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目前本系統共收錄了 1,856 個聖經相關人名
以及 HDBN 包含了 2,616 個姓名的意義解釋。


中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
戶勒 HUL
代表
創10:23 創10:22 創10:23 代上1:17
ISBE
hul (chul): The name of one of the "sons of Aram" in the list of nations descended from Noah, but a people of uncertain identity and location (Gen 10:23; 1 Ch 1:17).ew>yaquq, which stands on the West of Wady el-`Amud, to the Northwest of Gennesaret, about 4 miles from the sea. This would fall on the boundary of Zebulun and Naphtali, between Tabor and Hannathon (Josh 19:14). The identification may be correct; but it seems too far from Tabor.
Easton
circle, the second son of Aram (Gen. 10:23), and grandson of Shem.
HDBN
pain; infirmity
SBD
(circle ), the second son of Aram, and grandson of Shem. ( Genesis 10:23 ) The strongest evidence is in favor of the district about the roots of Lebanon.
戶勒大 HULDAH
代表
王下22:14 代下14:22
ISBE
hul-da (chuldah, "weasel"; Holda): A prophetess who lived in Jerusalem during the reign of Josiah. She was the wife of Shallum, keeper of the wardrobe, and resided in the "Mishneh" or second part or quarter of Jerusalem (location unknown). Cheyne says it should read, "She was sitting in the upper part of the gate of the Old City," i.e. in a public central place ready to receive any who wished to inquire of Yahweh. He gives no reason for such a change of text. The standing and reputation of Huldah in the city are attested by the fact that she was consulted when the Book of the Law was discovered. The king, high priest, counselors, etc., appealed to her rather than to Jeremiah, and her word was accepted by all as the word of Yahweh (2 Ki 22:14-20; 2 Ch 34:22-29).
J. J. Reeve
Easton
weasel, a prophetess; the wife of Shallum. She was consulted regarding the "book of the law" discovered by the high priest Hilkiah (2 Kings 22:14-20; 2 Chr. 34:22-28). She resided in that part of Jerusalem called the Mishneh (A.V., "the college;" R.V., "the second quarter"), supposed by some to be the suburb between the inner and the outer wall, the second or lower city, Akra. Miriam (Ex. 15:20) and Deborah (Judg. 4:4) are the only others who bear the title of "prophetess," for the word in Isa. 8:3 means only the prophet's wife.
HDBN
the world
SBD
(weasel ), a prophetess, whose husband, Shallum, was keeper of the wardrobe in the time of King Josiah. It was to her that Josiah had recourse, when Hilkiah found a book of the law, to procure an authoritative opinion on it. ( 2 Kings 22:14 ; 2 Chronicles 34:22 ) (B.C. 623.)
戶反 HUPHAM
代表
民26:39 創46:21 代上7:12
ISBE
hu-fam (chupham, "coast-inhabitant"): One of Benjamins sons and head of the Huphamite family (Nu 26:39).
See HUPPIM.
HDBN
their chamber; their bank
SBD
(coast-man ), a son of Benjamin, founder of the family of the Huphamites. ( Numbers 26:39 ) (B.C. 1688.)
戶品 HUPPIM
代表
代上7:12
ISBE
hup-im (chuppim, "coast-people"): Probably a variant form of HUPHAM (which see). From the only mention made of him (Gen 46:21; 1 Ch 7:12,15), his direct descent is difficult to establish.
HDBN
a chamber covered; the sea-shore
SBD
(protected ), head of a Benjamite family ( Genesis 46:21 ; 1 Chronicles 7:12 ) Hur (hole ). A man who is mentioned with Moses and Aaron on the occasion of the battle with Amalek at Raphidim, ( Exodus 17:10 ) when with Aaron he stayed up the hands of Moses. ver. ( Exodus 17:12 ) (B.C. 1491.) He is mentioned again in ch. ( Exodus 24:14 ) as being, with Aaron, left in charge of the people by Moses during his ascent of Sinai. The Jewish tradition is that he was the husband of Miriam, and that he was identical with The grandfather of Bezaleel, the chief artificer of the tabernacle. ( Exodus 31:2 ; 35:30 ; 38:22 ) The fourth of the five kings of Midian who were slain with Balaam after the "matter of Peor." ( Numbers 31:8 ) (B.C. 1451.) In a later mention of them, ( Joshua 13:21 ) they are called princes of Midian and dukes. Father of Rephaiah, who was ruler of half of the environs of Jerusalem, and assisted Nehemiah in the repair of the wall. ( Nehemiah 3:9 ) (B.C. before 446.) The "son of Hur" --Ben-Hur --was commissariat officer for Solomon in Mount Ephraim. ( 1 Kings 4:8 ) (B.C. 995.)
戶品 HUPPlM
代表
創46:21
戶沙 HUSHAH
代表
代上4:4
ISBE
hu-sha (chushah, "haste"): Mentioned in 1 Ch 4:4 as probably an individual, a Judahite, or a family name; but may possibly be a place.
HDBN
hasting; holding peace
SBD
(haste ), a name which occurs in the genealogies of the tribe of Judah ( 1 Chronicles 4:4 )
戶珊 HUSHAM
代表
創36:34 創36:35 代上1:45 代上1:46
ISBE
hu-sham (chusham, Gen 36:34; chusham, 1 Ch 1:45-46, "alert"): According to the former reference, Husham was one of the kings of Edom, and according to the latter he was "of the land of the Temanites" and (1 Ch 1:35 f) descended from Esau.
戶珥 HUR
代表
出31:2 出17:10出17:11 出17:12 出24:14 出31:2 民31:8 尼3:9
ISBE
hur (chur):
(1) A prominent official in Israel. With Aaron he held up Moses hands during the battle against the Amalekites (Ex 17:10,12) and assisted him as judicial head of the people during Moses stay in the mount (Ex 24:14).
(2) Grandfather of Bezalel, the head artificer in the construction of the Tabernacle (Ex 31:2; 35:30; 38:22; 2 Ch 1:5). He is here assigned to the tribe of Judah, and in 1 Ch is connected with the same by descent through Caleb (2:19,20,50; 4:1,4). Josephus (Ant., III, ii, 4; vi, 1) makes him identical with (1) and the husband of Miriam.
(3) One of the five kings of Midian slain along with Balaam when Israel avenged the "matter of Peor" upon this people (Nu 31:8; compare 31:1,2,16). In Josh 13:21 these kings are spoken of as "chiefs (nesiim) of Midian" and "princes (necikhim) of Sihon," king of the Amorites.
(4) According to 1 Ki 4:8 the King James Version, the father of one of Solomons twelve officers who provided food for the kings household, and whose district was the hill country of Ephraim. Here the Revised Version (British and American) has "Ben-hur," taking the Hebrew ben, "son of," as part of the proper name; and the same is true in reference to the names of four others of these officers (compare 1 Ki 4:9,10,11,13).
(5) Father of Rephaiah, who was one of the builders of the wall under Nehemiah, and ruler of half the district of Jerusalem (Neh 3:9).
Benjamin Reno Downer
Easton
a hole, as of a viper, etc. (1.) A son of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:19, 50; 4:1, 4; comp. 2 Chr. 1:5). (2.) The husband of Miriam, Moses' sister (Ex. 17:10-12). He was associated with Aaron in charge of the people when Moses was absent on Sinai (Ex. 24:14). He was probably of the tribe of Judah, and grandfather of Bezaleel (Ex. 31:2; 35:30; 1 Chr. 2:19). (3.) One of the five princes of Midian who were defeated and slain by the Israelites under the command of Phinehas (Num. 31:8).
HDBN
liberty; whiteness; hole
戶萊 HURAI
代表
代上11:32 撒下23:30
ISBE
hu-ri, hu-ra-i, hu-ra-i (churay, "linen-weaver"): One of Davids "mighty men" mentioned in 1 Ch 11:32 as of the brooks of Gaash, i.e. from Mt. Gash. In the parallel 2 Sam 23:30, the orthography is Hiddai.
Easton
linen-worker, one of David's heroes, a native of the valley of Mount Gaash (1 Chr. 11:32).
戶蘭 HURAM
代表
代上8:5 王上7:13 王上7:14 撒下15:32 撒下16:16 代上27:33 王上4:16
ISBE
hu-ram (churam, "noble-born"):
(1) Grandson of Benjamin (1 Ch 8:5).
(2) King of Tyre in alliance with David and Solomon. So named in 2 Ch 2:3,11,12; 8:2; 9:10,21, but elsewhere written HIRAM (which see).
(3) The Tyrian artisan who is so named in 2 Ch 2:13; 4:11,16, but elsewhere called "Hiram."
HDBN
their liberty; their whiteness; their hole
SBD
(noble born ). A Benjamite; son of Bela, the first-born of the patriarch. ( 1 Chronicles 8:5 ) The form in which the name of the king of Tyre in alliance with David and Solomon --and elsewhere given as HIRAM-- appears in Chronicles. ( 1 Chronicles 14:1 ; 2 Chronicles 2:3 2 Chronicles 2:11 2 Chronicles 2:12 ; 2 Chronicles 8:2 2 Chronicles 8:18 ; 2 Chronicles 9:10 2 Chronicles 9:21 ) The same Change occurs in Chronicles in the name of Hiram the artificer, which is given as HURAM in ( 2 Chronicles 2:13 ; 2 Chronicles 4:11 2 Chronicles 4:16 ) [HIRAM]
所巴特 SOPATER
代表
徒20:4
ISBE
so-pa-ter, sop-a-ter (Sopatros): the Revised Version (British and American) the son of Pyrrhus; the King James Version omits. A man of Berea who is mentioned with some Thessalonians and others as accompanying Paul as far as Asia on his return to Jerusalem after his 3rd missionary journey (Acts 20:4). He is probably the same as the "Sosipater" of Rom 16:21.
Easton
the father who saves, probably the same as Sosipater, a kinsman of Paul (Rom. 16:21), a Christian of the city of Berea who accompanied Paul into Asia (Acts 20:4-6).
HDBN
Sosipater
SBD
(saviour of his father ), son or Pyrrhus or Berea, was one of the companions of St. Paul on his return from Greece into Asia. ( Acts 20:4 ) (A.D. 55.)
所提尼 SOSTHENES
代表
徒18:12 徒18:13 徒18:14 徒18:15 徒18:16 徒18:17 林前1:1
ISBE
sos-the-nez (Sosthenes): Chief of the synagogue at Corinth (Acts 18:17). Possibly identical with the co-worker (afterward) of Paul mentioned in 1 Cor 1:1.
Easton
safe in strength, the chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who was seized and beaten by the mob in the presence of Gallio, the Roman governor, when he refused to proceed against Paul at the instigation of the Jews (Acts 18:12-17). The motives of this assault against Sosthenes are not recorded, nor is it mentioned whether it was made by Greeks or Romans. Some identify him, but without sufficient grounds, with one whom Paul calls "Sosthenes our brother," a convert to the faith (1 Cor. 1:1).
HDBN
savior; strong; powerful
SBD
(saviour of his nation ) was a Jew at Corinth who was seized and beaten in the presence of Gallio. See ( Acts 18:12-17 ) (A.D. 49.)
所羅巴伯 ZERUBBABEL
代表
斯2:6 代上3:17 代上3:18 代上3:19 拉1:8 拉1:11 拉2:2 拉2:64 拉2:65 拉3:1 拉3:2 拉3:3 拉3:4 拉3:5 拉3:6 拉3:7 拉3:8 拉3:9 拉4:1 拉4:2 拉4:3 拉4:4 拉4:5 拉4:6 拉5:1 拉5:2 拉5:14 拉5:15 拉5:16 該1:12 該2:23 亞4:1 亞4:2 亞4:3 亞4:4 亞4:5 亞4:6 亞4:7 亞4:8 亞4:9 亞4:10 亞4:11 亞4:12 亞4:13 亞4:14 太1:12
ISBE
ze-rub-a-bel (zerubbabhel, probably a transliteration of the Babylonian name Zeru-Babili, "seed of Babylon"; Zorobabel):
1. Name:
Is commonly called the son of Shealtiel (Ezr 3:2,8; 5:2; Neh 12:1; Hag 1:1,12,14; Mt 1:12; Lk 3:27); but in 1 Ch 3:19 he is called the son of Pedaiah, the brother apparently of Shealtiel (Salathiel) and the son or grandson of Jeconiah. It is probable that Shealtiel had no children and adopted Zerubbabel; or that Zerubbabel was his levirate son; or that, Shealtiel being childless, Zerubbabel succeeded to the rights of sonship as being the next of kin.
2. Family:
Whatever may have been his blood relationship to Jeconiah, the Scriptures teach that Zerubbabel was his legal successor, of the 3rd or 4th generation. According to 1 Ch 3:19, he had one daughter, Shelomith, and seven sons, Meshullam, Hananiah, Hashubah, Ohel, Berechiah, Hasadiah and Jushab-hesed. In Mt 1:13 he is said to have been the father of Abiud (i.e. Abi-hud). As it is the custom in Arabia today to give a man a new name when his first son is born, so it may have been, in this case, that Meshullam was the father of Hud, and that his name was changed to Abiud as soon as his son was named Hud. In Lk 3:27, the son of Zerubbabel is called Rhesa. This is doubtless the title of the head of the captivity, the resh gelutha, and would be appropriate as a title of Meshullam in his capacity as the official representative of the captive Jews. That Zerubbabel is said in the New Testament to be the son of Shealtiel the son of Neri instead of Jeconiah may be accounted for on the supposition that Shealtiel was the legal heir or adopted son of Jeconiah, who according to Jer 36:30 was apparently to die childless.
3. Relation to Sheshbazzar:
It has been shown in the article on Sheshbazzar that he and Zerubbabel may possibly have been the same person and that the name may have been Shamash-ban (or bun)-zer-Babili-usur. It seems more probable, however, that Sheshbazzar, the prince of Judah, was governor under Cyrus and that Zerubbabel was governor under Darius. The former, according to Ezr 1:8 and 5:14-16, laid the foundations, and the latter completed the building of the temple (Ezr 2:2,68; 4:2; Hag 1:14; Zec 4:9).
4. History:
All that is known certainly about Zerubbabel is found in the canonical books of Zechariah, Haggai and Ezra-Nehemiah. According to these he and Jeshua, the high priest, led up a band of captives from Babylon to Jerusalem and began rebuilding the temple in the second year of Darius Hystaspis. They first constructed the altar of burnt offerings, and afterward built a temple, usually called the Second Temple, much inferior in beauty to that of Solomon. According to Josephus and the apocryphal Book of Ezra (1 Esdras 3,4), Zerubbabel was a friend of Darius Hystaspis, having successfully competed before him in a contest whose object was to determine what was the strongest thing in the world--wine, kings, women, or truth. Zerubbabel, having demonstrated that truth was the mightiest of all, was called the kings "cousin," and was granted by him permission to go up to Jerusalem and to build the temple. Zerubbabel was also made a governor of Jerusalem, and performed also the duties of the tirshatha, an official who was probably the Persian collector of taxes.
See TIRSHATHA.
R. Dick Wilson
Easton
the seed of Babylon, the son of Salathiel or Shealtiel (Hag. 1:1; Zorobabel, Matt. 1:12); called also the son of Pedaiah (1 Chr. 3:17-19), i.e., according to a frequent usage of the word "son;" the grandson or the nephew of Salathiel. He is also known by the Persian name of Sheshbazzar (Ezra 1:8, 11). In the first year of Cyrus, king of Persia, he led the first band of Jews, numbering 42,360 (Ezra 2:64), exclusive of a large number of servants, who returned from captivity at the close of the seventy years. In the second year after the Return, he erected an altar and laid the foundation of the temple on the ruins of that which had been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (3:8-13; ch. 4-6). All through the work he occupied a prominent place, inasmuch as he was a descendant of the royal line of David.
HDBN
a stranger at Babylon; dispersion of confusion
SBD
(born at Babel , i.e. Babylon ), the head of the tribe of Judah at the time of the return from the Babylonish captivity in the first year of Cyrus. The history of Zerabbabel in the Scriptures is as follows: In the first year of Cyrus he was living at Babylon, and was the recognized prince of Judah in the captivity, --what in later times was called "the prince of the captivity," or "the prince." On the issuing of Cyrus decree he immediately availed himself of it, and placed himself at the head of those of his countrymen "whose spirit God had raised to go up to build the house of the Lord which is in Jerusalem." It is probable that he was in the king of Babylons service, both from his having, like Daniel and the three children, received a Chaldee name, Sheshbazzar, and from the fact that he was appointed by the Persian king to the office of governor of Judea. On arriving at Jerusalem, Zerubbabels great work, which he set about immediately, was the rebuilding of the temple. In the second month of the second year of the return the foundation was laid with all the pomp which could be commanded. The efforts of the Samaritans were successful in putting a stop to the work during the seven remaining years of the reign of Cyrus and through the eight years of Cambyses and Smerdis. Nor does Zerubbabel appear quite blameless for this long delay. The difficulties in the way of building the temple were not such as need have stopped the work and during this long suspension of sixteen years Zerubbabel and the rest of the people had been busy in building costly houses for themselves. But in the second year of Darius, light dawned upon the darkness of the colony from Babylon. In that year --it was the most memorable event in Zerabbabels life --the spirit of prophecy suddenly blazed up with a most brilliant light among the returned captives. Their words fell like sparks upon tinder. In a moment Zerubbabel roused from his apathy, threw his whole strength into the work. After much opposition [see NEHEMIAH] and many hindrances find delays, the temple was at length finished, in the sixth pear of Darius, and was dedicated with much pomp and rejoicing. [TEMPLE] The only other works of Zerubbabel of which we learn from Scripture are the restoration of the courses of priests and Levites and of the provision for their maintenance, according to the institution of David ( Ezra 6:18 ; Nehemiah 12:47 ) the registering the returned captives according to their genealogies, ( Nehemiah 7:5 ) and the keeping of a Passover in the seventh year of Darius, with which last event ends all that we know of the life of Zerubbabel, His apocryphal history is told in 1 Esdr. 3-7. The exact parentage of Zerubbabel is a little obscure, from his being always called the son of Shealtiel, ( Ezra 3:2 Ezra 3:8 ; 5:2 ) etc.; ( Haggai 1:1 Haggai 1:12 Haggai 1:14 ) etc., end appearing as such in the genealogies of Christ ( Matthew 1:12 ; Luke 3:27 ) whereas in ( 1 Chronicles 3:19 ) he is represented as the son of Pedaiah, Shealtiel or Salathiels brother, and consequently as Salathiels nephew. Zerubbabel was the legal successor and heir of Jeconiahs royal estate, the grandson of Neri and the lineal descendant of Nathan the son of David. In the New Testament the name appears in the Greek form of Zorobabel.
所羅門 SOLOMON
代表
撒下12:24 撒下12:25 代上22:5 代上22:6 代上22:7 代上22:8 代上22:9 代上22:10 代上22:11 代上22:12 代上22:13 代上22:14 代上22:15 王上3:5 王上4:29 王上4:34 王上6:1 王上6:37 王上6:38 王上9:2
ISBE
sol-o-mun (shelomoh; New Testament Solomon):
I. EARLY LIFE
1. Name and Meaning
2. Sources
3. Birth and Upbringing
4. His Accession
5. Closing Days of David
II. REIGN OF SOLOMON
1. His Vision
2. His Policy
3. Its Results
4. Alliance with Tyre
5. Alliance with Egypt
6. Domestic Troubles
III. HIS BUILDINGS
1. The Temple
2. The Palace
3. Other Buildings
4. The Corvee
IV. HIS CHARACTER
1. Personal Qualities
2. His Wisdom
3. His Learning
4. Trade and Commerce
5. Officers of State
6. Wives
7. Revenues
8. Literary Works

LITERATURE
I. Early Life.
Solomon was the son of David and Bath-sheba, and became the 3rd king of Israel.
1. Name and Meaning:
He was so named by his mother (2 Sam 12:24, Qere; see TEXT AND MANUSCRIPTS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT; TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT), but by the prophet Nathan, or by his father (Vulgate), he was called Jedidiah--"loved of Yahweh." The name "Solomon" is derived from the root meaning "to be quiet" or "peaceful," and Solomon was certainly the least warlike of all the kings of Israel or Judah, and in that respect a remarkable contrast to his father (so 1 Ch 22:9). His name in Hebrew compares with Irenaeus in Greek, Friedrich in German, and Selim in Arabic; but it has been suggested that the name should be pronounced shillumah, from the word denoting "compensation," Bath-shebas second son being given in compensation for the loss of the first (but see 3, below).
2. Sources:
The oldest sources for the biography of Solomon are doubtless the "Annals of Solomon" referred to in 1 Ki 11:41, the "history of Nathan the prophet," the "prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite" and the "visions of Iddo the seer," mentioned in 2 Ch 9:29, all which may be merely the relative sections of the great book of the "Annals of the Kings" from which our Books of Kings and Chronicles are both derived. These ancient works are, of course, lost to us save in so far as they have been embodied in the Old Testament narrative. There the life of South is contained in 2 Sam 12:24 f; 1 Ki 1 through 11; 1 Ch 22 through 2 Ch 9. Of these sources 2 Sam 12:24 f and 1 Ki 1; 2 are much the oldest and in fact form part of one document, 2 Sam 9 through 20; 1 Ki 1; 2 dealing with the domestic affairs of David, which may well be contemporary with the events it describes. The date of the composition of the Books of Chronicles is about 300 BC--700 years after the time of Solomon--and the date of the Books of Kings, as a completed work, must, of course, be later than the exile. Nothing of importance is gained from citations from early historians in Josephus and later writers. Far and away the best source for, at least, the inner life of Solomon would be the writings ascribed to him in the Old Testament, could we be sure that these were genuine (see below).
3. Birth and Upbringing:
The children of David by Bath-sheba are given in 1 Ch 3:5 as Shimea, Shobab, Nathan and Solomon. Compare also 2 Sam 5:14; 1 Ch 14:4, where the same persons evidently are named. It would thus appear that Solomon was the 4th son of Bath-sheba, supposing Shimea to be the child that died. Otherwise Solomon would be the 5th son. There are therefore some events omitted in 2 Sam 12:24 f, or else the names Shobab and Nathan are remains of some clause which has been lost, and not proper names. Like the heir apparent of a Turkish sultan, Solomon seems to have spent his best years in the seclusion of the harem. There he was doubtless more influenced by his mother than by his father, and in close intimacy with his mother was the prophet Nathan, who had given him his by-name of fortunate import (2 Sam 12:25).
4. His Accession:
It was not until David lay on his deathbed that Solomon left the womens quarters and made his appearance in public. That he had been selected by David, as the son of the favorite wife, to succeed him, is pre-supposed in the instructions which he received from his father regarding the building of the Temple. But as soon as it appeared that the life of David was nearing its end, it became evident that Solomon was not to have a "walk over." He found a rival in Adonijah the son of Haggith, who was apparently the eldest surviving son of his father, and who had the support of Joab, by far the strongest man of all, of Abiathar, the leading, if not the favorite, priest (compare 2 Sam 15:24 ff), and of the princes of the royal house. Solomon, on the other hand, had the support of his mother Bath-sheba, David s favorite wife, of Nathan the court prophet, of Zadok who had eclipsed Abiathar, of Benaiah, the son of a priest, but one of the three bravest of Davids soldiers, and captain of the bodyguard of Cherethites and Pelethites, and of the principal soldiers. It is especially noted that Shimei and Hushai (so Josephus) took no active part at any rate with Adonijah (1 Ki 1:8). The conspiracy came to nothing, for, before it developed, Solomon was anointed at Gibeon (not Gihon, 1 Ki 1:33,38,45), and entered Jerusalem as king.
5. Closing Days of David:
The age of Solomon at his accession is unknown. The expression in 1 Ki 3:7 is not, of course, to be taken literally (otherwise Ant, VIII, vii, 8). His reign opened, like that of many an oriental monarch, with a settlement in blood of the accounts of the previous reign. Joab, Davids nephew, who had brought the house within the bounds of blood revenge, was executed. Adonijah, as soon as his father had breathed his last, was on a nominal charge put to death. Abiathar was relegated to his home at Anathoth (1 Ki 2:26). Conditions were imposed on Shimei which he failed to keep and so forfeited his life (1 Ki 2:36 ff). These steps having been taken, Solomon began his reign, as it were, with a clean slate.
II. Reign of Solomon.
1. His Vision:
It was apparently at the very beginning of his reign that Solomon made his famous choice of a "hearing heart," i.e. an obedient heart, in preference to riches or long life. The vision took place at Gibeon (2 Ch 1:7, but in 1 Ki 3:4 f the ancient versions read "upon the altar that was in Gibeon. And the Lord appeared," etc.). The life of Solomon was a curious commentary on his early resolution. One of the first acts of his reign was apparently, in the style of the true oriental monarch, to build himself a new palace, that of his father being inadequate for his requirements. In regard to politics, however, the events of Solomons reign may be regarded as an endorsement of his choice. Under him alone was the kingdom of Israel a great world-power, fit almost to rank beside Assyria and Egypt. Never again were the bounds of Israel so wide; never again were north and south united in one great nation. There is no doubt that the credit of this result is due to the wisdom of Solomon.
2. His Policy:
Solomon was by nature an unwarlike person, and his whole policy was in the direction of peace. He disbanded the above-mentioned foreign legion, the Cherethites and Pelethites, who had done such good service as bodyguard to his father. All his officers seem to have been mediocre persons who would not be likely to force his hand, as Joab had done that of David (2 Sam 3:39). Even the fortification of Jerusalem and of the frontier towns was undertaken with a view to repel attack, not for the purposes of offense. Solomon did, no doubt, strengthen the army, especially the cavalry arm (1 Ki 4:26; 10:26), but he never made any use of this, and perhaps it existed largely on paper. At any rate Solomon seems to have been rather a breeder of and dealer in horse-flesh than a soldier. He appears also to have had a fine collection of armor (1 Ki 10:25), but much of it was made of gold (1 Ki 10:16 f) and was intended for show, not for use. Both in his reputation for wisdom and in his aversion to war Solomon bears a striking resemblance to King James VI of Scotland and I of England, as depicted by the hand of Sir Walter Scott. It was fortunate for him that both the neighboring great powers were for the time in a decadent state, otherwise the history of the kingdom of Israel would have ended almost before it had begun. On the other hand, it has been remarked that if Solomon had had anything like the military genius of David and his enthusiasm for the religion of Yahweh, he might have extended the arms of Israel from the Nile to the Tigris and anticipated the advent of Islam. But his whole idea was to secure himself in peace, to amass wealth and indulge his love of grandeur with more than oriental splendor.
3. Its Results:
Solomon, in fact, was living on the achievements and reputation of his father, who laid the basis of security and peace on which the commercial genius of Solomon could raise the magnificent structure which he did. But he took the clay from the foundations in order to build the walls. The Hebrews were a military people and in that consisted their life. Solomon withdrew their energies from their natural bent and turned them to cornmerce, for which they were not yet ripe. Their soul rebelled under the irksome drudgery of an industry of which they did not reap the fruits. Solomon had in fact reduced a free people to slavery, and concentrated the wealth of the whole country in the capital. As soon as he was out of the way, his country subjects threw off the yoke and laid claim to their ancient freedom. His son found himself left with the city and a territory as small as an English county.
4. Alliance with Tyre:
Solomons chief ally was Hiram, the king of Tyre, probably the friend and ally of David, who is to be distinguished from Hiram the artificer of 1 Ki 7:13 ff. Hiram the king entered into a treaty with Solomon which was to the advantage of both parties. Hiram supplied Solomon with cedar and pine wood from Lebanon, as well as with skilled artisans for his building. Tyrian sailors were also drafted into the ships of Solomon, the Hebrews not being used to the sea (1 Ki 9:26 f), besides which Phoenician ships sailed along with those of Solomon. The advantages which Hiram received in return were that the Red Sea was open to his merchantmen, and he also received large supplies of corn and oil from the land of Israel (1 Ki 5:11 corrected by Septuagint and 2 Ch 2:10). At the conclusion of the building of the palace and Temple, which occupied 20 years, Solomon presented Hiram with 20 villages (1 Ki 9:11; the converse, 2 Ch 8:2), and Hiram made Solomon a return present of gold (1 Ki 9:14; omitted in 2 Chronicles).
5. Alliance with Egypt:
Second to Hiram was the Pharaoh of Egypt, whose daughter Solomon married, receiving as her dower the town of Gezer (1 Ki 9:16). This Pharaoh is not named in the Old Testament. This alliance with Egypt led to the introduction of horses into Israel (1 Ki 10:28 f), though David had already made a beginning on a small scale (2 Sam 8:4). Both these alliances lasted throughout the reign. There is no mention of an alliance with the eastern power, which was then in a decadent state.
6. Domestic Troubles:
It was probably nearer the beginning than the end of Solomons reign that political trouble broke out within the realm. When David had annexed the territory of the Edomites at the cost of the butchery of the male population (compare 2 Sam 8:14; Ps 60, title) one of the young princes of the reigning house effected his escape, and sought and found an asylum in Egypt, where he rose to occupy a high station. No sooner had he heard of the death of David and Joab than he returned to his native country and there stirred up disaffections against Solomon (1 Ki 11:14 ff; see HADAD), without, however, restoring independence to Edom (1 Ki 9:26). A second occasion of disaffection arose through a prophet having foretold that the successor of Solomon would have one of the Israelite tribes only and that the other ten clans would be under Solomons master of works whom he had set over them. This officer also took refuge in Egypt and was protected by Shishak. He remained there until the death of Solomon (1 Ki 11:26 ff). A third adversary was Rezon who had fled from his master the king of Zobah (1 Ki 11:23), and who established himself at Damascus and rounded a dynasty which was long a thorn in the side of Israel. These domestic troubles are regarded as a consequence of the falling away of Solomon from the path of rectitude, but this seems to be but a kind of anticipative consequence, that is, if it was not till the end of his reign that Solomon fell into idolatry and polytheism (1 Ki 11:4).
III. His Buildings.
1. The Temple:
The great undertaking of the reign of Solomon was, of course, The TEMPLE (which see), which was at first probably considered as the Chapel Royal and an adjunct of the palace. The Temple was begun in the 4th year of the reign and finished in the 11th, the work of the building occupying 7?years (1 Ki 6; 7:13 ff). The delay in beginning is remarkable, if the material were all ready to hand (1 Ch 22). Worship there was inaugurated with fitting ceremony and prayers (1 Ki 8).
2. The Palace:
To Solomon, however, his own palace was perhaps a more interesting undertaking. It at any rate occupied more time, in fact 13 years (1 Ki 7:1-12; 9:10; 2 Ch 8:1), the time of building both palace and Temple being 20 years. Possibly the building of the palace occupied the first four years of the reign and was then intermitted and resumed after the completion of the Temple; but of this there is no indication in the text. It was called the House of the Forest of Lebanon from the fact that it was lined with cedar wood (1 Ki 7:2). A description of it is given in 1 Ki 7:1-12.
3. Other Buildings:
Solomon also rebuilt the wall of the city and the citadel (see JERUSALEM; MILLO). He likewise erected castles at the vulnerable points of the frontiers--Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer (1 Ki 9:15), lower Beth-horon and BAALATH (which see). According to the Qere of 1 Ki 9:18 and the ancient versions as well as 2 Ch 8:4, he was the founder of Tadmor (Palmyra); but the Kethibh of 1 Ki 9:18 reads Tamar (compare Ezek 47:19). Some of the remains of buildings recently discovered at Megiddo and Gezer may go back to the time of Solomon.
4. The Corvee:
Solomon could not have built on the scale he did with the resources ordinarily at the command of a free ruler. Accordingly we find that one of the institutions fostered by him was the corvee, or forced labor. No doubt something of the kind always had existed (Josh 9:21) and still exists in all despotic governments. Thus the people of a village will be called on to repair the neighboring roads, especially when the Pasha is making a progress in the neighborhood. But Solomon made the thing permanent and national (1 Ki 5:13-15; 9:15). The immediate purpose of the levy was to supply laborers for work in the Lebanon in connection with his building operations. Thus 30,000 men were raised and drafted, 10,000 at a time, to the Lebanon, where they remained for a month, thus having two months out of every three at home. But even when the immediate cause had ceased, the practice once introduced was kept up and it became one of the chief grievances which levi to the dismemberment of the kingdom (1 Ki 12:18, Adoram = Adoniram; compare 2 Sam 20:24), for hitherto the corvee had been confined to foreign slaves taken in war (1 Ki 9:21). It is said the higher posts were reserved for Israelites, the laborers being foreigners (1 Ki 9:22), that is, the Israelites acted as foremen. Some of the foreign slaves seem to have formed a guild in connection with the Temple which lasted down to the time of the exile (Ezr 2:55-57; Neh 7:57-59).
See NETHINIM.
IV. His Character.
1. Personal Qualities:
In Solomon we have the type of a Turkish sultan, rather than a king of Israel. The Hebrew kings, whether of Israel or Judah, were, in theory at least, elective monarchs like the kings of Poland. If one happened to be a strong ruler, he managed to establish his family it might be, for three or even four generations. In the case of the Judean dynasty the personality of the first king made such a deep impression upon the heart of the people that the question of a change of dynasty there never became pressing. But Solomon would probably have usurped the crown if he had not inherited it, and once on the throne he became a thoroughgoing despot. All political power was taken out of the hands of the sheiks, although outward respect was still paid to them (1 Ki 8:1), and placed in the hands of officers who were simply creatures of Solomon. The resources of the nation were expended, not on works of public utility, but on the personal aggrandizement of the monarch (1 Ki 10:18 ff). In the means he took to gratify his passions he showed himself to be little better than a savage and if he did not commit such great crimes as David, it was perhaps because he had no occasion, or because he employed greater cunning in working out his ends.
2. His Wisdom:
The wisdom for which Solomon is so celebrated was not of a very high order; it was nothing more than practical shrewdness, or knowledge of the world and of human nature. The common example of it is that given in 1 Ki 3:16 ff, to which there are innumerable parallels in Indian, Greek and other literatures. The same worldly wisdom lies at the back of the Book of Proverbs, and there is no reason why a collection of these should not have been made by Solomon just as it is more likely that he was a composer of verses than that he was not (1 Ki 4:32). The statement that he had breadth of heart (1 Ki 4:29) indicates that there was nothing known which did not come within his ken.
3. His Learning:
The word "wisdom," however, is used also in another connection, namely, in the sense of theoretical knowledge or book leaning, especially in the department of natural history. It is not to be supposed that Solomon had any scientific knowledge of botany or zoology, but he may have collected the facts of observation, a task in which the Oriental, who cannot generalize, excels. The wisdom and understanding (1 Ki 4:29) for which Solomon was famous would consist largely in stories about beasts and trees like the well-known Fables of Pilpai. They included also the "wisdom" for which Egypt was famous (1 Ki 4:30), that is, occult science. It results from this last statement that Solomon appears in post-Biblical and Arabian literature as a magician.
4. Trade and Commerce:
Solomon was very literally a merchant prince. He not only encouraged and protected commerce, but engaged in it himself. He was in fact the predominant, if not sole, partner in a great trading concern, which was nothing less than the Israelite nation. One of his enterprises was the horse trade with Egypt. His agents bought up horses which were again sold to the kings of the Hittites and the Arameans. The prices paid are mentioned (1 Ki 10:29). The best of these Solomon no doubt retained for his own cavalry (1 Ki 10:26). Another commodity imported from that country was linen yarn (1 Ki 10:28 the King James Version). The navy which Solomon built at the head of the Gulf of Akaba was not at all for military, but purely commercial ends. They were ships of Tarshish, that is, merchant ships, not ships to Tarshish, as 2 Ch 9:21. They traded to OPHIR (which see), from which they brought gold; silver, ivory, apes and peacocks, the round voyage lasting 3 years (1 Ki 9:26 ff; 10:22). Special mention is made of "almug" (1 Ki 10:11) or "algum" (2 Ch 9:10 f) trees (which see). The visit of the Queen of Sheba would point to the overland caravan routes from the Yemen being then open (1 Ki 10:15). What with direct imports and the result of sales, silver and cedar wood became very plentiful in the capital (1 Ki 10:27).
5. Officers of State:
The list of Solomons officers of state is given in 1 Ki 4:2 ff. These included a priest, two secretaries, a recorder, a commander-in-chief, a chief commissariat officer, a chief shepherd (if we may read ro`eh for reeh), a master of the household, and the head of the corvee. The list should be compared with those of Davids officers (2 Sam 8:16 ff; 20:23 ff). There is much resemblance, but we can see that the machine of state was becoming more complicated. The bodyguard of foreign mercenaries was abolished and the captain Benaiah promoted to be commander-in-chief. Two scribes were required instead of one. Twelve commissariat officers were appointed whose duty it was to forward from their districts the supplies for the royal household and stables. The list of these officials, a very curious one, is given in 1 Ki 4:7 ff. It is to be noted that the 12 districts into which the country was divided did not coincide with the territories of the 12 tribes. It may be remarked that Solomon seems as far as possible to have retained the old servants of his father. It will be noticed also that in all the lists there is mention of more than one priest. These "priests" retained some of their original functions, since they acted as prognosticators and diviners.
6. Wives:
Solomons principal wife was naturally the daughter of Pharaoh; it was for her that his palace was built (1 Ki 3:1; 7:8; 9:16,24). But in addition to her he established marriage relations with the neighboring peoples. In some cases the object was no doubt to cement an alliance, as with the Zidonians and Hittites and the other nationalities (1 Ki 11:1), some of which were forbidden to Israelites (Dt 7:3). It may be that the daughter of Pharaoh was childless or died a considerable time before Solomon, but his favorite wife was latterly a grand-daughter of Nahash, the Ammonite king (1 Ki 14:21 Septuagint), and it was her son who succeeded to the throne. Many of Solomons wives were no doubt daughters of wealthy or powerful citizens who wished by an alliance with the king to strengthen their own positions. Yet we do not read of his marrying an Israelite wife. According to the Arabian story Bilqis, the Queen of Sheba who visited Solomon (1 Ki 10:1 ff),. was also married to him. He appears to have had only one son; we are not told of any other than Rehoboam. His daughters were married to his own officers (1 Ki 4:11,15).
7. Revenues:
Solomon is said to have started his reign with a capital sum of 100,000 talents of gold and a million talents of silver, a sum greater than the national debt of Great Britain. Even so, this huge sum was ear-marked for the building of the Temple (1 Ch 22:14). His income was, for one year, at any rate, 666 talents of gold (1 Ki 10:14), or about twenty million dollars. This seems an immense sum, but it probably was not so much as it looks. The great mass of the people were too poor to have any commodities which they could exchange for gold. Its principal use was for the decoration of buildings. Its purchasing power was probably small, because so few could afford to buy it. It was in the same category as the precious stones which are of great rarity, but which are of no value unless there is a demand for them. In the time of Solomon there was no useful purpose to which gold could be put in preference to any other metal.
8. Literary Works:
It is not easy to believe that the age of Solomon, so glorious in other respects, had not a literature to correspond. Yet the reign of the sultan Ismail in Morocco, whom Solomon much resembles, might be cited in favor of such a supposition. Solomon himself is stated to have composed 3,000 animal stories and 1,005 songs (1 Ki 4:32). In the Old Testament the following are ascribed to him: three collections of Proverbs, 1:1 ff; 10:1 ff; 25:1 ff; The Song of Songs; Psalms 72 and 127; Ecclesiastes (although Solomon is not named). In Prov 25:1 the men of Hezekiah are said to have copied out the following proverbs.

LITERATURE.
The relative portions of the histories by Ewald, Stanley (who follows Ewald), Renan, Wellhausen and Kittel; also H. Winckler, Alttestamentliche Untersuchungen; and the commentaries on the Books of Kings and Chronicles.
Thomas Hunter Weir
Easton
peaceful, (Heb. Shelomoh), David's second son by Bathsheba, i.e., the first after their legal marriage (2 Sam. 12). He was probably born about B.C. 1035 (1 Chr. 22:5; 29:1). He succeeded his father on the throne in early manhood, probably about sixteen or eighteen years of age. Nathan, to whom his education was intrusted, called him Jedidiah, i.e., "beloved of the Lord" (2 Sam. 12:24, 25). He was the first king of Israel "born in the purple." His father chose him as his successor, passing over the claims of his elder sons: "Assuredly Solomon my son shall reign after me." His history is recorded in 1 Kings 1-11 and 2 Chr. 1-9. His elevation to the throne took place before his father's death, and was hastened on mainly by Nathan and Bathsheba, in consequence of the rebellion of Adonijah (1 Kings 1:5-40). During his long reign of forty years the Hebrew monarchy gained its highest splendour. This period has well been called the "Augustan age" of the Jewish annals. The first half of his reign was, however, by far the brighter and more prosperous; the latter half was clouded by the idolatries into which he fell, mainly from his heathen intermarriages (1 Kings 11:1-8; 14:21, 31). Before his death David gave parting instructions to his son (1 Kings 2:1-9; 1 Chr. 22:7-16; 28). As soon as he had settled himself in his kingdom, and arranged the affairs of his extensive empire, he entered into an alliance with Egypt by the marriage of the daughter of Pharaoh (1 Kings 3:1), of whom, however, nothing further is recorded. He surrounded himself with all the luxuries and the external grandeur of an Eastern monarch, and his government prospered. He entered into an alliance with Hiram, king of Tyre, who in many ways greatly assisted him in his numerous undertakings. (See HIRAM
HDBN
peaceable; perfect; one who recompenses
SBD
(peaceful ). I. Early life and occasion to the throne . --Solomon was the child of Davids old age, the last born of all his sons. ( 1 Chronicles 3:5 ) The yearnings of the "man of war" led him to give to the new-horn infant the name of Solomon (Shelomoth, the peaceful one ). Nathan, with a marked reference to the meaning of the kings own name (David, the darling, the beloved one ), calls the infant Jedidiah (Jedidyah), that is, the darling of the Lord. ( 2 Samuel 11:24 2 Samuel 11:25 ) He was placed under the care of Nathan from his earliest infancy. At first, apparently, there was no distinct purpose to make him the heir. Absalom was still the kings favorite son, ( 2 Samuel 13:37 ; 18:33 ) and was looked on by the people as the destined successor. ( 2 Samuel 14:13 ; 15:1-6 ) The death of Absalom when Solomon was about ten years old left the place vacant, and David pledged his word in secret to Bath-sheba that he, and no other, should be the heir. ( 1 Kings 1:13 ) The words which were spoken somewhat later express, doubtless, the purpose which guided him throughout. ( 1 Chronicles 28:9 ; 20 ) His sons life should not he as his own had been, one of hardships and wars, dark crimes and passionate repentance, but, from first to last, be pure, blameless, peaceful, fulfilling the ideal of glory and of righteousness after which he himself had vainly striven. The glorious visions of ( Psalms 72:1 ) ... may be looked on as the prophetic expansion of these hopes of his old age. So far,all was well. Apparently his influence over his sons character was one exclusively for good. Nothing that we know of Bath-sheba lends us to think of her as likely to mould her sons mind and heart to the higher forms of goodness. Under these influences the boy grew up. At the age of ten or eleven he must have passed through the revolt of Absalom, and shared his fathers exile. ( 2 Samuel 15:16 ) He would be taught all that priests or Levites or prophets had to teach. When David was old and feeble, Adonijah, Solomons older brother attempted to gain possession of the throne; but he was defeated, and Solomon went down to Gihon and was proclaimed and anointed king. A few months more and Solomon found himself, by his fathers death, the sole occupant of the throne. The position to which he succeeded was unique. Never before, and never after, did the kingdom of Israel take its place among the great monarchies of the East. Large treasures, accumulated through many years, were at his disposal. II. Personal appearance . --Of Solomons personal appearance we have no direct description, as we have of the earlier kings. There are, however, materials for filling up the gap. Whatever higher mystic meaning may be latent in ( Psalms 45:1 ) ... or the Song of Songs, we are all but compelled to think of them us having had at least a historical starting-point. They tell of one who was, in the eyes of the men of his own time, "fairer than the children of men," the face "bright, and ruddy" as his fathers, ( Solomon 5:10 ; 1 Samuel 17:42 ) bushy locks, dark as the ravens wing, yet not without a golden glow, the eyes soft as "the eyes of cloves," the "countenance as Lebanon excellent as the cedars," "the chiefest among ten thousand, the altogether lovely." ( Solomon 5:13-18 ) Add to this all gifts of a noble, far-reaching intellect large and ready sympathies, a playful and genial humor, the lips "full of grace," and the soul "anointed" as "with the oil of gladness," ( Psalms 45:1 ) ... and we may form some notion of what the king was like in that dawn of his golden prime. III. Reign . --All the data for a continuous history that we have of Solomons reign are-- (a) The duration of the reign, forty sears, B.C. 1015-975. ( 1 Kings 11:4 ) (b) The commencement of the temple in the fourth, its completion in the eleventh, year of his reign. ( 1 Kings 6:1 1 Kings 6:37 1 Kings 6:38 ) (c) The commencement of his own palace in the seventh, its completion in the twentieth, year. ( 1 Kings 7:1 ; 2 Chronicles 8:1 ) (d) The conquest of Hamath-zobah, and the consequent foundation of cities in the region of north Palestine after the twentieth year. ( 2 Chronicles 8:1-6 ) IV. Foreign policy . -- Egypt. The first act of the foreign policy of the new reign must have been to most Israelites a very startling one. He made affinity with Pharaoh, king of Egypt, by marrying his daughter ( 1 Kings 3:1 ) The immediate results were probably favorable enough. The new queen brought with her as a dowry the frontier city of Gezer. But the ultimate issue of alliance showed that it was hollow and impolitic. Tyre. The alliance with the Phoenician king rested on a somewhat different footing. It had been a part of Davids policy from the beginning of his reign. Hiram had been "ever a lover of David." As soon as he heard of Solomons accession he sent ambassadors to salute him. A correspondence passed between the two kings, which ended in a treaty of commerce. The opening of Joppa as a port created a new coasting-trade, and the materials from Tyre were conveyed to that city on floats, and thence to Jerusalem. ( 2 Chronicles 2:16 ) In return for these exports, the Phoenicians were only too glad to receive the corn and oil of Solomons territory. The results of the alliance did not end here. Now, for the first time in the history of the Jews, they entered on a career as a commercial people. The foregoing were the two most important to Babylon alliances. The absence of any reference to Babylon and Assyria, and the fact that the Euphrates was recognized as the boundary of Solomons kingdom, ( 2 Chronicles 9:26 ) suggests the inference that the Mesopotamian monarchies were at this time comparatively feeble. Other neighboring nations were content to pay annual tribute in the form of gifts. ( 2 Chronicles 9:28 ) The survey of the influence exercised by Solomon on surrounding nations would be incomplete if we were to pass over that which was more directly personal the fame of his glory and his wisdom. Wherever the ships of Tarshish went, they carried with them the report, losing nothing in its passage, of what their crews had seen and heard. The journey of the queen of Sheba, though from its circumstances the most conspicuous, did not stand alone. V. Internal history .-- The first prominent scene in Solomons reign is one which presents his character in its noblest aspect. God in a vision having offered him the choice of good things he would have, he chose wisdom in preference to riches or honor or long life. The wisdom asked for was given in large measure, and took a varied range. The wide world of nature, animate and inanimate, the lives and characters of men, lay before him, and he took cognizance of all but the highest wisdom was that wanted for the highest work, for governing and guiding, and the historian hastens to give an illustration of it. The pattern-instance is, in all its circumstances, thoroughly Oriental. ( 1 Kings 3:16-28 ) In reference to the kings finances, the first impression of the facts given us is that of abounding plenty. Large quantities of the precious metals were imported from Ophir and Tarshish. ( 1 Kings 9:28 ) All the kings and princes of the subject provinces paid tribute in the form of gifts, in money and in kind, "at a fixed rate year by year." ( 1 Kings 10:25 ) Monopolies of trade contributed to the kings treasury. ( 1 Kings 10:28 1 Kings 10:29 ) The total amount thus brought into the treasury in gold, exclusive of all payments in kind, amounted to 666 talents. ( 1 Kings 10:14 ) It was hardly possible, however, that any financial system could bear the strain of the kings passion for magnificence. The cost of the temple was, it is true, provided for by Davids savings and the offerings of the people; but even while that was building, yet more when it was finished one structure followed on another with ruinous rapidity. All the equipment of his court, the "apparel" of his servants was on the same scale. A body-guard attended him, "threescore valiant men," tallest and handsomest of the sons of Israel. Forty thousand stalls of horses for his chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen made up the measure of his magnificence. ( 1 Kings 4:26 ) As the treasury became empty, taxes multiplied and monopolies became more irksome. A description of the temple erected by Solomon is given elsewhere. After seven years and the work was completed and the day came to which all Israelites looked back as the culminating glory of their nation. We cannot ignore the fact that even now there were some darker shades in the picture. He reduced the "strangers" in the land, the remnant of the Canaanite races, to the state of helots, and made their life "bitter with all hard bondage." One hundred and fifty-three thousand, with wives and children in proportion, were torn from their homes and sent off to the quarries and the forests of Lebanon. ( 1 Kings 5:15 ; 2 Chronicles 2:17 2 Chronicles 2:18 ) And the king soon fell from the loftiest height of his religious life to the lowest depth. Before long the priests and prophets had to grieve over rival temples to Molech, Chemosh, Ashtaroth and forms of ritual not idolatrous only, but cruel, dark, impure. This evil came as the penalty of another. ( 1 Kings 11:1-8 ) He gave himself to "strange women." He found himself involved in a fascination which led to the worship of strange gods. Something there was perhaps in his very "largeness of heart," so far in advance of the traditional knowledge of his age, rising to higher and wider thoughts of God, which predisposed him to it. In recognizing what was true in other forms of faith, he might lose his horror at what was false. With this there may have mingled political motives. He may have hoped, by a policy of toleration, to conciliate neighboring princes, to attract larger traffic. But probably also there was another influence less commonly taken into account. The widespread belief of the East in the magic arts of Solomon is not, it is believed, without its foundation of truth. Disasters followed before long as the natural consequence of what was politically a blunder as well as religiously a sin. VI. His literary works. --little remains out of the songs, proverbs, treatises, of which the historian speaks. ( 1 Kings 4:32 1 Kings 4:33 ) Excerpts only are given from the three thousand proverbs. Of the thousand and five songs we know absolutely nothing. His books represent the three stages of his life. The Song of Songs brings before us the brightness of his -youth. Then comes in the book of Proverbs, the stage of practical, prudential thought. The poet has become the philosopher, the mystic has passed into the moralist; but the man passed through both stages without being permanently the better for either. They were to him but phases of his life which he had known and exhausted, ( Ecclesiastes 1:1 ; Ecclesiastes 2:1 ) ... and therefore there came, its in the confessions of the preacher, the great retribution.
所西巴德 SOSIPATER
代表
羅16:21
ISBE
so-sip-a-ter (Sosipatros): Sosipater unites with Lucius and Jason in sending greetings to the Roman Christians (Rom 16:21). He is a "kinsman" of Paul, by which Paul means a Jew (Rom 9:3; 16:11,21). It is the same name as SOPATER (which see). "Sopater of Berea" was one of the companions of Paul on his journey from Philippi after his 3rd missionary journey (Acts 20:4). These two are probably the same person, Paul having with him in Corinth, at the time of writing to the Roman Christians, the two Macedonians, Sopater of Berea and Jason of Thessalonica. The name Sosipater is found on a list of politarchs of Thessalonica.
S. F. Hunter
Easton
(See SOPATER
SBD
(saviour of his father ), kinsman or fellow tribesman of St. Paul, ( Romans 16:21 ) is probably the same person as Sopater of Berea. (A.D. 54.)
抹利 MAHALI
代表
出6:19 民3:20 代上23:21 代上6:47 代上23:23 代上24:30
ISBE
ma-ha-li.
See MAHLI.
HDBN
infirmity; a harp; pardon
SBD
(sick ), Mahli, the son of Merari. ( Exodus 6:19 )
抹比押 MAGPIASH
代表
尼10:20
ISBE
mag-pi-ash.
See MAGBISH.
SBD
(moth-killer ) one of the heads of the people who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. ( Nehemiah 10:20 ) The same as MAGBISH in ( Ezra 2:30 )
抹比拿 MACHBENAH
代表
代上2:48 代上2:49
HDBN
Machbanai
SBD
(bond ). Sheva, the father of Machbena, is named in the genealogical list of Judah as the offspring of Manchah, the concubine of Caleb ben-Hezron. ( 1 Chronicles 2:49 )
押卜 AZBUK
代表
尼3:16
ISBE
az-buk `azbuk: The father of a certain Nehemiah--not the great governor of the same name, though a contemporary (Neh 3:16).
SBD
(strong devastation ), father or ancestor of Nehemiah, the prince of part of Bethzur. ( Nehemiah 3:16 )
押墩 ARDON
代表
代上2:18
ISBE
ar-don (ardon, meaning unknown): One of the three sons of Caleb and Azubah, of the tribe of Judah (1 Ch 2:18).
Easton
descendant, the last of the three sons of Caleb by his first wife Azubah (1 Chr. 2:18).
HDBN
ruling; a judgment of malediction
SBD
(fugitive ) a Son of Caleb, the son of Hezron, by his wife Azubah. ( 1 Chronicles 2:18 )
押大 ABDA
代表
王上4:6 尼11:17
ISBE
ab-da (`abhda, perhaps, by abbreviation, "servant of Yahweh"): (1) The father of Adoniram, King Solomons superintendent of forced labor (1 Ki 4:6). (2) A Levite mentioned in the statistical note in Neh (11:17). This "Abda the son of Shammua" is in the partly duplicate passage in 1 Ch (9:16) called "Obadiah the son of Shemaiah."
Easton
servant. (1.) The father of Adoniram, whom Solomon set over the tribute (1 Kings 4:6); i.e., the forced labour (R.V., "levy"). (2.) A Levite of the family of Jeduthun (Neh. 11:17), also called Obadiah (1 Chr. 9:16).
HDBN
a servant; servitude
SBD
Father of Adoniram. ( 1 Kings 4:6 ) Son of Shammua, ( Nehemiah 11:17 ) called Obadiah in ( 1 Chronicles 9:16 )
押尼珥 ABNER
代表
撒上14:50 撒下3:20
ISBE
ab-ner (abhner; in 1 Sam 14:50 the Hebrew has the fuller form, abhiner, Abiner; compare Abiram by the side of Abram; meaning, "my father is a lamp"): Captain of the host under Saul and Ishbosheth (Eshbaal). He was Sauls cousin; Ner the father of Abner and Kish the father of Saul being brothers, the sons of Abiel (1 Sam 14:50 f). In 1 Ch 8:33; 9:39 the text appears to be faulty; read: And Ner begat Abner, and Kish begat Saul. According to 1 Ch 27:21 Abner had a son by the name of Jaasiel.
Abner was to Saul what Joab was to David. Despite the many wars waged by Saul, we hear little of Abner during Sauls lifetime. Not even in the account of the battle of Gilboa is mention made of him. Yet both his high office and his kinship to the king must have brought the two men in close contact. On festive occasions it was the custom of Abner to sit at table by the kings side (1 Sam 20:25). It was Abner who introduced the young David fresh from his triumph over Goliath to the kings court (so according to the account in 1 Sam 17:57). We find Abner accompanying the king in his pursuit of David (1 Sam 26:5 ff). Abner is rebuked by David for his negligence in keeping watch over his master (ibid., 15).
Upon the death of Saul, Abner took up the cause of the young heir to the throne, Ishbosheth, whom he forthwith removed from the neighborhood of David to Mahanaim in the East-Jordanic country. There he proclaimed him king over all Israel. By the pool of Gibeon he and his men met Joab and the servants of David. Twelve men on each side engaged in combat which ended disastrously for Abner who fled. He was pursued by Asahel, Joabs brother, whom Abner slew. Though Joab and his brother Abishai sought to avenge their brothers death on the spot, a truce was effected; Abner was permitted to go his way after three hundred and threescore of his men had fallen. Joab naturally watched his opportunity. Abner and his master soon had a quarrel over Sauls concubine, Rizpah, with whom Abner was intimate. It was certainly an act of treason which Ishbosheth was bound to resent. The disgruntled general made overtures to David; he won over the tribe of Benjamin. With twenty men of them he came to Hebron and arranged with the king of Judah that he would bring over to his side all Israel. He was scarcely gone when Joab learned of the affair; without the knowledge of David he recalled him to Hebron where he slew him, "for the blood of Asahel his brother." David mourned sincerely the death of Abner. "Know ye not," he addressed his servants, "that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel?" He followed the bier in person. Of the royal lament over Abner a fragment is quoted:
"Should Abner die as a fool dieth?
Thy hands were not bound, nor thy feet put into fetters:
As a man falleth before the children of iniquity, so didst thou fall."
(See 2 Sam 3:6-38.) The death of Abner, while it thus cannot in any wise be laid at the door of David, nevertheless served his purposes well. The backbone of the opposition to David was broken, and he was soon proclaimed as king by all Israel.
Max L. Margolis
Easton
father of light; i.e., "enlightening", the son of Ner and uncle of Saul. He was commander-in-chief of Saul's army (1 Sam. 14:50; 17:55; 20:25). He first introduced David to the court of Saul after the victory over Goliath (1 Sam. 17:57). After the death of Saul, David was made king over Judah, and reigned in Hebron. Among the other tribes there was a feeling of hostility to Judah; and Abner, at the head of Ephraim, fostered this hostility in the interest of the house of Saul, whose son Ish-bosheth he caused to be proclaimed king (2 Sam. 2:8). A state of war existed between these two kings. A battle fatal to Abner, who was the leader of Ish-boseth's army, was fought with David's army under Joab at Gibeon (2 Sam. 2:12). Abner, escaping from the field, was overtaken by Asahel, who was "light of foot as a wild roe," the brother of Joab and Abishai, whom he thrust through with a back stroke of his spear (2 Sam. 2: 18-32). Being rebuked by Ish-bosheth for the impropriety of taking to wife Rizpah, who had been a concubine of King Saul, he found an excuse for going over to the side of David, whom he now professed to regard as anointed by the Lord to reign over all Israel. David received him favourably, and promised that he would have command of the armies. At this time Joab was absent from Hebron, but on his return he found what had happened. Abner had just left the city; but Joab by a stratagem recalled him, and meeting him at the gate of the city on his return, thrust him through with his sword (2 Sam. 3:27, 31-39; 4:12. Comp. 1 Kings 2:5, 32). David lamented in pathetic words the death of Abner, "Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel?" (2 Sam. 3:33-38.)
HDBN
father of light
SBD
(father of light ). Son of Ner, who was the brother of Kish, ( 1 Chronicles 9:36 ) the father of Saul. (B.C. 1063.) Abner, therefore, was Sauls first cousin, and was made by him commander-in-chief of his army. ( 1 Samuel 14:51 ; 17:57 ; 26:5-14 ) After the death of Saul David was proclaimed king of Judah; and some time subsequently Abner proclaimed Ish-bosheth, Sauls son, king of Israel. War soon broke out between the two rival kings, and a "very sore battle" was fought at Gibeon between the men of Israel under Abner and the men of Judah under Joab. ( 1 Chronicles 2:16 ) Abner had married Rizpah, Sauls concubine, and this, according to the views of Oriental courts, might be so interpreted as to imply a design upon the throne. Rightly or wrongly, Ish-bosheth so understood it, and he even ventured to reproach Abner with it. Abner, incensed at his ingratitude, opened negotiations with David, by whom he was most favorably received at Hebron. He then undertook to procure his recognition throughout Israel; but after leaving his presence for the purpose was enticed back by Joab, and treacherously murdered by him and his brother Abishai, at the gate of the city, partly, no doubt, from fear lest so distinguished a convert to their cause should gain too high a place in Davids favor, but ostensibly in retaliation for the death of Asahel. David in sorrow and indignation, poured forth a simple dirge over the slain hero. ( 2 Samuel 3:33 2 Samuel 3:34 ) The father of Jaasiel, chief of the Benjamites in Davids reign, ( 1 Chronicles 27:21 ) probably the same as the preceding.
押底 ABDI
代表
拉10:26
ISBE
ab-di (`abhdi, probably by abbreviation "servant of Yahweh"): (1) A Levite, father of Kishi and grandfather of King Davids singer Ethan (1 Ch 6:44; compare 15:17). This makes Abdi a contemporary of Saul the king. (2) A Levite, father of the Kish who was in service at the beginning of the reign of Hezekiah (2 Ch 29:12). Some mistakenly identify this Abdi with the former. (3) A man who in Ezras time had married a foreign wife (Ezr 10:26). Not a Levite, but "of the sons of Elam."
Easton
my servant. (1.) 1 Chr. 6:44. (2.) 2 Chr. 29:12. (3.) Ezra 10:26.
HDBN
my servant
SBD
(my servant ). A Merarite, and ancestor of Ethan the singer. ( 1 Chronicles 6:44 ) (B.C. before 1015.) The father of Kish, a Merarite, in the reign of Hezekiah. ( 2 Chronicles 29:12 ) (B.C. before 736.) One of the Bene-Elam in the time of Ezra, who had married a foreign wife. ( Ezra 10:26 ) (B.C. 659.)
押德別 ADBEEL
代表
代上1:29 創25:13
ISBE
ad-be-el (adhbeel, "Gods discipline," possibly): The third of the twelve sons of Ishmael (Gen 25:13; 1 Ch 1:29). The name appears in the Assyrian records as that of a north Arabian tribe residing somewhere Southwest of the Dead Sea.
Easton
miracle of God, the third of the twelve sons of Ishmael, and head of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 25:13; 1 Chr. 1:29).
HDBN
vapor
押拿 ASNAH
代表
拉2:50
ISBE
as-na (acnah, "thornbush"): One of the Nethinim, who returned with Zerubbabel from the exile (Ezr 2:50).
SBD
(thorn-bush ). The children of Asnah were among the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel. ( Ezra 2:50 )


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary