor Naboth, he proposed to buy it or give land in exchange for it; and when this was refused by Naboth in accordance with the Levitical law, ( Leviticus 25:23 ) a false accusation of blasphemy was brought against him, and he was murdered, and Ahab took possession of the coveted fields. ( 2 Kings 9:26 ) Thereupon Elijah declared that the entire extirpation of Ahabs house was the penalty appointed for his long course of wickedness. [ELIJAH] The execution, however, of the sentence was delayed in consequence of Ahabs deep repentance. ( 1 Kings 21:1 ) ... Ahab undertook three campaigns against Ben-hadad II. king of Damascus, two defensive and one offensive. In the first Ben-hadad laid siege to Samaria, but was repulsed with great loss. ( 1 Kings 20:1-21 ) Next year Ben-hadad again invaded Israel by way of Aphek, on the east of Jordan; yet Ahabs victory was so complete that Ben-hadad himself fell into his hands, but was released contrary to Gods will, ( 1 Kings 20:22-34 ) on condition of restoring the cities of Israel, and admitting Hebrew commissioners into Damascus. After this great success Ahab enjoyed peace for three years, when he attacked Ramoth in Gilead, on the east of Jordan, in conjunction with Jehoshaphat king of Judah, which town he claimed as belonging to Israel. Being told by the prophet Micaiah that he would fall, he disguised himself, but was slain by "a certain man who drew a bow at a venture." When buried in Samaria, the dogs licked up his blood as a servant was washing his chariot; a partial fulfillment of Elijahs prediction, ( 1 Kings 21:19 ) which was more literally accomplished in the case of his son. ( 2 Kings 9:26 ) A lying prophet, who deceived the captive Israelites in Babylon, and was burnt to death by Nebuchadnezzar. ( Jeremiah 29:21 )
亞哈拉 AHARAH
代表
代上8:1 創46:21 民26:38
ISBE
a-har-a, a-har-a (achrach; A, Aara; B, Iaphael, "brother of Rach," or, a brothers follower, though some regard it as a textual corruption for Ahiram): A son of Benjamin (1 Ch 8:1).
See AHIRAM.
HDBN
a smiling brother; a meadow of a sweet savor
SBD
(after the brother ), third son of Benjamin. ( 1 Chronicles 8:1 ) [AHER; AHIRAM]
亞哈斯 AHOAZ
代表
王下16:1 代下28:22 代下28:23 代下28:24 代下28:25 賽7:10 賽7:11 賽7:12 賽7:13 代上8:35 代上9:42
亞哈謝 AHOAZIAH
代表
王上22:51 王上22:52 王上22:53 王下8:25 王下8:王下8:26 王下8:27 王下8:28 王下8:29 王下9:1 王下9:2 王下9:3 王下9:4 王下9:5 王下9:6 王下9:7 王下9:8 王下9:9 王下9:10 王下9:11 王下9:12 王下9:13 王下9:14 王下9:15 王下9:16 王下9:17 王下9:18 王下9:19 王下9:20 王下9:21 王下9:22 王下9:23 王下9:24 王下9:25 王下9:26 王下9:27 王下9:28 代下21:
亞哈賽 AHASAI
代表
尼11:13 代上9:12
ISBE
a-ha-si, a-ha-si.
See AHZAI.
亞哈隨魯 AHASUERUS
代表
但9:1 拉4:6 拉4:7 斯1:2 斯1:17
Easton
There are three kings designated by this name in Scripture. (1.) The father of Darius the Mede, mentioned in Dan. 9:1. This was probably the Cyaxares I. known by this name in profane history, the king of Media and the conqueror of Nineveh. (2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 4:6, probably the Cambyses of profane history, the son and successor of Cyrus (B.C. 529). (3.) The son of Darius Hystaspes, the king named in the Book of Esther. He ruled over the kingdoms of Persia, Media, and Babylonia, "from India to Ethiopia." This was in all probability the Xerxes of profane history, who succeeded his father Darius (B.C. 485). In the LXX. version of the Book of Esther the name Artaxerxes occurs for Ahasuerus. He reigned for twenty-one years (B.C. 486-465). He invaded Greece with an army, it is said, of more than 2,000,000 soldiers, only 5,000 of whom returned with him. Leonidas, with his famous 300, arrested his progress at the Pass of Thermopylae, and then he was defeated disastrously by Themistocles at Salamis. It was after his return from this invasion that Esther was chosen as his queen.
HDBN
prince; head; chief
SBD
(lion-king ), the name of one Median and two Persian kings mentioned in the Old Testament. In ( Daniel 9:1 ) Ahasuerus is said to be the father of Darius the Mede. [DARIUS] This first Ahasuerus is Cyaxares, the conqueror of Nineveh. (Began to reign B.C. 634.) The Ahasuerus king of Persia, referred to in ( Ezra 4:6 ) must be Cambyses, thought to be Cyrus successor, and perhaps his son. (B.C. 529.) The third is the Ahasuerus of the book of Esther. This Ahasuerus is probably Xerxes of history, ( Esther 1:1 ) (B.C. 485), and this conclusion is fortified by the resemblance of character and by certain chronological indications, the account of his life and character agreeing with the book of Esther In the third year of Ahaseuerus was held a great feast and assembly in Shushan the palace, ( Esther 1:3 ) following a council held to consider the invasion of Greece. He divorced his queen Vashti for refusing to appear in public at this banquet, and married, four years afterwards, the Jewess Esther, cousin and ward of Mordecai. Five years after this, Haman, one of his counsellors, having been slighted by Mordecai, prevailed upon the king to order the destruction of all the Jews in the empire. But before the day appointed for the massacre, Esther and Mordecai influenced the king to put Haman to death and to give the Jews the right of self-Defence.
亞哈黑 AHARHEL
代表
代上4:8
HDBN
another host; the last sorrow; a brothers sheep
SBD
(behind the breastwork ), a name occurring in an obscure fragment of the genealogies of Judah. ( 1 Chronicles 4:8 )
亞哩遠 ARETAS
代表
徒9:25 林後11:32 林後11:33
ISBE
ar-e-tas (Aretas): The name is a common one among Arabian princes and signifies "virtuous or pleasing."
1. 2 Macc 5:8:
It is mentioned several times in Biblical literature and in Josephus. Here it refers to an Arabian king, who was a contemporary of Antiochus Epiphanes (circa 170 BC), before whom Jason the high priest was accused.
2. Obodas:
Another Arabian prince of this name, surnamed Obodas (Ant., XIII, xv, 2; xvi, 2; XVI, ix, 4) defeated Antiochus Dionysius and reigned over Coele-Syria and Damascus. He participated with Hyrcanus in the war for the Jewish throne against his brother Aristobulus, but the allies were completely defeated at Papyron, by Aristobulus and Scaurus, the Roman general. The latter carried the war into Arabia and forced Aretas to make an ignominious peace, at the price of three hundred talents of silver. Of that event a memorial denarius still exists, with a Roman chariot in full charge on the one side and a camel on the other, by the side of which an Arab is kneeling, who holds out a branch of frankincense.
3. Aeneas:
The successor of Obodas was apparently surnamed Aeneas and this is the Arabian king who figures in the New Testament (2 Cor 11:32; compare Acts 9:24). The Aretas, here mentioned, is the father-in-law of Herod Antipas, who divorced his wife to marry Herodins, the wife of his brother Philip (Mt 14:3; Mk 6:17; Lk 3:19). Josephus (Ant., XVIII, v, 1,3) gives us a circumstantial narration of the events leading up to and following the conduct of Antipas. Coupled with a boundary dispute, it occasioned a bitter w ar between the two princes, in which Antipas was completely overwhelmed, who thereupon invoked the aid of the Romans. Tiberius ordered Vitellius, proconsul of Syria, to make war on Aretas and to deliver him dead or alive into the hands of the emperor. On the way, at Jerusalem, Vitellius received intelligence of the death of Tiberius, March 16, 37 AD, and stopped all warlike proceedings (Ant., XVIII, v, 1,3). According to 2 Cor 11:32, Damascus, which had formerly belonged to the Arabian princes, was again in the hands of Are tas, when Paul escaped from it, not immediately after his conversion, but on a subsequent visit, after his Arabian exile (Gal 1:16,17). It is inconceivable that Aretas should have taken Damascus by force, in the face of the almost omnipotent power of Rome. The picture moreover, which Josephus draws of the Herodian events, points to a passive rather than an active attitude on the part of Aretas. The probability is that Cajus Caligula, the new emperor, wishing to settle the affairs of Syria, freely gave Damascu s to Aretas, inasmuch as it had formerly belonged to his territory. As Tiberius died in 37 AD, and as the Arabian affair was completely settled in 39 AD, it is evident that the date of Pauls conversion must lie somewhere between 34 and 36 AD. This date is further fixed by a Damascus coin, with the image of King Aretas and the date 101. If that date points to the Pompeian era, it equals 37 AD, making the date of Pauls conversion 34 AD (Mionnet, Descript. des medailles antiques, V, 284-85).
Henry E. Dosker
Easton
the father-in-law of Herod Antipas, and king of Arabia Petraea. His daughter returned to him on the occasion of her husband's entering into an adulterous alliance with Herodias, the wife of Herod-Philip, his half-brother (Luke 3:19, 20; Mark 6:17; Matt. 14:3). This led to a war between Aretas and Herod Antipas. Herod's army was wholly destroyed (A.D. 36). Aretas, taking advantage of the complications of the times on account of the death of the Emperor Tiberius (A.D. 37), took possession of Damascus (2 Cor. 11:32; comp. Acts 9:25). At this time Paul returned to Damascus from Arabia.
HDBN
agreeable


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary