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每日一詞 主題辭典 聖經人名 聖經地名 聖經英文

搜尋方式: 本搜尋引擎限搜尋一個字,採模糊比對。

目前本系統共收錄了 1,856 個聖經相關人名
以及 HDBN 包含了 2,616 個姓名的意義解釋。


中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
基母利 KEMUEL
代表
創22:21 民34:24 代上27:17
ISBE
kem-u-el, ke-mu-el (qemuel, "Gods mound"):
(1) Nephew of Abraham (Gen 22:21), father of Aram, whom Ewald identifies with Ram of Job 32:2; but compare Gen 10:22, where Aram is described as one of the children of Shem. They may not be the same person.
(2) Prince of Ephraim, one of the land commissioners who divided Canaan (Nu 34:24).
(3) A Levite, father of Hashabiah, one of the tribal princes of Davids time, a ruler among the Levites (1 Ch 27:17).
Easton
helper of God, or assembly of God. (1.) The third son of Nahor (Gen. 22:21). (2.) Son of Shiphtan, appointed on behalf of the tribe of Ephraim to partition the land of Canaan (Num. 34:24). (3.) A Levite (1 Chr. 27:17).
HDBN
God hath raised up
SBD
(congregation of God ). The son of Nahor by Milcah, and father of Aram. ( Genesis 22:21 ) (B.C. 1925.) The son of Shiptan, and prince of the tribe of Ephraim; one of the twelve men appointed by Moses to divide the land of Canaan. ( Numbers 34:24 ) A Levite, father of Hashabiah, prince of the tribe in the reign of David. ( 1 Chronicles 27:17 ) (B.C. 1014.)
基比亞 GIBEA
代表
代上2:48 代上2:49
ISBE
gib-e-a (gibh`a, "hill"): A grandson of Caleb (1 Ch 2:49). His father was Sheva, whose mother was Maacah, Calebs concubine (1 Ch 2:48).
基洗亞 KEZIA
代表
伯42:14 伯42:15
Easton
cassia, the name of Job's second daughter (42:14), born after prosperity had returned to him.
HDBN
superficies; the angle; cassia
SBD
(cassia ), the second of the daughters of Job born to him after his recovery. ( Job 42:14 ) (B.C. 1950.)
基珊 GESHAM
代表
代上2:47 代上12:3
SBD
(filthy ) (sometimes written GESHAN), one of the sons of Judah, in the genealogy of Judah and family of Caleb. ( 1 Chronicles 2:47 )
基瑪利 GEMALLI
代表
民13:12
ISBE
ge-mal-i (gemalli, "camel owner"): Father of the spy Ammiel from the tribe of Dan (Nu 13:12), who was one of those sent by Moses to spy out the land of Canaan.
HDBN
wares; a camel
SBD
(camel-driver ), the father of Ammiel, the Danite spy. ( Numbers 13:12 ) (B.C. 1490.)
基瑪利雅 GEMARIAH
代表
耶36:10 耶36:11 耶36:12 耶36:25 民13:12 耶29:3
ISBE
gem-a-ri-a (gemaryahu, gemaryah, "Yahweh hath accomplished"):
(1) Son of Shaphan the scribe, one of the princes, from whose chamber Baruch read Jeremiahs prophecies to the people. He, with others, sought to stay Jehoiakim from burning the roll (Jer 36:10,11,12,25).
(2) Son of Hilkiah, one of Zedekiahs ambassadors to Babylon, by whom Jeremiah sent his letter to the captives (Jer 29:3).
Easton
Jehovah has made perfect. (1.) The son of Shaphan, and one of the Levites of the temple in the time of Jehoiakim (Jer. 36:10; 2 Kings 22:12). Baruch read aloud to the people from Gemariah's chamber, and again in the hearing of Gemariah and other scribes, the prophecies of Jeremiah (Jer. 36:11-20), which filled him with terror. He joined with others in entreating the king not to destroy the roll of the prophecies which Baruch had read (21-25). (2.) The son of Hilkiah, who accompanied Shaphan with the tribute-money from Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar, and was the bearer at the same time of a letter from Jeremiah to the Jewish captives at Babylon (Jer. 29:3, 4).
HDBN
accomplishment or perfection of the Lord
SBD
(perfected by Jehovah ). Son of Shaphan the scribe, and father of Michaiah. He was one of the nobles of Judah, and had a chamber int he house of the Lord, from which Baruch read Jeremiahs alarming prophecy in the ears of all the people, B.C. 606. ( Jeremiah 36:1 ) ... Son of Hilkiah, was made the bearer of Jeremiahs letter to the captive Jews. ( Jeremiah 29:3 ) (B.C. 594.)
基示 KISHI
代表
代上6:44 代上15:17
ISBE
kishi (qishi, "snarer," "fowler"): Father of Ethan, one of the singers David "set over the service of song" in the house of the Lord (1 Ch 6:31); the "Kushaiah" of 1 Ch 15:17 (compare 1 Ch 6:44).
HDBN
hardness; his gravity; his offense
SBD
(bow of Jehovah ), a Merarite, and father of ancestor of Ethan the minstrel. ( 1 Chronicles 6:44 )
基納 GINATH
代表
王上16:21 王上16:22
ISBE
gi-nath (ginath): Father of Tibni, the unsuccessful rival of Omri (1 Ki 16:21,22).
HDBN
Ginnetho
SBD
(protection ), father of Tibni. ( 1 Kings 16:21 1 Kings 16:22 )
基納斯 KENAZ
代表
創36:11 創36:15 創36:42 代上1:36 代上1:53 書15:17 士1:13 士3:9 士3:11 代上4:13 代上4:15
Easton
hunter. (1.) One of the sons of Eliphaz, the son of Esau. He became the chief of an Edomitish tribe (Gen. 36:11, 15, 42). (2.) Caleb's younger brother, and father of Othniel (Josh. 15:17), whose family was of importance in Israel down to the time of David (1 Chr. 27:15). Some think that Othniel (Judg. 1:13), and not Kenaz, was Caleb's brother. (3.) Caleb's grandson (1 Chr. 4:15).
HDBN
this purchase; this lamentation
SBD
(hunting ). Son of Eliphaz the son of Esau. He was one of the dukes of Edom. ( Genesis 36:15 Genesis 36:42 ; 1 Chronicles 1:53 ) One of the same family, a grandson of Caleb, according to ( 1 Chronicles 4:15 ) (where see margin).
基綠 KEROS
代表
拉2:44 尼7:47
ISBE
ke-ros (qeroc, "fortress"(?)): One of the Nethinim (Ezr 2:44; Neh 7:47), an order appointed to the liturgical offices of the temple.
See NETHINIM.
HDBN
crooked; crookedness
SBD
(curved ), one of the Nethinim, whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. ( Ezra 2:44 ; Nehemiah 7:47 )
基綠 CHELUB
代表
代上4:11 代上27:26
ISBE
ke-lub:
(1) kelubh, father of Mehir (1 Ch 4:11); the name is probably a variation of Caleb. Wellhausen (De gentibus et familiis Judaeis) reads kalebh ben chezron].
(2) Father of Ezri (1 Ch 27:26), one of the officers of David.
See GENEALOGY.
HDBN
a basket
SBD
A man among the descendants of Judah. Ezri the son of Chelub, one of Davids officers. ( 1 Chronicles 27:26 )
基薛 CHESED
代表
創22:22 創22:23
ISBE
ke-sed, kes-ed (kasdim; Chaszad): One of the sons of Nahor and Milcah (Gen 22:22); was probably the father of the Casdim. The early Babylonian form Kasdu appears in Assyrian as Kaldu or Kaldu. English Versions of the Bible follows the Assyrian and Greek style of writing the name and uses Chaldees or Chaldeans instead of Casdim. The Chaldeans dwelt in the lower valley of the Euphrates, at the head of the Persian Gulf. Abram came from Ur of the Chaldees (Gen 11:28,31; 15:7; Neh 9:7). In Job 1:17 the Casdim are described as invading the land of Uz, the eldest brother of Chesed (Gen 22:21,22). In the days of Nebuchadrezzar the Casdim overran Syria and Israel and carried the people of Judah in successive deportations into captivity (2 Ki 24:1 f,10 ff; 25:1 ff). In Dan 2:2,5 the Casdim are named with the magicians and astrologers as a learned class, skilled in interpretations. Casdim is sometimes used in Hebrew for the land of Chaldea (Ezek 23:15 f; 11:24).
John Richard Sampey
Easton
gain, the son of Nahor (Gen. 22:22).
HDBN
as a devil
SBD
(increase ), fourth son of Nahor. ( Genesis 22:22 )
基蘭 CHERAN
代表
創36:26 代上7:37
ISBE
ke-ran (keran): A Horite clan-name, occurring in the genealogy of Seir, the Horite (Gen 36:26), and in the parallel list in 1 Ch 1:41. Dillmann derives it from kar, "a lamb."
HDBN
anger
SBD
(lyre ), one of the sons of Dishon the Horite "duke." ( Genesis 36:26 ; 1 Chronicles 1:41 )
基路拜 CHELUBAI
代表
代上2:9 代上2:42
ISBE
ke-loo-bi (kelubhay): Another form of Caleb used in 1 Ch 2:9; compare 2:18,42. Caleb is here described as the brother of Jerahmeel, and son of Hezron, a remote ancestor, instead of as the son of Jephunneh.
See CALEB.
HDBN
he altogether against me
SBD
(capable ), the son of Hezron. Same as Caleb. ( 1 Chronicles 2:9 1 Chronicles 2:18 1 Chronicles 2:42 )
基連 CHILION
代表
得1:2 得4:9 得4:10
ISBE
kil-i-on (kilyon, "pining," "wasting away"): One of the two sons of Elimelech and Naomi, "Mahlon and Chilion, Ephrathites of Bethlehem-judah" (Ruth 1:2). With his mother and brother he came into Moab and there both married Moabite women, Orpah being the name of Chilions wife and Ruth that of the wife of Mahlon (4:9,10). Both died early and Orpah remained in Moab while Ruth accompanied Naomi back to Bethlehem. When Boaz married Ruth he "bought all that was Elimelechs, and all that was Chilions, and Mahlons, of the hand of Naomi" (4:9).
W. L. Walker
Easton
the pining one, the younger son of Elimelech and Naomi, and husband of Orpah, Ruth's sister (Ruth 1:2; 4:9).
HDBN
finished; complete; perfect
基連哈樸 KEREN-HAPPUCH
代表
伯42:14 伯42:15
ISBE
ker-en-hap-uk, ke-ren-hap-uk (qeren happukh, "horn of antimony," i.e. beautifier; Septuagint Amaltheias keras): The 3rd daughter of Job (Job 42:14), born after his restoration from affliction. Antimony, producing a brilliant black, was used among the Orientals for coloring the edges of the eyelids, making the eyes large and lustrous?Hence, the suggestiveness of this name of an article of the ladies toilet, a little horn or receptacle for the eye-paint.
Easton
horn of the face-paint = cosmetic-box, the name of Job's third daughter (Job. 42:14), born after prosperity had returned to him.
HDBN
the horn or child of beauty
SBD
(the horn of beauty ), the youngest of the daughters of Job, born to him during the period of his reviving prosperity. ( Job 42:14 )
基達 KEDAR
代表
創25:13 代上1:29
ISBE
ke-dar (qedhar; Kedar): Second in order of the sons of Ishmael (Gen 25:13 parallel 1 Ch 1:29). The name occurs as typical of a distant eastern country in opposition to the lands of the Mediterranean (Jer 2:10). The author of Second Isa introduces this tribe in company with Nebaioth, and both are represented as owners of flocks (Isa 60:7). Evidence of their nomadic habits appears in Jer 49:28,29, where they are classed among the Bene-Qedhem, and mention is made of their flocks, camels, tents, curtains and furniture. They are spoken of (Isa 42:11) as dwelling in chatserim ("villages"), from which it would appear that they were a somewhat settled tribe, corresponding to the Arabic chadariya or "town-dwellers," as distinct from wabariya or "nomads." Ezekiel (27:21) gives another hint of their pastoral nature where, in his detailed picture of the wealth of Tyre, Kedar and Arabia provide the Tyrians with lambs, rams and goats. The fame of the tribe is further reflected in Isa 21:16,17 (the only allusion to their might in war), and in the figurative references to their tents (Ps 120:5; Song 1:5). In this last passage where the tents are made symbolic of dark beauty, the word qadhar ("to be black") may have been in the writers mind.
The settlements of Kedar were probably in the Northwest of Arabia, not far from the borders of Israel. Assyrian inscriptions have thrown light upon the history of the tribe. There Kedar is mentioned along with the Arabs and Nebaioth, which decides its identity with Kedar of the Old Testament, and there is found also an account of the conflicts between the tribe and King Assurbanipal (see Margoliouth in HDB).
Of the Ishmaelite tribes, Kedar must have been one of the most important, and thus in later times the name came to be applied to all the wild tribes of the desert. It is through Kedar (Arabic, keidar) that Muslim genealogists trace the descent of Mohammed from Ishmael.
A. S. Fulton
Easton
dark-skinned, the second son of Ishmael (Gen. 25:13). It is the name for the nomadic tribes of Arabs, the Bedouins generally (Isa. 21:16; 42:11; 60:7; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:21), who dwelt in the north-west of Arabia. They lived in black hair-tents (Cant. 1:5). To "dwell in the tents of Kedar" was to be cut off from the worship of the true God (Ps. 120:5). The Kedarites suffered at the hands of Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 49:28, 29).
HDBN
blackness; sorrow
SBD
(dark-skinned ), the second in order of the sons of Ishmael, ( Genesis 25:13 ; 1 Chronicles 1:29 ) and the name of a great tribe of Arabs settled on the northwest of the peninsula and on the confines of Palestine. The "glory of Kedar" is recorded by the prophet Isaiah, ( Isaiah 21:13-17 ) in the burden upon Arabia; and its importance may also be inferred from the "princes of Kedar" mentioned by Ezekiel, ( Ezekiel 27:21 ) as well as the pastoral character of the tribe. They appear also to have been, like the wandering tribes of the present day, "archers" and "mighty men." ( Isaiah 21:17 ) comp. Psal 120:5 That they also settled in villages or towns we find from Isaiah. ( Isaiah 42:11 ) The tribe seems to have been one of the most conspicuous of all the Ishmaelite tribes, and hence the rabbins call the Arabians universally by this name.
塞特 SETH
代表
創4:25 創4:26 創5:3 創5:4 代上1:1 路3:38
Easton
appointed; a substitute, the third son of Adam and Eve (Gen. 4:25; 5:3). His mother gave him this name, "for God," said she, "hath appointed me [i.e., compensated me with] another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew."
HDBN
put; who puts; fixed
SBD
(compensation ), ( Genesis 4:25 ; 6:3 ; 1 Chronicles 1:1 ) the third son of Adam, and father of Enos. (B.C. 3870.) Adam handed down to Seth and his descendants the promise of mercy, faith in which became the distinction of Gods children. ( Genesis 4:26 )
壁該 BILGAI
代表
尼10:8
士基瓦 SCEVA
代表
徒19:14 徒1319:15徒 19:16 徒19:17 羅16:9
ISBE
se-va (Skeua): A Jew, a chief priest, resident in Ephesus, whose seven sons were exorcists (Acts 19:14 ff). Ewald regards the name as being Hebrew shekhabhyah. He was not an officiating priest, as there were only synagogues in Asia Minor. He may have belonged to a high-priestly family, or perhaps at one time he had been at the head of one of the 24 courses in the temple.
In the narrative the construction is loose. There were seven sons (Acts 19:14), and it would appear (Acts 19:16) that in this particular case all were present. But (Acts 19:16) the demon-possessed man over-powered "both of them." Textus Receptus of the New Testament gets over the difficulty by omitting "both," but Codices Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, Bezae, so Tischendorf, Westcott and Hort, von Soden, and the best critics, retain the difficult reading. The explanation is that Acts 19:14 states the custom: "who did this" being hoi touto poiountes, "who used to do this." Acts 19:15 and 16 state a particular case in which two took part, but the incident is introduced in a careless manner.
Ewald would translate amphoteron as "in both sides," but this is impossible. Baur understood "disciples" for "sons." Codex Bezae and Syriac have an interesting expansion which Blass considers original (Acts 19:14): "Among whom also the sons (Syriac `seven) of a certain Sceva, a priest, wished to do the same, (who) were in the custom of exorcising such. And entering into the demon-possessed man they began to call upon the Name, saying, `We charge you by Jesus whom Paul preaches to come out. "
S. F. Hunter
Easton
an implement, a Jew, chief of the priests at Ephesus (Acts 19:13-16); i.e., the head of one of the twenty-four courses of the house of Levi. He had seven sons, who "took upon them to call over them which had evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus," in imitation of Paul. They tried their method of exorcism on a fierce demoniac, and failed. His answer to them was to this effect (19:15): "The Jesus whom you invoke is One whose authority I acknowledge; and the Paul whom you name I recognize to be a servant or messenger of God; but what sort of men are ye who have been empowered to act as you do by neither?" (Lindsay on the Acts of the Apostles.)
HDBN
disposed; prepared
SBD
a Jew residing at Ephesus at the time of St. Pauls second visit to that town. ( Acts 19:14-16 ) (A.D. 52.)
士求保羅 SERGIUS PAULU
代表
徒13:7 徒13:8 徒13:9 徒13:10 徒13:11 徒13:12
士門 SHIMON
代表
代上4:20
ISBE
shi-mon (shimon; Codex Vaticanus Semion, Codex Alexandrinus Semeion; Lucian, Sami): A name in the Judahite genealogy (1 Ch 4:20).
HDBN
providing well; fatness; oil
SBD
(desert ). The four sons of Shimon are enumerated in an obscure genealogy of the tribe of Judah. ( 1 Chronicles 4:20 )
夏娃 EVE
代表
創3:1 創3:2 創3:3 創3:4 創3:5 創3:6 創3:7 創3:8 創3:9 創3:10 創3:11 創3:12 創3:13 創3:14 創3:15 創3:16 創3:17 創3:18 創3:19 創3:20 創3:21 創3:22 創3:23 創3:24 提前2:13 林後11:3
Easton
life; living, the name given by Adam to his wife (Gen. 3:20; 4:1). The account of her creation is given in Gen. 2:21, 22. The Creator, by declaring that it was not good for man to be alone, and by creating for him a suitable companion, gave sanction to monogamy. The commentator Matthew Henry says: "This companion was taken from his side to signify that she was to be dear unto him as his own flesh. Not from his head, lest she should rule over him; nor from his feet, lest he should tyrannize over her; but from his side, to denote that species of equality which is to subsist in the marriage state." And again, "That wife that is of God's making by special grace, and of God's bringing by special providence, is likely to prove a helpmeet to her husband." Through the subtle temptation of the serpent she violated the commandment of God by taking of the forbidden fruit, which she gave also unto her husband (1 Tim. 2:13-15; 2 Cor. 11:3). When she gave birth to her first son, she said, "I have gotten a man from the Lord" (R.V., "I have gotten a man with the help of the Lord," Gen. 4:1). Thus she welcomed Cain, as some think, as if he had been the Promised One the "Seed of the woman."
HDBN
living; enlivening
SBD
(life ), the name given in Scripture to the first woman. The account of Eves creation is found at ( Genesis 2:21 Genesis 2:22 ) Perhaps that which we are chiefly intended to learn from the narrative is the foundation upon which the union between man and wife is built, viz., identity of nature and oneness of origin. Through the subtlety of the serpent Eve was beguiled into a violation of the one commandment which had been imposed upon her and Adam. The Scripture account of Eve closes with the birth of Seth.
夏甲 HAGAR
代表
創16:1 創16:2 創16:3 創16:4 創16:5 創16:6 創16:7 創16:8 創16:9 創16:10 創16:11 創16:12 創16:13 創16:14 創16:15 創16:16
ISBE
ha-gar (haghar, "emigration," "flight"; Hagar, Agar): An Egyptian woman, the handmaid or slave of Sarai; a present, perhaps, from Pharaoh when Abram dissembled to him in Egypt (Gen 12:16). Mention is made of her in two passages (Gen 16; 21:8-21).
1. The Scornful Handmaid and Her Flight:
In the first narrative (Gen 16) it is related that Sarai, despairing at her age of having children, gave Hagar to Abram as a concubine. As Hagar was not an ordinary household slave but the peculiar property of her mistress (compare Gen 29:24,29), any offspring which she might bear to Abram would be reckoned as Sarais (compare Gen 30:3-9). In the prospect of becoming a mother, Hagar, forgetting her position, seems to have assumed an insolent bearing toward her childless mistress. Sarai felt keenly the contempt shown her by her handmaid, and in angry tones brought her conduct before Abram. Now that her plan was not working out smoothly, she unfairly blamed her husband for what originated with herself, and appealed to Heaven to redress her grievance. Abram refused to interfere in the domestic quarrel, and renouncing his rights over his concubine, and her claims on him, put her entirely at Sarais disposal. Under the harsh treatment of her mistress Hagars life became intolerable, and she fled into the wilderness, turning her steps naturally toward Egypt, her native land.
2. Her Vision and Return:
But the angel of Yahweh (who is here introduced for the first time as the medium of theophany) appeared to her as she was resting by a spring and commanded her to return and submit herself to her mistress, promising her an innumerable seed through her unborn son, concerning whom he uttered a striking prediction (see ISHMAEL). To the angel (who is now said to be Yahweh Himself) Hagar gave the name "Thou art a God of seeing" (the Revised Version (British and American) "that seeth"), for she said, "Have I even here (in the desert where God, whose manifestations were supposed to be confined to particular places, might not be expected to reveal Himself) looked after him that seeth me?"--the meaning being that while God saw her, it was only while the all-seeing God in the person of His angel was departing that she became conscious of His presence. The spring where the angel met with her was called in Hebrew tradition Beer-lachay-roi, "the well of the living one who seeth me" (Revised Version, margin).
Obedient to the heavenly vision Hagar returned, as the narrative implies, to her mistress and gave birth to Ishmael, Abram being then eighty-six years old.
The idea in 30:13 is not very clearly expressed. The word translated "here" generally means "hither," and there is no explanation of the "living one" in the name of the well. It has therefore been proposed to emend the Hebrew text and read "Have I even seen God, and lived after my seeing?"--an allusion to the belief that no one could "see God and live" (compare Gen 32:30; Ex 33:20). But there are difficulties in the way of accepting this emendation. The name of God, "a God of seeing," would require to be interpreted in an objective sense as "a God who is seen," and the consequent name of the well, "He that seeth me liveth," would make God, not Hagar, as in 30:13, the speaker.
3. Her Harsh Expulsion and Divine Help:
The other narrative (Gen 21:8-21) relates what occurred in connection with the weaning of Isaac. The presence and conduct of Ishmael during the family feast held on the occasion roused the anger and jealousy of Sarah who, fearing that Ishmael would share the inheritance with Isaac, peremptorily demanded the expulsion of the slave-mother and her son. But the instincts of Abrahams fatherly heart recoiled from such a cruel course, and it was only after the revelation was made to him that the ejection of Hagar and her son would be in the line of the Divine purpose--for Isaac was his real seed, while Ishmael would be made a nation too--that he was led to forego his natural feelings and accede to Sarahs demand. So next morning the bondwoman and her son were sent forth with the bare provision of bread and a skin of water into the wilderness of Beersheba. When the water was spent, Hagar, unable to bear the sight of her boy dying from thirst, laid him under a shrub and withdrew the distance of a bowshot to weep out her sorrow. But the angel of God, calling to her out of heaven, comforted her with the assurance that God had heard the voice of the lad and that there was a great future before him. Then her eyes were opened to discover a well of water from which she filled the skin and gave her son to drink. With Gods blessing the lad grew up amid the deserts hardships, distinguished for his skill with the bow. He made his home in the wilderness of Paran, and his mother took a wife for him out of her own country.
4. Practical Lessons from the History:
The life and experience of Hagar teach, among other truths, the temptations incident to a new position; the foolishness of hasty action in times of trial and difficulty; the care exercised over the lonely by the all-seeing God; the Divine purpose in the life of everyone, however obscure and friendless; how God works out His gracious purposes by seemingly harsh methods; and the strength, comfort and encouragement that ever accompany the hardest experiences of His children.
5. Critical Points in the Documents:
Genesis 16 belongs to the Jahwist, J, (except 16:1a,3,15 f which are from P), and 21:8-21 to East. From the nature of the variations in the narratives many critics hold that we have here two different accounts of the same incident. But the narratives as they stand seem to be quite distinct, the one referring to Hagars flight before the birth of Ishmael, and the other to her expulsion at the weaning of Isaac. It is said, however, that Elohist (E) represents Ishmael as a child "playing" (The Revised Veersion, margin, Septuagint paizonta) with Isaac at the weaning festival, and young enough to be carried by his mother and "cast" under a shrub; while according to the Priestly Code, the Priestly Code (P), (Gen 16:16; 21:5), as a child was weaned at the age of two or three years, he would be a lad of sixteen at that time. The argument for the double narrative here does not seem conclusive. The word metsacheq (16:9) does not necessarily mean "playing" when used absolutely; it is so used in Gen 19:14, evidently in the sense of "mocking" or "jesting," and Delitzsch gives it that meaning there. Then as to 19:14, the Massoretic Text does not state that the child was put on her shoulder, although the Septuagint does; nor does "cast" (19:15) so "clearly imply" that Ishmael was an infant carried by his mother (compare Mt 15:30). It may be added that the words yeledh and na`ar, translated "child" and "lad" respectively, determine nothing as to age, as they are each used elsewhere in both senses.
6. Allegorical Use of the Story by Paul:
In Gal 4:21 ff Paul makes an allegorical use of this episode in the history of Ishmael and Isaac to support his argument for the transitory character of the Jewish ritual and the final triumph of Christian freedom over all Judaizing tendencies. In elaborating his reference, the apostle institutes a series of contrasts. Hagar, the bondwoman, represents the old covenant which was given from Mt. Sinai; and as Ishmael was Abrahams son after the flesh, so the Judaizing Christians, who wish to remain in bondage to the law, are Hagars children. On the other hand, Sarah, the freewoman, represents the new covenant instituted by Christ; and as Isaac was born to Abraham in virtue of the promise, so the Christians who have freed themselves entirely from the law of carnal ordinances and live by faith are Sarahs children. Thus Hagar corresponds to "the Jerusalem that now is," that is, the Jewish state which is in spiritual bondage with her children; while Sarah represents "the Jerusalem that is above," "our mother" (Revised Version (British and American)), the mother of us Christians, that free spiritual city to which Christians even now belong (Phil 3:20). By this allegory the apostle would warn the Galatian Christians of the danger which beset them from their Judaizing brethren, of their subjection to the covenant of works and their ultimate expulsion from the household of faith.
To us Pauls reference does not appeal with the same force as it would do to those to whom he was writing. The incident taken by itself, indeed, does not contain any suggestion of such a hidden meaning. Yet the history of the Hebrew nation is but typical of the history of the church in all ages, and the apostles familiarity with rabbinical modes of interpretation may have led him to adopt this method of confirming the truth which he had already proved from the law itself.
For a discussion of the text and interpretation of Gal 4:25a, "Now this Hagar is mount Sinai in Arabia," and an account of Philos allegory of Hagar and Sarah, see Lightfoots notes at the end of chapter iv in his Commentary on Gal.
James Crichton
Easton
flight, or, according to others, stranger, an Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid (Gen. 16:1; 21:9, 10), whom she gave to Abraham (q.v.) as a secondary wife (16:2). When she was about to become a mother she fled from the cruelty of her mistress, intending apparently to return to her relatives in Egypt, through the desert of Shur, which lay between. Wearied and worn she had reached the place she distinguished by the name of Beer-lahai-roi ("the well of the visible God"), where the angel of the Lord appeared to her. In obedience to the heavenly visitor she returned to the tent of Abraham, where her son Ishmael was born, and where she remained (16) till after the birth of Isaac, the space of fourteen years. Sarah after this began to vent her dissatisfaction both on Hagar and her child. Ishmael's conduct was insulting to Sarah, and she insisted that he and his mother should be dismissed. This was accordingly done, although with reluctance on the part of Abraham (Gen. 21:14). They wandered out into the wilderness, where Ishmael, exhausted with his journey and faint from thirst, seemed about to die. Hagar "lifted up her voice and wept," and the angel of the Lord, as before, appeared unto her, and she was comforted and delivered out of her distresses (Gen. 21:18, 19). Ishmael afterwards established himself in the wilderness of Paran, where he married an Egyptian (Gen. 21:20,21). "Hagar" allegorically represents the Jewish church (Gal. 4:24), in bondage to the ceremonial law; while "Sarah" represents the Christian church, which is free.
HDBN
a stranger; one that fears
SBD
(flight ), an Egyptian woman, the handmaid or slave of Sarah, ( Genesis 16:1 ) whom the latter gave as a concubine to Abraham, after he had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan and had no children by Sarah. ch ( Genesis 16:2 Genesis 16:3 ) (B.C. 1912.) When Hagar saw that she had conceived, "her mistress was despised in her eyes," v. 4, and Sarah, with the anger, we may suppose, of a free woman rather than of a wife, reproached Abraham for the results of her own act. Hagar fled, turning her steps toward her native land through the great wilderness traversed by the Egyptian road. By the fountain in the way to Shur the angel of the Lord found her, charged her to return and submit herself under the hands of her mistress, and delivered the remarkable prophecy respecting her unborn child recorded in vs. 10-12. On her return she gave birth to Ishmael, and Abraham was then eighty-six years old. When Ishmael was about sixteen years old, he was caught by Sarah making sport of her young son Isaac at the festival of his weaning, and Sarah demanded the expulsion of Hagar and her son. She again fled toward Egypt, and when in despair at the want of water, an angel again appeared to her, pointed out a fountain close by, and renewed the former promises to her. ( Genesis 21:9-21 ) St. Paul, ( Galatians 4:25 ) refers to her as the type of the old covenant of the law.
多加 DORCAS
代表
徒9:36 徒9:37 徒9:38 徒9:39 徒9:40 徒9:41 徒9:42
ISBE
dor-kas (Dorkas, the Greek equivalent of Aramaic tabitha, "a gazelle"): The name was borne by a Christian woman of Joppa. She is called a disciple (mathetria: Acts 9:36, the only place in the New Testament where the feminine form is used). She seems to have had some means and also to have been a leader in the Christian community. Dorcas was beloved for the manner in which she used her position and means, for she "was full of good works, and almsdeeds which she did." Among her charities was the clothing of the poor with garments she herself made (Acts 9:39), and by following her example, numerous "Dorcas societies" in the Christian church perpetuate her memory. There is a local memorial in the "Tabitha School" in Jaffa devoted to the care and education of poor girls.
Her restoration to life by Peter is recorded. At the time of her death Peter was in Lydda where he had healed Aeneas. Being sent for, he went to Joppa, and, by the exercise of the supernatural powers granted to him, "he presented her alive" to the mourning community. In consequence of this miracle "many believed on the Lord" (Acts 9:42).
S. F. Hunter
Easton
a female antelope, or gazelle, a pious Christian widow at Joppa whom Peter restored to life (Acts 9:36-41). She was a Hellenistic Jewess, called Tabitha by the Jews and Dorcas by the Greeks.
HDBN
a female roe-deer
SBD
(gazelle ). [TABITHA]


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary