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每日一詞 主題辭典 聖經人名 聖經地名 聖經英文

搜尋方式: 本搜尋引擎限搜尋一個字,採模糊比對。

目前本系統共收錄了 1,856 個聖經相關人名
以及 HDBN 包含了 2,616 個姓名的意義解釋。


中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
基利司布 CRISPUS
代表
徒18:8 林前1:14
ISBE
kris-pus (Krispos, "curled"): One of the small number baptized by Paul among the Corinthian Christians (1 Cor 1:14). He had been ruler of the Jewish synagogue, but he "believed in the Lord with all his house"; and, following Paul, withdrew from the synagogue (Acts 18:7,8). He seems to have been succeeded by Sosthenes (Acts 18:17). According to tradition he became bishop of Aegina.
Easton
curled, the chief of the synagogue at Corinth (Acts 18:8). He was converted and, with his family, baptized by Paul (1 Cor. 1:14).
HDBN
curled
SBD
(curled ), ruler of the Jewish synagogue at Corinth, ( Acts 18:8 ) baptized with his family by St. Paul. ( 1 Corinthians 1:14 ) (A.D. 50.)
基利押 CHILEAB
代表
撒下3:3 代上3:1
ISBE
kil-e-ab (kilabh; Dalouia, "restraint of father"): A son of David, born to him at Hebron. His mother was Abigail, whom David married after the death of her husband Nabal, the Carmelite (2 Sam 3:3). In the corresponding account (1 Ch 3:1) he is called "Daniel," the meaning of which name ("God is my judge") points to its having been given in order to commemorate Gods judgment upon Nabal (1 Sam 25:39; compare Gen 30:6). Some suppose that he bore both names, but the Septuagint reading here Dalouia (1 Ch Damniel), and the identity of the last three letters of the Hebrew word "Chileab" with the first three of the following word, seems to indicate that the text of Samuel is corrupt.
Horace J. Wolf
Easton
protected by the father, David's second son by Abigail (2 Sam. 3:3); called also Daniel (1 Chr. 3:1). He seems to have died when young.
SBD
(like his father ), a son of David by Abigail. [ABIGAIL]
基努拔 GENUBATH
代表
王上11:20
ISBE
ge-nu-bath (genubhath, "theft"): Son of Hadad, the fugitive Edomite prince, born and brought up at the court of Egypt, whither Hadad had fled when David conquered Edom (1 Ki 11:20). His mother was a sister of Tahpenes, queen of the Pharaoh who ruled Egypt at that time, and who belonged to the notoriously weak and uninfluential 21st dynasty.
Easton
theft, the son of Hadad, of the Edomitish royal family. He was brought up in Pharaoh's household. His mother was a sister of Tahpenes, the king of Egypt's wife, mentioned in 1 Kings 11:20.
HDBN
theft; robbery
SBD
the son of Hadad, an Edomite of the royal family, by an Egyptian princess, the sister of Tahpenes, the queen of the Pharaoh who governed Egypt in the latter part of the reign of David. ( 1 Kings 11:20 ) comp. 1Kin 11:16 (B.C. 1015.)
基哈西 GEHAZI
代表
王下4:8 王下4:9 王下4:10 王下4:11 王下4:12 王下4:13 王下4:14 王下4:15 王下4:16 王下4:17 王下4:18 王下4:19 王下4:20 王下4:21 王下4:22 王下4:23 王下4:24 王下4:25 王下4:26 王下4:27 王下4:28 王下4:29 王下4:30 王下4:31 王下4:32 王下4:33 王下4:34 王下4:35 王下4:36 王下4:37 王下5:5 王下5:6 王下5:7 王下5:8 王下5:9 王下5:10 王下5:11 王下5
ISBE
ge-ha-zi (gechazi, except in 2 Ki 4:31; 5:25; 8:4,5, where it is gechazi, perhaps "valley of vision"): The confidential servant of Elisha. Various words are used to denote his relation to his master. He is generally called Elishas "boy" (na`ar), servant or personal attendant; he calls himself (5:25) his masters servant or slave (`ebhedh), and if the reference be to him in 4:43 the Revised Version, margin, he receives the designation "minister" (meshareth), or chief servant of Elisha.
1. His Ready Service:
Mention is made of him on three different occasions. He is first brought under notice in the story of the wealthy Shunammite (2 Ki 4:8-37) who provided in her house special accommodation for Elisha, which suited his simple tastes, and of which he availed himself as often as he passed that way. By command of his master, Gehazi called the Shunammite, that she might be rewarded by the prophet for her liberal hospitality. Failing to elicit from the lady a desire for any particular favor, and being himself at a loss to know how to repay her kindness, Elisha consulted with his servant, whose quick perception enabled him to indicate to his master the gift that would satisfy the great womans heart. When on the death of her child the Shunammite sought out the man of God at Carmel, and in the intensity of her grief laid hold of the prophets feet, "Gehazi came near to thrust her away" (2 Ki 4:27)--perhaps not so much from want of sympathy with the woman as from a desire to protect his master from what he considered a rude importunity. Then Elisha, who had discovered of himself (2 Ki 4:27), from what the woman had said (2 Ki 4:28), the cause of her sorrow, directed Gehazi, as a preliminary measure, to go at once to Shunem and lay his staff upon the face of the dead child. Gehazi did so, but the child was "not awaked."
In this narrative Gehazi appears in a favorable light, as a willing, efficient servant, jealous of his masters honor; a man of quick observation, whose advice was worth asking in practical affairs.
2. His Grievous Sin:
Gehazi, however, reveals himself in a different character in connection with the healing of Naaman (2 Ki 5:20-27). As soon as the Syrian general had taken his departure with his retinue from the house of Elisha, the covetous spirit of Gehazi, which had been awakened by the sight of the costly presents the prophet had refused, was no longer able to restrain itself. Running after Naaman, Gehazi begged in the prophets name a talent of silver (400 pounds = $2,000) and two changes of raiment, alleging, as a specious reason for Elishas change of mind, the arrival at his masters house of two poor scholars of the prophet, who would require help and maintenance. Naaman, glad to have the opportunity he desired of showing his gratitude to Elisha, urged Gehazi to take two talents and sent two servants with him to carry the money and the garments. When they came to the hill in the neighborhood of the prophets house, Gehazi dismissed the men and concealed the treasure. Thereafter, with a bold front, as if he had been attending to his ordinary duties, he appeared before his master who at once inquired, "Whence, Gehazi?" (Hebrew). On receiving the ready answer that he had not been anywhere, Elisha, who felt sure that the suspicion he entertained regarding his beloved servant, his very "heart" (2 Ki 5:26), was well grounded, sternly rebuked him for the dishonor he had brought upon Gods cause, and called down upon him and his family forever the loathsome disease of the man whose treasures he had obtained by his shameful lie. "And he went out from his presence a leper as white as snow."
By this narrative confidence in Gehazi is somewhat unexpectedly and rudely shaken. The active, zealous servant stands confessed a liar and a thief. Gehazis sin branched out in different directions. By his falsehood he deceived Naaman and misrepresented Elisha; he not only told a lie, but told a lie about another man, and that man his master and friend. Further, he brought true religion into disrepute; for it was not a time (2 Ki 5:26) for a servant of God to allow any commercial idea to be associated with the prophets work in the mind of the Syrian general to whom Gods power had been so strikingly manifested and when many for worldly gain pretended to be prophets. But while Gehazis sin had ats various ramifications, its one root was covetousness, "the love of money (which) is a root of all kinds of evil" (1 Tim 6:10).
3. His Probable Repentance:
Once more Gehazi is mentioned (2 Ki 8:1-6) as having been summoned, leper though he was, by King Jehoram to give him an account of all the great things Elisha had done. And when he came to the story of the restoration of the Shunammites child to life, the woman herself appeared before the king along with her son, craving to be reinstated in her house and land of which she had been dispossessed during her seven years absence from her native country in a time of famine. Gehazi testified to the identity of both mother and son, with the result that the king at once ordered the restoration not only of all her former possessions, but also of all the profits her land had yielded during her sojourn in Philistia.
The appearance and conduct of Gehazi on this occasion give some ground for the hope that he had repented of his sin and could now be trusted to speak the truth; and the pleasure he seemed to take in rehearsing the wonderful deeds of a master who, though kind and indulgent to a stranger, was hard upon him, may even warrant the belief that in his earlier days there was some good thing in him toward his masters God. If also, as has been indicated above, the word used in 2 Ki 4:43 (meshareth) applies to him--the same as is applied to Elisha (1 Ki 19:21)--we may be the more readily inclined to see in the history of Gehazi how one besetting sin may prevent a man from taking his natural place in the succession of Gods prophets. Let us hope, however, that though Gehazi became a "lost leader," "just for a handful of silver," he was yet saved by a true repentance from becoming a lost soul.
James Crichton
Easton
valley of vision, Elisha's trusted servant (2 Kings 4:31; 5:25; 8:4, 5). He appears in connection with the history of the Shunammite (2 Kings 4:14, 31) and of Naaman the Syrian. On this latter occasion he was guilty of duplicity and dishonesty of conduct, causing Elisha to denounce his crime with righteous sternness, and pass on him the terrible doom that the leprosy of Naaman would cleave to him and his for ever (5:20-27). He afterwards appeared before king Joram, to whom he recounted the great deeds of his master (2 Kings 8:1-6).
HDBN
valley of sight
SBD
(valley of vision ), the servant or boy of Elisha. He was sent as the prophets messenger on two occasions to the good Shunammite, ( 2 Kings 4:1 ) ... (B.C. 889-887); obtained fraudulently money and garments from Naaman, was miraculously smitten with incurable leprosy, and was dismissed from the prophets service. ( 2 Kings 5:1 ) ... Later in the history he is mentioned as being engaged in relating to King Joram all the great things which Elisha had done. ( 2 Kings 8:4 2 Kings 8:5 )
基善 GESHEM
代表
尼2:19 尼6:1 尼6:6
ISBE
ge-shem (geshem, gashmu; Gesam, "rain storm"): An Arabian, probably chief of an Arabian tribe that had either settled in Southern Israel during the exile in Babylon, or had been settled in or near Samaria by Sargon (Neh 2:19; 6:1,2,6). He was a confederate of Sanballat and Tobiah, and strenuously opposed the building of the wall under Nehemiah. He with the others mocked at the first efforts to build the wall, and afterward repeatedly sought to entice Nehemiah to the plains of Ono. The name also occurs in the form Gashmu, perhaps an Assyrian form of the same name Geshem.
J. J. Reeve
Easton
or Gashmu, firmness, probably chief of the Arabs south of Palestine, one of the enemies of the Jews after the return from Babylon (Neh. 2:19; 6:1, 2). He united with Sanballat and Tobiah in opposing the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem.
SBD
and Gashmu (rain ), an Arabian, mentioned in ( Nehemiah 2:19 ) and Nehe 6:1,2,6 (B.C. 446.) We may conclude that he was an inhabitant of Arabia Petraea or of the Arabian desert, and probably the chief of a tribe." Gashum said it" made him a type of those who create a common report.
基土拉 KETURAH
代表
創25:1 代上1:32
ISBE
ke-tu-ra, ke-too-ra (qeTurah; Chettoura, "incense"): The second wife of Abraham (Gen 25:1; 1 Ch 1:32 f). According to the Biblical tradition, he contracted this second marriage after the death of Sarah (compare Gen 23), and very likely after the marriage of Isaac (compare Gen 24). It is not improbable that, as some writers have suggested, this change in the life of his son prompted Abraham to remarry in order to overcome the feeling of lonesomeness caused by Isaacs entering the state of matrimony.
1 Ch 1:32 (and also Gen 25:6) shows us that Keturah was not considered to be of the same dignity as Sarah who, indeed, was the mother of the son of promise, and, for obvious reasons, the sons of Abrahams concubines were separated from Isaac. She was the mother of 6 sons representing Arab tribes South and East of Israel (Gen 25:1-6), so that through the offspring of Keturah Abraham became "the father of many nations."
William Baur
Easton
incense, the wife of Abraham, whom he married probably after Sarah's death (Gen. 25:1-6), by whom he had six sons, whom he sent away into the east country. Her nationality is unknown. She is styled "Abraham's concubine" (1 Chr. 1:32). Through the offshoots of the Keturah line Abraham became the "father of many nations."
HDBN
that makes the incense to fume
SBD
(incense ), the wife of Abraham after the death of Sarah. ( Genesis 25:1 ; 1 Chronicles 1:32 ) (B.C. 1860.)
基士 KISH
代表
撒上9:1 撒下21:14 徒13:21 代上8:30 代上9:36 代下29:12 代上23:21 代上24:29 斯2:5
ISBE
kish (qish; Kis, Keis, "bow," "power"): The name of five persons mentioned in the Bible:
(1) The son of Abiel and the father of Saul, the first king of Israel. He was of the tribe of Benjamin, of the family of the Matrites (1 Sam 9:1; 14:51; compare Acts 13:21; 1 Sam 10:21). According to 1 Ch 8:33 and 9:39, "Ner begat Kish" By reading "Ner begat Abner" (compare 1 Sam 14:51; 1 Ch 6:28), the difficulty is at least partly overcome. In 1Ch 12:1, Kish is also mentioned as the father of Saul, and again in 2 Sam 21:14, we are told that the sepulcher of Kish was located in the country of Benjamin, in Zela. His place of residence seems to have been at Gibeah.
(2) Another Kish is mentioned (1 Ch 8:29 f; 9:35 f) as the son of Jeiel and his wife Maacah. He is usually supposed to be the uncle of Sauls father.
(3) A Levite, the son of Mahli the Merarite (1 Ch 23:21 f; compare 24:29).
(4) Another Merarite Levite in the time of Hezekiah (2 Ch 29:12).
(5) The great-grandfather of Mordecai, of the tribe of Benjamin (Est 2:5).
William Baur
Easton
a bow. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 23:21; 24:29). (2.) A Benjamite of Jerusalem (1 Chr. 8:30; 9:36). (3.) A Levite in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:12). (4.) The great-grandfather of Mordecai (Esther 2:5). (5.) A Benjamite, the son of Abiel, and father of king Saul (1 Sam. 9:1, 3; 10:11, 21; 14:51; 2 Sam. 21:14). All that is recorded of him is that he sent his son Saul in search of his asses that had strayed, and that he was buried in Zelah. Called Cis, Acts 13:21 (R.V., Kish).
HDBN
hard; difficult; straw; for age
SBD
(a bow ). The father of Saul; a Benjamite of the family of Matri. (B.C. 1095.) Son of Jehiel and uncle to the preceding. ( 1 Chronicles 9:36 ) A Benjamite, great-grandfather of Mordecai. ( Esther 2:5 ) A Merarite of the house of Mahli, of the tribe of Levi. ( 1 Chronicles 23:21 1 Chronicles 23:22 ; 1 Chronicles 24:28 1 Chronicles 24:29 )
基多 GEDOR
代表
代上4:4 代上8:31
ISBE
ge-dor (gedhor; Codex Vaticanus, Geddor, Codex Alexandrinus, Gedor):
(1) A town in the mountains of Judah, named with Halhul and Beth-zur (Josh 15:58). It seems to be referred to by Eusebius as Gadeira (Onomasticon, under the word), which he identifies with Gaidora (Jerome calls it Gadora), a village in the borders of Jerusalem, near the terebinth. It is probably represented today by Khirbet Jedur, about 7 miles North of Hebron (PEF, III, 313, Sh XXI).
(2) Among the Benjamites who joined David at Ziklag were the sons of Jeroham of Gedor (1 Ch 12:7). No trace of this name is found in the territory of Benjamin. It may be identical with (1).
(3) The Simeonites are said to have gone to the entering in of Gedor in search of pasture for their flocks. They smote and expelled the Meunim, "and dwelt in their stead" (1 Ch 4:39 ff). Here the Septuagint reads Gerar, and this is probably correct.
(4) A family in Judah (1 Ch 4:4).
(5) An ancestor of Saul (1 Ch 8:31).
W. Ewing
Easton
a wall. (1.) A city in the mountains or hill country of Judah (Josh. 15:58), identified with Jedar, between Jerusalem and Hebron. (2.) 1 Chr. 4:39, the Gederah of Josh. 15:36, or the well-known Gerar, as the LXX. read, where the patriarchs of old had sojourned and fed their flocks (Gen. 20:1, 14, 15; 26:1, 6, 14). (3.) A town apparently in Benjamin (1 Chr. 12:7), the same probably as Geder (Josh. 12:13).
SBD
(a wall ), a town int he mountainous part of Judah, ( Joshua 15:58 ) a few miles north of Hebron. Robinson discovered a Jedur halfway between Bethlehem and Hebron, about two miles west of the road.
基多尼 GIDEONI
代表
民1:11 民2:22 民7:60 民7:65
ISBE
gid-e-o-ni (gidh`oni): The father of Abidan who was prince of Benjamin, mentioned only in connection with the son (Nu 1:11; 2:22; 7:60,65; 10:24).
HDBN
same as Gideon
SBD
(a cutting down ), a Benjamite, father of Abidan. ( Numbers 1:11 ; Numbers 7:60 Numbers 7:65 ; 10:24 )
基大利 GEDALIAH
代表
王下25:22 王下25:23 王下25:24 王下25:25 王下25:26 代上25:9 拉10:18 耶20:1 耶20:2 耶20:3 耶20:4 耶20:5 耶20:6 耶38:1 耶38:4 耶38:5 耶38:6 番1:1
ISBE
ged-a-li-a (gedhalyah; except in 1 Ch 25:3,9 and Jer 38:1, where it is gedhalyahu, "Yah(u) is great"):
(1) Gedaliah, the son of Ahikam (the friend and protector of Jeremiah) and grandson of Shaphan (the scribe in the reign of Josiah) (2 Ki 25:22-25; Jer 39:14; 40:5-16; 41:1-18).
1. His Appointment as Governor in Judah:
After the destruction of Jerusalem and the carrying away captive of the Jews to Babylon (586 BC), Gedaliah was appointed by Nebuchadnezzar governor over the poor Jews who had been left in the land to be vinedressers and husbandmen (2 Ki 25:12,22). To his charge were committed also some royal princesses (Jer 43:6) and courtiers (Jer 41:16) who had been allowed to remain as unlikely to cause any trouble. Gedaliah fixed his residence at Mizpah, a few miles Northwest of Jerusalem. Here he was joined by Jeremiah (40:6).
2. His Conciliatory Spirit and Wise Rule:
The Jewish soldiers who had escaped capture, having heard that the Chaldeans had departed, and that Gedaliah, one of their own nation, had been appointed governor in Judah, came with Ishmael, Johanan and other officers at their head, to Gedaliah at Mizpah (2 Ki 25:23,14; Jer 40:7-10). The governor assured them that they need have no fear of vengeance from their conquerors, and promised them on oath protection and security, if they would remain and cultivate the land and become the peaceful subjects of the king of Babylon. This assurance led to a general gathering around Gedaliah of refugees from all the neighboring countries (Jer 40:11,12). For two months (some think longer) Gedaliahs beneficent and wise rule did much to consolidate affairs in Judah and to inspire the feeble remnant of his countrymen with heart and hope.
3. His Treacherous Assassination:
But evil spirits were at work against him. Baalis, king of Ammon, had determined upon his life (Jer 40:13-16). The peaceful and popular rule which was being established by the good governor stood in the way of the accomplishment of any plan of conquest he entertained. Baalis found a ready instrument for his murderous design in Ishmael who, as one of royal birth and in the counsels of the king (Jer 41:1), was doubtless jealous of the man who had been chosen governor in preference to himself. Gedaliah was informed by Johanan and the other captains of the plot to assassinate him, and Johanan at a private interview expressed to him a strong desire to go himself and slay Ishmael secretly, declaring that the safety of the Jews depended upon the life of the governor. But Gedaliah refused to allow Johanan to anticipate his enemy, believing, in the generosity of his heart, that Ishmael was not capable of such an act of treachery. He soon found, however, that his confidence had been sadly misplaced. Ishmael, with ten of his companions, came on a visit to him to Mizpah, and after they had been hospitably entertained they fell upon their good host and murdered him, along with all the Jewish and the Chaldean soldiers whom he had with him for order and protection (2 Ki 25:25; Jer 41:1-3). They then cast the bodies of their victims into the cistern which Asa had made (Jer 41:9). Ishmael was pursued and overtaken by Johanan, but he succeeded in effecting his escape to the Ammonites (Jer 41:11-15). Then Johanan and the other captains, afraid lest the Chaldeans should avenge upon them the murder of the governor (Jer 41:16-18), and against the earnest entreaties of Jeremiah (chapter 42), fled to Egypt, taking the prophet and the Jewish remnant with them (43:5-7). In memory of the date of Gedaliahs assassination the Jews kept a fast (which is still retained in the Jewish calendar) on the 3rd day of the 7th month, Tishri (Zec 7:5; 8:19).
4. His Noble Character:
The narratives reveal Gedaliah in a very attractive light, as one who possessed the confidence alike of his own people and their conquerors; a man of rare wisdom and tact, and of upright, transparent character, whose kindly nature and generous disposition would not allow him to think evil of a brother; a man altogether worthy of the esteem in which he was held by succeeding generations of his fellow-countrymen.
(2) (gedhalyahu): Son of Jeduthun, and instrumental leader of the 2nd of the 24 choirs in the Levitical orchestra (1 Ch 25:3,1).
(3) A priest of the "sons of Jeshua," in the time of Ezra, who had married a foreign woman (Ezr 10:18).
(4) (gedhalyahu): Son of Pashhur (who beat Jeremiah and put him in the stocks, Jer 20:1-6), and one of the chiefs of Jerusalem who, with the sanction of the king, Zedekiah, took Jeremiah and let him down with cords into a cistern where he sank in the mud (38:1,4-6).
(5) Grandfather of Zephaniah the prophet, and grandson of Hezekiah, probably the king (Zeph 1:1).
James Crichton
Easton
made great by Jehovah. (1.) the son of Jeduthum (1 Chr. 25:3, 9). (2.) The grandfather of the prophet Zephaniah, and the father of Cushi (Zeph. 1:1). (3.) One of the Jewish nobles who conspired against Jeremiah (Jer. 38:1). (4.) The son of Ahikam, and grandson of Shaphan, secretary of king Josiah (Jer. 26:24). After the destruction of Jerusalem (see ZEDEKIAH
HDBN
God is my greatness
SBD
(God is my greatness ), son of Ahikam (Jeremiahs protector, ( Jeremiah 26:24 ) and grandson of Shaphan the secretary of King Josiah. After the destruction of the temple, B.C. 588, Nebuchadnezzar departed from Judea, leaving Gedaliah with a Chaldean guard, ( Jeremiah 40:5 ) at Mizpah to govern the vinedressers and husbandmen, ( Jeremiah 52:16 ) who were exempted from captivity. Jeremiah jointed Gedaliah; and Mizpah became the resort of Jews from various quarters. ( Jeremiah 40:6 Jeremiah 40:11 ) He was murdered by Ishmael two months after his appointment.
基大利提 GIDDALTI
代表
代上25:4 代上25:29
ISBE
gi-dal-ti (giddalti, "I magnify (God)"): A son of Heman (1 Ch 25:4,29), one of Davids musicians.
SBD
(I have trained up ), one of the sons of Heman, the kings seer. ( 1 Chronicles 25:4 )
基大老瑪 CHEDORLAOMER
代表
創14:1 創14:2 創14:3 創14:4 創14:5 創14:6 創14:7 創14:8 創14:9 創14:10 創14:11 創14:12 創14:13 創14:14 創14:15 創14:16 創14:17
ISBE
ked-or-la-o-mer, ked-or-la-omer (kedhorla`omer; Chodollogomor):
1. was He the Elamite King Kudur-lahgumal?
2. Kudur-lahgumal and the Babylonians
3. The Son of Eri-Ekua
4. Durmah-ilani, Tudhul(a) and Kudur-lahmal
5. The Fate of Sinful Rulers
6. The Poetical Legend
7. Kudur-lahgumals Misdeeds
8. The Importance of the Series
The name of the Elamite overlord with whom Amraphel, Arioch and Tidal marched against Sodom and Gomorrah, and the other cities of the plain (Gen 14:1 ff). The Greek (Septuagint) form of the name is Chodollogomor, implying a different vocalization, the assimilation of "R "with "L", and the pronunciation of "`o" as "gho" (Codorlaghomer). This suggests that the Elamite form, in cuneiform, would be Kudur-lagamar, the second element being the name of a god, and the whole therefore meaning "servant of La`omer" (Lagamar), or the like. A Babylonian deity worshippeal at Dilmu, Lagamal, may be the same as the Elamite Lagamar. This name is not found in the cuneiform inscriptions, unless it be, as is possible, the fancifully-written Kudur-lah(gu)mal (or Kodorlahgomal) of three late Babylonian legends, one of which is in poetical form. Besides this Elamite ruler, two of these tablets mention also a certain Eri-Aku or Eri-Akua, son of Durmah-ilani, and one of them refers to Tudhul(a) or Tidal.
See ERI-AKU, 4.
1. Was He the Elamite King Kudur-lahgumal?:
Objections have been made to the identification of Chedorlaomer with the Kudur-lah(gu)mal of these texts, some Assyriologists having flatly denied the possibility, while others expressed the opinion that, though these names were respectively those with which they have been identified, they were not the personages referred to in Gen 14, and many have refrained from expressing an opinion at all. The main reason for the identification of Kudur-lah(gu)mal(?) with Chedorlaomer is its association with the names Eri-Eaku and Tudgul(a) found on two of the documents. No clear references to the expedition against the Cities of the Plain, however, have been found in these texts.
2. Kudur-lahgumal and the Babylonians:
The longer of the two prose compositions (Brit. Mus., Sp. II, 987) refers to the bond of heaven (extended?) to the four regions, and the fame which he (Merodach?) set for (the Elamites) in Babylon, the city of (his) glory. So (?the gods), in their faithful (or everlasting) counsel, decreed to Kudur-lahgumal, king of Elam (their favor?). He came down, and (performed) what was good to them, and exercised dominion in Babylon, the city of Kar-Dunias (Babylonia). When in power, however, he acted in a way which did not please the Babylonians, for he loved the winged fowl, and favored the dog which crunched the bone. "What(?) king of Elam was there who had (ever) (shown favor to?) the shrine of E-saggil?" (E-sagila, the great temple of Belus at Babylon).
3. The Son of Eri-Ekua:
A letter from Durmah-ilani son of Eri-Ekua (?Arioch) is at this point quoted, and possibly forms the justification for the sentences which had preceded, giving, as they do, reasons for the intervention of the native ruler. The mutilation of the inscription, however, makes the sense and sequence very difficult to follow.
4. Durmah-ilani, Tudhul(a) and Kudur-lahmal:
The less perfect fragment (Sp. III, 2) contains, near the beginning, the word hammu, and if this be, as Professor F. Hommel has suggested, part of the name Hammurabi (Amraphel), it would in all probability place the identification of Kudur-lahgumal(?) with Chedorlaomer beyond a doubt. This inscription states, that Merodach, in the faithfulness of his heart, caused the ruler not supporting (the temples of Babylonia) to be slain with the sword. The name of Durmah-ilani then occurs, and it seems to be stated of him that he carried off spoil, and Babylon and the temple E-saggil were inundated. He, however, was apparently murdered by his son, and old and young (were slain) with the sword. Then came Tudhul(a) or Tidal, son of Gazza(ni?), who also carried off spoil, and again the waters devastated Babylon and E-saggil. But to all appearance Tudhul(a), in his turn, was overtaken by his fate, for "his son shattered his head with the weapon of his hands." At this point there is a reference to Elam, to the city Ahhea(?), and to the land of Rabbatum, which he (? the king of Elam) had spoiled. Whether this refers to some expedition to Israel or not is uncertain, and probably unlikely, as the next phrase speaks of devastation inflicted in Babylonia.
5. The Fate of Sinful Rulers:
But an untoward fate overtook this ruler likewise, for Kudur-lahmal (= lahgumal), his son, pierced his heart with the steel sword of his girdle. All these references to violent deaths are apparently cited to show the dreadful end of certain kings, "lords of sin," with whom Merodach, the king of the gods, was angry.
6. The Poetical Legend:
The third text is of a poetical nature, and refers several times to "the enemy, the Elamite"--apparently Kudur-lahgu(mal). In this noteworthy inscription, which, even in its present imperfect state, contains 78 lines of wedge-written text, the destruction wrought by him is related in detail. He cast down the door (of the temple) of Istar; entered Du-mah, the place where the fates were declared (see BABEL, BABYLON), and told his warriors to take the spoil and the goods of the temple.
7. Kudur-lahgumals Misdeeds:
He was afraid, however, to proceed to extremities, as the god of the place "flashed like lightning, and shook the (holy) places." The last two paragraphs state that he set his face to go down to Tiamtu (the seacoast; see CHALDEA), whither Ibi-Tutu, apparently the king of that district, had hastened, and founded a pseudo-capital. But the Elamite seems afterward to have taken his way north again, and after visiting Borsippa near Babylon, traversed "the road of darkness--the road to Mesku" (?Mesech). He destroyed the palace, subdued the princes, carried off the spoil of all the temples and took the goods (of the people) to Elam. At this point the text breaks off.
8. The Importance of the Series:
Where these remarkable inscriptions came from there ought to be more of the same nature, and if these be found, the mystery of Chedorlaomer and Kudur-lahgumal will probably be solved. At present it can only be said, that the names all point to the early period of the Elamite rulers called Kudurides, before the land of Tiamtu or Tamdu was settled by the Chaldeans. Evidently it was one of the heroic periods of Babylonian history, and some scribe of about 350 BC had collected together a number of texts referring to it. All three tablets were purchased (not excavated) by the British Museum, and reached that institution through the same channel. See the Journal of the Victoria Institute, 1895-96, and Professor Sayce in Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology (1906), 193 ff, 241 ff; (1907), 7 ff.
T. G. Pinches
Easton
(= Khudur-Lagamar of the inscriptions), king of Elam. Many centuries before the age of Abraham, Canaan and even the Sinaitic peninsula had been conquered by Babylonian kings, and in the time of Abraham himself Babylonia was ruled by a dynasty which claimed sovereignity over Syria and Palestine. The kings of the dynasty bore names which were not Babylonian, but at once South Arabic and Hebrew. The most famous king of the dynasty was Khammu-rabi, who united Babylonia under one rule, and made Babylon its capital. When he ascended the throne, the country was under the suzerainty of the Elamites, and was divided into two kingdoms, that of Babylon (the Biblical Shinar) and that of Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar). The king of Larsa was Eri-Aku ("the servant of the moon-god"), the son of an Elamite prince, Kudur-Mabug, who is entitled "the father of the land of the Amorites." A recently discovered tablet enumerates among the enemies of Khammu-rabi, Kudur-Lagamar ("the servant of the goddess Lagamar") or Chedorlaomer, Eri-Aku or Arioch, and Tudkhula or Tidal. Khammu-rabi, whose name is also read Ammi-rapaltu or Amraphel by some scholars, succeeded in overcoming Eri-Aku and driving the Elamites out of Babylonia. Assur-bani-pal, the last of the Assyrian conquerors, mentions in two inscriptions that he took Susa 1635 years after Kedor-nakhunta, king of Elam, had conquered Babylonia. It was in the year B.C. 660 that Assur-bani-pal took Susa.
HDBN
roundness of a sheaf
SBD
or Chedorlaomer (handful of sheaves ), a king of Elam, in the time of Abraham, who with three other chiefs made war upon the kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim and Zoar, and reduced them to servitude. ( Genesis 14:17 )
基帖 GETHER
代表
創10:23 代上1:17
ISBE
ge-ther (gether): In Gen 10:23 named as one of the 4 sons of Aramaic In 1 Ch 1:17 mentioned simply among the sons of Shem.
HDBN
the vale of trial or searching
SBD
(fear), the third in order of the sons of Aram. ( Genesis 10:23 ) No satisfactory trace of the people sprung from this stock has been found.
基底瑪 KEDEMAH
代表
創25:15 代上1:31 代上5:19
ISBE
ked-e-ma, ke-de-ma (qedhemah, "eastward"): Son of Ishmael (Gen 25:16), head of a clan (1 Ch 1:31).
See KADMONITE.
Easton
eastward, the last-named of the sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15).
HDBN
oriental; ancient; first
SBD
(eastward ), the youngest of the sons of Ishmael. ( Genesis 25:15 ; 1 Chronicles 1:31 )
基拉 GERA
代表
創46:21 代上8:3 代上8:5 代上8:7 士3:15 撒下16:5 撒下19:16 撒下19:17 撒下19:18 王上2:8
ISBE
ge-ra (gera, "grain"): A family name of the tribe of Benjamin, hence, not necessarily a separate individual in (3) and (4) below:
(1) A son of Benjamin (Gen 46:21).
(2) According to 1 Ch 8:3,5,7, son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin. The name is repeated (8:5) in the list of Belas sons.
(3) Father, or ancestor, of the judge Ehud (Jdg 3:15).
(4) Father, or ancestor, of Shimei, the Benjamite, who cursed David when he fled from Absalom (2 Sam 16:5; 19:16,18; 1 Ki 2:8).
Easton
grain. (1.) The son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 8:3, 5,7). (2.) The father of Ehud the judge (Judg. 3:15). (3.) The father of Shimei, who so grossly abused David (2 Sam. 16:5; 19:16, 18).
HDBN
pilgrimage
SBD
(a grain ), one of the "sons," i.e. descendants, of Benjamin. ( Genesis 46:21 ) Gera, who is named, ( Judges 3:15 ) as the ancestor of Ehud, and in ( 2 Samuel 16:5 ) as the ancestor of Shimei who cursed David, is probably also the same person (though some consider them different persons).
基拉 CHELAL
代表
拉10:30
ISBE
ke-lal (kelal, "perfection"): One of the bene Pachath-Moabh who took "strange wives" (Ezr 10:30).
HDBN
as night
SBD
(perfection ), ( Ezra 10:30 ) one who had a strange wife.
基拉萊 GILALAI
代表
尼12:36
ISBE
gil-a-li, gi-la-li (gilalay): A musician in the procession at the dedication of the wall, son of a priest (Neh 12:36).
HDBN
a wheel
基拉雅 KELAIAH
代表
拉10:10 拉10:23 尼8:7
ISBE
ke-la-ya, ke-li-a (qelayah, "swift for Yah"[?]; Kolios; Codex Vaticanus, Konos): One of the priests who had "foreign wives" (Ezr 10:23, also "Kelita"). In parallel list of 1 Esdras 9:23, he again has a double name--"Colius" and "Calitas." A "Kelita" is named as helping Ezra at the expounding of the law (Neh 8:7; compare 1 Esdras 9:48, "Calitas"), and also among the signatories of the covenant (Neh 10:9; for nature of covenant see 10:28 ff). They may not, however, be the same person.
HDBN
voice of the Lord; gathering together
SBD
(swift messenger of Jehovah ) = KELITA. ( Ezra 10:23 )
基拿尼 CHENANI
代表
尼9:4
ISBE
ke-na-ni (kenani, "planted"): One of the names mentioned in Neh 9:4, in connection with the constitution of "congregation." If the names represent houses or families, eight Levitical houses probably sang some well-known psalm on this occasion. If they are names of individual representatives, they were probably deputed to recite or chant some special prayer in order to lead the worship of the people.
HDBN
my pillar
基拿尼雅 CHENANIAH
代表
代上15:22 代上15:23 代上15:24 代上15:25 代上15:26 代上26:29
ISBE
ken-a-ni-a (kenanyahu, and kenanyah, literally "established by God"): Chief of the Levites who was over "the songs," or "the carrying" (namely, "of the ark") from the house of Obed-edom to Jerusalem (1 Ch 15:22,27; 26:29).
HDBN
preparation
SBD
(established by the Lord ), chief of the Levites when David carried the ark to Jerusalem. ( 1 Chronicles 15:22 ; 26:29 )
基拿拿 CHENAANAH
代表
代上7:10 王上22:11 代下18:10
ISBE
ke-na-a-na (kena`anah, feminine form of "Canaan," though others explain it as "toward Canaan"): The name of two men:
(1) The fourth-named of the seven sons of Bilham, son of Jediael, of the tribe of Benjamin, a leading warrior in the time of David (1 Ch 7:10).
(2) Father of the false prophet Zedekiah, who encouraged Ahab against Micaiah (1 Ki 22:11,24; 2 Ch 18:10,23).
Easton
merchant. (1.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 7:10). (2.) The father of Zedekiah (1 Kings 22:11, 24).
HDBN
broken in pieces
SBD
(merchant ). Son of Bilhan, son of Jediael, son of Benjamin, head of a Benjamite house, ( 1 Chronicles 7:10 ) probably of the family of the Belaites. [BELA] Father or ancestor of Zedekiah the false prophet. ( 1 Kings 22:11 1 Kings 22:24 ; 2 Chronicles 18:10 2 Chronicles 18:23 )
基提 KITTIM
代表
創10:4
ISBE
kit-im (kittim, Isa 23:12; Jer 2:10; kittiyim, apparently plural of kitti (not found, but compare (4) below); Ketioi, Kitioi, Ketieim, Jer 2:10; Chettieim, Chettein):ntified with Sepphoris, which is represented by the modern village of Seffuriyeh].
1. Two Usages of the Name:
In Gen 10:4 the word is applied to the descendants of Javan, and indicates, therefore, the Greek-Latin races, whose territory extended along the coasts of the Mediterranean, and included its islands. By the side of Kittim are mentioned Elisha, Tarshish, and Dodanim ( = Rodanim of 1 Ch 1:7), generally explained respectively as Sicily with Southern Italy, Spain and Rhodes. In its narrower sense Kittim appears simply to have stood for the island of Cyprus--it is mentioned between Bashan ( = Pal) and the isles of Elisha in Ezek 27:6,7, and with this Isa 23:1,12 agree, Kittim occurring in these passages between Tarshish, Tyre and Sidon.
2. In Its Limited Sense:
The oldest etymology is apparently that of Josephus, who connects Kittim with the well-known old Cypriote city Kition (Citium) (Ant., I, vi, 1), testifying to the settling of the Kittim on the island. This word he further connects with Chethima, from Chethimus, and states that it was on account of Cyprus being the home of those people that all islands were called Chethim by the Hebrews. The derivation of an ancient Chethim from Chethimus, however, would make the m to be a radical, and this, with the substitution of Ch ( = Kh) for Kittim, renders his proposed etymology somewhat doubtful.
3. In Its Extended Sense:
The statement of Josephus, that "all islands, and the greatest part of the sea-coast, are called Chethim ( = Kittim) by the Hebrews," on the other hand, must be taken as the testimony of one well acquainted with the opinions of the learned world in his time. In Jer 2:10 and Ezek 27:6 the isles of Kittim are expressly spoken of, and this confirms the statement of Josephus concerning the extended meaning of the name. This would explain its application to the Roman fleet in Dan 11:30 (so the Vulgate), and the Macedonians in 1 Macc 1:1 (Chettieim) and 8:5 ([@Kitians). In the latter passage the Greek writer seems to have been thinking more of the Cyprian Kition than of the Hebrew Kittim.
4. Colonization of Cyprus:
According to Herodotus (vii.90), Cyprus was colonized from Greece, Phoenicia, and Ethiopia. Referring to the plundering of the temple of Aphrodite at Askalon by the Scythians (i.105), he states that her temple in Cyprus was an offshoot from that ancient foundation, as reported by the Cyprians themselves, Phoenicians having founded it at Cythera, on arriving from Syria. The date of the earliest Phoenician settlements in Cyprus is unknown, but it has been suggested that they were anterior to the time of Moses. Naturally they brought with them their religion, the worship of the moon-goddess Atargatis (Derceto) being introduced at Paphos, and the Phoenician Baal at Kition. If Kition be, then, a Semitic word (from the same root as the Hebrew Kittim), it has been transferred from the small band of Phoenician settlers which it at first designated, to the non-Sem Japhethites of the West. Kition occurs in the Phoenician inscriptions of Cyprus under the forms K(i)t(t) and K(i)t(t)i, the latter being by far the more common (CIS, I, i, 10,11,14,19, etc.).
5. Its Successive Masters:
The early history of Cyprus is uncertain. According to the Assyrian copy of Sargon of Agades omens, that king (about 3800 BC in the opinion of Nabonidus; 2800 BC in the opinion of many Assyriologists) is said to have crossed "the sea of the setting sun" (the Mediterranean), though the Babylonian copy makes it that of "the rising sun"--i.e. the Persian Gulf. Be this as it may, General Cesnola discovered at Curium, in Cyprus, a seal-cylinder apparently inscribed "Mar-Istar, son of Ilu-bani, servant (worshipper) of Naram-Sin," the last named being the deified son of Sargon. In the 16th century BC, Cyprus was tributary to Thothmes III. About the year 708 BC, Sargon of Assyria received the submission of the kings of the district of Ya, in Cyprus, and set up at Citium the stele bearing his name, which is now in the Royal Museum at Berlin. Esarhaddon and his son Assur-bani-apli each received tribute from the 10 Cyprian princes who acknowledged Assyrian supremacy. The island was conquered by the Egyptian king Amasis, and later formed part of the Persian empire, until the revolt of Evagoras in 410 BC. The Assyrians knew the island under the name of Yad(a)nanu, the "Wedan" (Vedan) of Ezek 27:19 Revised Version (British and American) (Sayce, PSBA, 1912, 26).
6. The Races Therein and Their Languages:
If the orthodox date for the composition of Gen be accepted, not only the Phoenicians, but also the Greeks, or a people of Greek-Latin stock, must have been present in Cyprus, before the time of Moses, in sufficient number to make them the predominant portion of the population. As far as can be judged, the Phoenicians occupied only the eastern and southern portion of the island. Paphos, where they had built a temple to Ashtoreth and set up an asherah (a pillar symbolizing the goddess), was one of their principal settlements. The rest of the island was apparently occupied by the Aryans, whose presence there caused the name of Kittim to be applied to all the Greek-Latin countries of the Mediterranean. Greek and Phoenician were the languages spoken on the island, as was proved by George Smiths demonstration of the nature of the non-Phoenician text of the inscription of King Melek-yathon of Citium (370 BC). The signs used in the Greek-Cyprian inscriptions are practically all syllabic.
7. The Testimony of Cyprian Art:
The many influences which have modified the Cyprian race are reflected in the ancient art, which shows the effect of Babylonian, Egyptian Phoenician and Greek contacts. Specimens are to be found in many museums, but the finest collection of examples of Cyprian art is undoubtedly that of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Some of the full-length figures are life-size, and the better class of work is exceedingly noteworthy.
See CYPRUS.
T. G. Pinches
Easton
(Gen. 10:4). (See CHITTIM
HDBN
breaking; bruising small; gold; coloring
SBD
Twice written in the Authorized Version for Chittim. ( Genesis 10:4 ; 1 Chronicles 1:7 )
基斯倫 CHISLON
代表
民34:21
ISBE
kis-lon, kiz-lon (kiclon, "strength"): A prince of Benjamin, the father of Elidad (Nu 34:21).
HDBN
hope
SBD
(confidence ), father of Elidad, the prince of the tribe of Benjamin chosen to assist in the division of the land of Canaan among the tribes. ( Numbers 34:21 ) (B.C. 1450.)
基斯帕 GISPA
代表
尼11:21
HDBN
coming hither
SBD
(caress ), one of the overseers of the Nethinim, in "the Ophel," after the return from captivity. ( Nehemiah 11:21 )
基旬 GIDEON
代表
士8:32 來11:32 撒下11:21 士7:1 士7:2 士7:3 士7:4 士7:5 士7:6 士7:7 士7:8 士7:9 士7:10 士7:11 士7:12 士7:13 士7:14 士7:15 士7:16 士7:17 士7:18 士7:19 士7:20 士7:21 士7:22 士7:23
ISBE
gid-e-un (gidh`on, "cutter down," "feller" or "hewer"):
1. His Family and Home:
Also named Jerubbaal (Jdg 6:32) and Jerubbesheth (2 Sam 11:21), youngest son of Joash, of the clan of Abiezer in the tribe of Manasseh. His home was at Ophrah, and his family an obscure one. He became the chief leader of Manasseh and the fifth recorded judge of Israel. The record of his life is found in Jdg 6 through 8.
Joash was an idolater, and sacrifices to Baal were common among the entire clan. Gideon seems to have held this worship in contempt, and to have pondered deeply the causes of Israels reverses and the injuries wrought upon his own family by the hand of the Midianites.
2. The Midianite Oppression:
The Midianites under Zebah and Zalmunna, their two greatest chiefs, accompanied by other wild tribes of the eastern desert, had gradually encroached on the territory of Israel in Central Israel. They came first as marauders and pillagers at the time of the harvests, but later they forcibly took possession of lands, and thus inflicted permanent injury and loss, especially upon Manasseh and Ephraim. The conflicts became so numerous, the appropriation of land so flagrant, that the matter of sustenance became a serious problem (Jdg 6:4). The multitude of these desert hordes and the cruelty of their depredation rendered defense difficult, and, lacking in the split of national unity, the Israelites were driven to dens, caves and rocky strongholds for safety (Jdg 6:2). After seven years of such invasion and suffering Gideon comes upon the scene.
3. The Call of Gideon:
It is probable that Gideon had already distinguished himself in resistance to the Midianites (Jdg 6:12), but he now receives Divine commission to assume the leadership. Having taken his own little harvest to a secret place for threshing, that it might escape the greed of the Midianites, he is surprised while at work by a visit from the Lord in the form of an angel. However this scene (Jdg 6:11 ff) and its miraculous incidents may be interpreted, there can be no question of the divineness of Gideons call or that the voice which spoke to him was the voice of God. Neither the brooding over the death of his brothers at Tabor (Jdg 8:18) nor the patriotic impulses dwelling within him can account for his assumption of leadership. Nor did he become leader at the demand of the people. He evidently had scarcely thought of himself as his countrys deliverer. The call not only came to him as a surprise, but found him distrustful both of himself (Jdg 6:15) and of his people (Jdg 6:13). It found him too without inclination for the task, and only his conviction that the command was of God persuaded him to assume leadership. This gives the note of accuracy to the essential facts of the story. Gideons demand for a sign (Jdg 6:17) being answered, the food offered the messenger having been consumed by fire at the touch of his staff, Gideon acknowledged the Divine commission of his visitor, and at the place of visitation built an altar to Yahweh (Jdg 6:19 ff).
4. His First Commission:
The call and first commission of Gideon are closely joined. He is at once commanded to destroy the altars of Baal set up by his father at Ophrah, to build an altar to Yahweh at the same place and thereon to offer one of his fathers bullocks as a sacrifice (Jdg 6:25 f). There is no reason to look on this as a second version of Gideons call. It is rather the beginning of instruction, and is deeply significant of the accuracy of the story, in that it follows the line of all revelation to Gods prophets and reformers to begin their work at home. Taking ten men, under the cover of darkness, Gideon does as commanded (Jdg 6:27). The morning revealed his work and visited upon him the wrath of the people of Ophrah. They demand of Joash that he put his son to death. The answer of Joash is an ironical but valid defense of Gideon. Why should the people plead for Baal? A god should be able to plead his own cause (Jdg 6:28 ff). This defense gained for Gideon the name Jerubbaal (yerubba`al, i.e. yarebh bo ha-ba`al, "Let Baal plead," Jdg 6:32 the King James Version).
The time intervening between this home scene and the actual campaign against the Midianites cannot definitely be named. It is probable that it took months for Gideon even to rally the people of his own clan. The fact is that all the subsequent events of the story are somewhat confused by what looks like a double narrative in which there are apparent but not vital differences. Without ignoring this fact it is still possible to get a connected account of what actually transpired.
5. Gideons Army:
When the allied invaders were in camp on the plain of Jezreel, we find Gideon, having recruited the Abiezrites and sent messengers to the various tribes of Israel (Jdg 6:34 f), pitching his camp near the Midianites. The location of the various camps of Gideon is difficult, as is the method of the recruiting of the tribes. For instance, Jdg 6:35 seems to be in direct contradiction to 7:23, and both are considered of doubtful origin. There was evidently, however, a preliminary encampment at the place of rallying. While waiting here, Gideon further tested his commission by the dry and wet fleece (6:37 ff) and, convinced of Gods purpose to save Israel by his leadership, he moves his camp to the Southeast edge of the plain of Jezreel nearby the spring of Harod. From his point of vantage here he could look down on the tents of Midian. The account of the reduction of his large army from 32,000 to 300 (7:2 ff) is generally accepted as belonging to a later tradition, Neither of the tests, however, is unnatural, and the first was not unusual. According to the account, Gideon at the Lords command first excused all the fearful. This left him with 10,000 men. This number was reduced to 300 by a test of their method of drinking. This test can easily be seen to evidence the eagerness and courage of men for battle (Jos).
6. The Midianites Discomfiture and Flight:
Having thus reduced the army and having the assurance that the Lord would deliver to him and his little band the forces of Midian, Gideon, with a servant, went by night to the edge of the camp of his enemy, and there heard the telling and interpretation of a dream which greatly encouraged him and led him to strike an immediate blow (Jdg 7:9 ff). Again we find a conflict of statement between Jdg 7:20 and 7:22, but the conflict is as to detail only. Dividing his men into three equal bands, Gideon arranges that with trumpets, and lights concealed in pitchers, and with the cry, "The sword of Yahweh and of Gideon!" they shall descend and charge the Midianites simultaneously from three sides. This stratagem for concealing his numbers and for terrifying the enemy succeeds, and the Midianites and their allies flee in disorder toward the Jordan (7:18 ff). The rout was complete, and the victory was intensified by the fact that in the darkness the enemy turned their swords against one another. Admitting that we have two narratives (compare 7:24; 8:3 with 8:4 ff) and that there is some difference between them in the details of the attack and the progress of the conflict, there is no need for confusion in the main line of events. One part of the fleeing enemy evidently crossed the Jordan at Succoth, being led by Zebah and Zalmunna. The superior force followed the river farther south, toward the ford of Bethbarah.
7. Death of Oreb and Zeeb
Gideon sent messengers to the men of Ephraim (7:24), probably before the first attack, asking them to intercept the Midianites, should they attempt to escape by the fords in their territory. This they did, defeating the enemy at Beth-barah and slaying the princes Oreb and Zeeb ("the Raven" and "the Wolf"). As proof of their victory and valor they brought the heads of the princes to Gideon and accused him of having discounted their bravery by not calling them earlier into the fight. But Gideon was a master of diplomacy, as well as of strategy, and won the friendship of Ephraim by magnifying their accomplishment in comparison with his own (8:1 ff).
Gideon now pursues Zebah and Zalmunna on the East side of the river. The people on that side are still in great fear of the Midianites and refuse even to feed his army. At Succoth they say to him, "Are the hands of Zebah and Zalmunna now in thy hand, that we should give bread unto thine army?" (Jdg 8:6). At Penuel he meets with the same refusal (Jdg 8:8). Promising to deal with Succoth and Penuel as they deserve when he is through with his present task, Gideon pushes on with his half-famished but courageous men, overtakes the Midianites, defeats them, captures Zebah and Zalmunna, and, returning, punishes, according to his promise, both Succoth and Penuel (Jdg 8:7,9,13 ff).
8. Death of Zebah and Zalmunna:
Thus was the power of the Midianites and the desert hordes broken in Canaan and a forty years peace came to Israel. But the two Kings of Midian must now meet their fate as defeated warriors. They had led their forces at Tabor when the brothers of Gideon perished. So Gideon commands his young son Jether to slay them as though they were not worthy of death at a warriors hand (Jdg 8:20). The youth fearing the task, Gideon himself put them to death (Jdg 8:21).
9. Gideons Ephod:
The people clamored to make Gideon king. He refused, being moved possibly by a desire to maintain theocracy. To this end he asks only the jewelry taken as spoil in the battles (Jdg 8:24 ff), and with it makes an ephod, probably an image of Yahweh, and places it in a house of the Lord at Ophrah. By this act it was later thought that Gideon contributed to a future idolatry of Israel. The narrative properly closes with Jdg 8:28.
10. His Death:
The remaining verses containing the account of Gideons family and death (Jdg 8:30 ff) and the record of events immediately subsequent to Gideons death (Jdg 8:33 ff) come from other sources than the original narrators.
C. E. Schenk
Easton
called also Jerubbaal (Judg. 6:29, 32), was the first of the judges whose history is circumstantially narrated (Judg. 6-8). His calling is the commencement of the second period in the history of the judges. After the victory gained by Deborah and Barak over Jabin, Israel once more sank into idolatry, and the Midianites (q.v.) and Amalekites, with other "children of the east," crossed the Jordan each year for seven successive years for the purpose of plundering and desolating the land. Gideon received a direct call from God to undertake the task of delivering the land from these warlike invaders. He was of the family of Abiezer (Josh. 17:2; 1 Chr. 7:18), and of the little township of Ophrah (Judg. 6:11). First, with ten of his servants, he overthrew the altars of Baal and cut down the asherah which was upon it, and then blew the trumpet of alarm, and the people flocked to his standard on the crest of Mount Gilboa to the number of twenty-two thousand men. These were, however, reduced to only three hundred. These, strangely armed with torches and pitchers and trumpets, rushed in from three different points on the camp of Midian at midnight, in the valley to the north of Moreh, with the terrible war-cry, "For the Lord and for Gideon" (Judg. 7:18, R.V.). Terror-stricken, the Midianites were put into dire confusion, and in the darkness slew one another, so that only fifteen thousand out of the great army of one hundred and twenty thousand escaped alive. The memory of this great deliverance impressed itself deeply on the mind of the nation (1 Sam. 12:11; Ps. 83:11; Isa. 9:4; 10:26; Heb. 11:32). The land had now rest for forty years. Gideon died in a good old age, and was buried in the sepulchre of his fathers. Soon after his death a change came over the people. They again forgot Jehovah, and turned to the worship of Baalim, "neither shewed they kindness to the house of Jerubbaal" (Judg. 8:35). Gideon left behind him seventy sons, a feeble, sadly degenerated race, with one exception, that of Abimelech, who seems to have had much of the courage and energy of his father, yet of restless and unscrupulous ambition. He gathered around him a band who slaughtered all Gideon's sons, except Jotham, upon one stone. (See OPHRAH
HDBN
he that bruises or breaks; a destroyer
SBD
(he that cuts down ), youngest son of Joash of the Abiezrites, an undistinguished family who lived at Ophrah, a town probably on the west of Jordan, ( Judges 6:15 ) in the territory of Manasseh, near Shechem. He was the fifth recorded judge of Israel, and for many reasons the greatest of them all. When we first hear of him he was grown up and had sons, ( Judges 6:11 ; 8:20 ) and from the apostrophe of the angel, ch. ( Judges 6:12 ) we may conclude that he had already distinguished himself in war against the roving bands of nomadic robbers who had oppressed Israel for seven years. When the angel appeared, Gideon was threshing wheat with a flail in the wine-press, to conceal it from the predatory tyrants. His call to be a deliverer, and his destruction of Baals altar, are related in Judges 6. After this begins the second act of Gideons life. Clothed by the Spirit of God, ( Judges 6:34 ) comp. 1Chr 12:18; Luke 24:49 he blew a trumpet, and was joined by Zebulun, Naphtali and even the reluctant Asher. Strengthened by a double sign from God, he reduced his army of 32,000 by the usual proclamation. ( 20:8 ) comp. 1 Macc. 3:56. By a second test at "the spring of trembling the further reduced the number of his followers to 300. ( Judges 7:5 ) seq. The midnight attack upon the Midianites, their panic, and the rout and slaughter that followed are told in ( Judges 7:1 ) ... The memory of this splendid deliverance took deep root in the national traditions. ( 1 Samuel 12:11 ; Psalms 83:11 ; Isaiah 9:4 ; 10:26 ; Hebrews 11:32 ) After this there was a peace of forty years, and we see Gideon in peaceful possession of his well-earned honors, and surrounded by the dignity of a numerous household. ( Judges 8:29-31 ) It is not improbable that, like Saul, he owed a part of his popularity to his princely appearance. ( Judges 8:18 ) In this third stage of his life occur alike his most noble and his most questionable acts viz., the refusal of the monarchy on theocratic grounds, and the irregular consecration of a jewelled ephod formed out of the rich spoils of Midian, which proved to the Israelites a temptation to idolatry although it was doubtless intended for use in the worship of Jehovah.


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary