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每日一詞 主題辭典 聖經人名 聖經地名 聖經英文

搜尋方式: 本搜尋引擎限搜尋一個字,採模糊比對。

目前本系統共收錄了 1,856 個聖經相關人名
以及 HDBN 包含了 2,616 個姓名的意義解釋。


中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
伊施瑪 ISHMA
代表
代上4:3
ISBE
ish-ma (yishma, from the root yasham, "to lie waste," therefore meaning "desolate"): A brother of Jezreel and Idbash, "the sons of the father of Etam" (1 Ch 4:3). They were brothers of Hazzelelponi.
HDBN
named; marveling; desolation
SBD
(desolation ), a name in the genealogy of Judah. ( 1 Chronicles 4:3 )
伊施米萊 ISHMERAI
代表
代上8:18
ISBE
ish-me-ri (yishmeray, from shamar, meaning "to hedge about," i.e. "to guard," and therefore a "guard," "protector"): A descendant of Benjamin, son of Epaal, resident of Jerusalem, one of the "heads of fathers houses throughout their generations, chief men" (1 Ch 8:18).
HDBN
keeper
伊施荷 ISHOD
代表
代上7:18
ISBE
i-shod, ish-od (`ishehodh): the King James Version 1 Ch 7:18 for ISHHOD (which see).
HDBN
a comely man
SBD
(man of glory ), one of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of Jordan, son of Hammoleketh. ( 1 Chronicles 7:18 ) (B.C. 1491.)
伊是班 ESHBAN
代表
創36:26 代上1:41
ISBE
esh-ban (eshban; perhaps "thoughtful," "intelligent"; Asban): Name of a chief of the Horites (Gen 36:26; 1 Ch 1:41).
SBD
(wise man ), a Horite; one of the four sons of Dishon. ( Genesis 36:26 ; 1 Chronicles 1:41 )
伊比尼雅 IBNEJAH
代表
代上9:8
伊洗利 IZRI
代表
代上25:3 代上25:4 代上25:5 代上25:6 代上25:7 代上25:8 代上25:9 代上25:10 代上25:11 代上25:12 代上25:13
ISBE
iz-ri (yitsri, "creator," "former"): A man of the "sons of Jeduthun," leader of the fourth band of musicians, who served in the sanctuary (1 Ch 25:11). Identical with Zeri (25:3).
HDBN
fasting; tribulation
SBD
(creator ), a Levite leader of the fourth course or ward in the service of the house of God. ( 1 Chronicles 25:11 ) In ver. 3 he is called ZERI. (B.C. 1014.)
伊特尼 ETHNI
代表
代上6:41
ISBE
eth-ni (ethni, "gift"): An ancestor of Asaph, of the Gershom branch of the Levites (1 Ch 6:41).
HDBN
strong
SBD
(munificent ), a Gershonite Levite. ( 1 Chronicles 6:41 )
伊特瑪 ITHMAH
代表
代上11:46
ISBE
ith-ma (yithmah, "purity"): A citizen of the country of the Moabites, Davids deadly enemies, yet mentioned as one of the kings heroes (1 Ch 11:46).
HDBN
an orphan
SBD
(bereavedness ), a Moabite, one of the heroes of Davids guard. ( 1 Chronicles 11:46 )
伊甸 EDEN
代表
代下29:12 代下31:15
ISBE
e-d-n (`edhen, "delight"; Edem):
(1) The land in which "Yahweh God planted a garden," where upon his creation "he put the man whom he had formed" (Gen 2:8). In the Assyrian inscriptions idinu (Accadian, edin) means "plain" and it is from this that the Biblical word is probably derived. Following are the references to Eden in the Bible, aside from those in Gen 2 and 3: Gen 4:16; Isa 51:3; Ezek 28:13; 31:9,16,18; 36:35; Joel 2:3. The Garden of Eden is said to be "eastward, in Eden" Gen (2:8); where the vegetation was luxurious (2:9) and the fig tree indigenous (3:7), and where it was watered by irrigation. All kinds of animals, including cattle, beasts of the field and birds, were found there (2:19,20). Moreover, the climate was such that clothing was not needed for warmth. It is not surprising, therefore, that the plural of the word has the meaning "delights," and that Eden has been supposed to mean the land of delights, and that the word became a synonym for Paradise.
The location of Eden is in part to be determined from the description already given. It must be where there is a climate adapted to the production of fruit trees and of animals capable of domestication, and in general to the existence of man in his primitive condition. In particular, its location is supposed to be determined by the statements regarding the rivers coursing through it and surrounding it. There is a river (nahar) (Gen 2:10) which was parted and became four heads (roshim), a word which (Jdg 8:16; Job 1:17) designates main detachments into which an army is divided, and therefore would more properly signify branches than heads, permitting Josephus and others to interpret the river as referring to the ocean, which by the Greeks was spoken of as the river (okeanos) surrounding the world. According to Josephus, the Ganges, the Tigris, the Euphrates and the Nile are the four rivers, being but branches of this one river. Moreover, it is contended by some, with much show of reason, that the word perath translated Euphrates is a more general term, signifying "the broad" or "deep" river, and so may here refer to some other stream than the Euphrates, possibly to a river in some other region whose name is perpetuated in the present Euphrates, as "the Thames" of New England perpetuates the memory of the Thames of Old England. In ancient times there was a river Phrath in Persia, and perhaps two. It is doubtful whether the phrase "eastward, in Eden" refers to the position with reference to the writer or simply with reference to Eden itself. So far as that phrase is concerned, therefore, speculation is left free to range over the whole earth, and this it has done.
1. Central Asia:
Columbus when passing the mouth of the Orinoco surmised that its waters came down from the Garden of Eden. It is fair to say, however, that he supposed himself to be upon the East coast of Asia. The traditions of its location somewhere in Central Asia are numerous and persistent. Naturalists have, with Quatrefages, pretty generally fixed upon the portion of Central Asia stretching East from the Pamir, often referred to as the roof of the world, and from which flow four great rivers--the Indus, the Tarim, the Sur Daria (Jaxartes), and the Ainu Daria (Oxus)--as the original cradle of mankind. This conclusion has been arrived at from the fact that at the present time the three fundamental types of the races of mankind are grouped about this region. The Negro races are, indeed, in general far removed from the location, but still fragments of them both pure and mixed are found in various localities both in the interior and on the seashore and adjacent islands where they would naturally radiate from this center, while the yellow and the white races here meet at the present time in close contact. In the words of Quatrefages, "No other region of the globe presents a similar union of extreme human types distributed round a common center" (The Human Species, 176).
Philology, also, points to this same conclusion. On the East are the monosyllabic languages, on the North the polysyllabic or agglutinative languages, and on the West and South the inflectional or Aryan languages, of which the Sanskrit is an example, being closely allied to nearly all the languages of Europe. Moreover, it is to this center that we trace the origin of nearly all our domesticated plants and animals. Naturally, therefore, the same high authority writes, "There we are inclined to say the first human beings appeared and multiplied till the populations overflowed as from a bowl and spread themselves in waves in every direction" (ibid., 177). With this conclusion, as already said, a large number of most eminent authorities agree. But it should be noted that if, as we believe, there was a universal destruction of antediluvian man, the center of dispersion had in view by these naturalists and archaeologists would be that from the time of Noah, and so would not refer to the Eden from which Adam and Eve were driven. The same may be said of Haeckels theory that man originated in a submerged continent within the area of the Indian Ocean.
2. The North Pole:
Dr. William F. Warren has with prodigious learning attempted to show that the original Eden was at the North Pole, a theory which has too many considerations in its support to be cast aside unceremoniously, for it certainly is true that in preglacial times a warm climate surrounded the North Pole in all the lands which have been explored. In Northern Greenland and in Spitzbergen abundant remains of fossil plants show that during the middle of the Tertiary period the whole circumpolar region was characterized by a climate similar to that prevailing at the present time in Southern Europe, Japan, and the southern United States (see Asa Grays lectures on "Forest Geography and Archaeology" in the American Journal of Science, CXVI, 85-94, 183-96, and Wright, Ice Age in North America, 5th edition, chapter xvii). But as the latest discoveries have shown that there is no land within several hundred miles of the North Pole, Dr. Warrens theory, if maintained at all, will have to be modified so as to place Eden at a considerable distance from the actual pole. Furthermore, his theory would involve the existence of "Tertiary man," and thus extend his chronology to an incredible extent, even though with Professor Green (see ANTEDILUVIANS) we are permitted to consider the genealogical table of Gen 5 as sufficiently elastic to accommodate itself to any facts which may be discovered.
3. Armenia:
Much also can be said in favor of identifying Eden with Armenia, for it is here that the Tigris and Euphrates have their origin, while two others, the Aras (Araxes) emptying into the Caspian Sea and the Choruk (thought by some to be the Phasis) emptying into the Black Sea, would represent the Gihon and the Pishon. Havilah would then be identified with Colchis, famous for its golden sands. But Cush is difficult to find in that region; while these four rivers could by no possibility be regarded as branches of one parent stream.
4. Babylonia:
Two theories locate Eden in the Euphrates valley. Of these the first would place it near the head of the Persian Gulf where the Tigris and Euphrates after their junction form the Shatt el-Arab which bifurcates into the eastern and the western arm before reaching the Gulf. Calvin considered the Pishon to be the eastern arm and the Gihon the western arm. Other more recent authorities modify theory by supposing that Gihon and Pishon are represented by the Karum and the Kerkhah rivers which come into the Shatt el-Arab from the east. The most plausible objection to this theory is that the Biblical account represents all these branches as down stream from the main river, whereas this theory supposes that two of them at least are up stream. This objection has been ingeniously met by calling attention to the fact that 2,000 years before Christ the Persian Gulf extended up as far as Eridu, 100 miles above the present mouth of the river, and that the Tigris and the Euphrates then entered the head of the Gulf through separate channels, the enormous amount of silt brought down by the streams having converted so much of the valley into dry land. In consequence of the tides which extend up to the head of the Gulf, the current of all these streams would be turned up stream periodically, and so account for the Biblical statement. In this case the river (nahar) would be represented by the Persian Gulf itself, which was indeed called by the Babylonians nar marratum, "the bitter river." This theory is further supported by the fact that according to the cuneiform inscriptions Eridu was reputed to have in its neighborhood a garden, "a holy place," in which there grew a sacred palm tree. This "tree of life" appears frequently upon the inscriptions with two guardian spirits standing on either side.
The other theory, advocated with great ability by Friedrich Delitzsch, places Eden just above the site of ancient Babylon, where the Tigris and Euphrates approach to within a short distance of one another and where the country is intersected by numerous irrigating streams which put off from the Euphrates and flow into the Tigris, whose level is here considerably lower than that of the Euphrates--the situation being somewhat such as it is at New Orleans where the Mississippi River puts off numerous streams which empty into Lake Pontchartrain. Delitzsch supposes the Shatt el-Nil, which flows eastward into the Tigris, to be the Gihon, and the Pallacopas, flowing on the West side of the Euphrates through a region producing gold, to be the Pishon. The chief difficulties attending this theory pertain to the identification of the Pishon with the Pallacopas, and the location of Havilah on its banks. There is difficulty, also, in all these theories in the identification of Cush (Ethiopia), later associated with the country from which the Nile emerges, thus giving countenance to the belief of Josephus and many others that that river represented the Gihon. If we are compelled to choose between these theories it would seem that the one which locates Eden near the head of the Persian Gulf combines the greater number of probabilities of every kind.
(2) A Levite of the time of Hezekiah (2 Ch 29:12; 31:15).

LITERATURE.
Dawson Modern Science in Bible Lands; Friedrich Delitzsch, Wo lag das Paradies? (1881); Sayce, HCM, 95 ff; Hommel, Anc. Hebrew Tradition, 314; William F. Warren, Paradise Found, 1885.
George Frederick Wright
Easton
delight. (1.) The garden in which our first parents dewlt (Gen. 2:8-17). No geographical question has been so much discussed as that bearing on its site. It has been placed in Armenia, in the region west of the Caspian Sea, in Media, near Damascus, in Palestine, in Southern Arabia, and in Babylonia. The site must undoubtedly be sought for somewhere along the course of the great streams the Tigris and the Euphrates of Western Asia, in "the land of Shinar" or Babylonia. The region from about lat. 33 degrees 30' to lat. 31 degrees, which is a very rich and fertile tract, has been by the most competent authorities agreed on as the probable site of Eden. "It is a region where streams abound, where they divide and re-unite, where alone in the Mesopotamian tract can be found the phenomenon of a single river parting into four arms, each of which is or has been a river of consequence." Among almost all nations there are traditions of the primitive innocence of our race in the garden of Eden. This was the "golden age" to which the Greeks looked back. Men then lived a "life free from care, and without labour and sorrow. Old age was unknown; the body never lost its vigour; existence was a perpetual feast without a taint of evil. The earth brought forth spontaneously all things that were good in profuse abundance." (2.) One of the markets whence the merchants of Tyre obtained richly embroidered stuffs (Ezek. 27:23); the same, probably, as that mentioned in 2 Kings 19:12, and Isa. 37:12, as the name of a region conquered by the Assyrians. (3.) Son of Joah, and one of the Levites who assisted in reforming the public worship of the sanctuary in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:12).
HDBN
pleasure; delight
SBD
(pleasure ). The first residence of man, called in the Septuagint Paradise. The latter is a word of Persian origin, and describes an extensive tract of pleasure land, somewhat like an English park; and the use of it suggests a wider view of mans first abode than a garden. The description of Eden is found in ( Genesis 2:8-14 ) In the eastern portion of the region of Eden was the garden planted. The Hiddekel, one of its rivers, is the modern Tigris; the Euphrates is the same as the modern Euphrates. With regard to the Pison and Gihon a great variety of opinion exists, but the best authorities are divided between (1) Eden as in northeast Arabia, at the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris, and their separation again, making the four rivers of the different channels of these two, or (2), and most probably, Eden as situated in Armenia, near the origin of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and in which same region rise the Araxes (Pison of Genesis) and the Oxus (Gihon ). One of the marts which supplied the luxury of Tyre with richly-embroidered stuffs. In ( 2 Kings 19:12 ) and Isai 37:12 "the sons of Eden" are mentioned with Gozan, Haran and Rezeph as victims of the Assyrian greed of conquest. Probability seems to point to the northwest of Mesopotamia as the locality of Eden. BETH-EDEN, "house of pleasure:" probably the name of a country residence of the kings of Damascus. ( Amos 1:5 )
伊磯倫 EGLON
代表
士3:12 士3:13 士3:14 士3:15 士3:16 士3:17 士3:18 士3:19 士3:20 士3:21 士3:22 士3:23 士3:24 士3:25 士3:26 士3:27 士3:28 士3:29 士3:30
Easton
the bullock; place of heifers. (1.) Chieftain or king of one of the Moabite tribes (Judg. 3:12-14). Having entered into an alliance with Ammon and Amalek, he overran the trans-Jordanic region, and then crossing the Jordan, seized on Jericho, the "city of palm trees," which had been by this time rebuilt, but not as a fortress. He made this city his capital, and kept Israel in subjection for eighteen years. The people at length "cried unto the Lord" in their distress, and he "raised them up a deliverer" in Ehud (q.v.), the son of Gera, a Benjamite. (2.) A city in Judah, near Lachish (Josh. 15:39). It was destroyed by Joshua (10:5, 6). It has been identified with Tell Nejileh, 6 miles south of Tell Hesy or Ajlan, north-west of Lachish. (See LACHISH
HDBN
same as Eglah
SBD
(calf-like ). A king of the Moabites, ( Judges 3:12 ) ff., who, aided by the Ammonites and the Amelekites, crossed the Joran and took "the city of palm trees." (B.C. 1359.) here, according to Josephus, he built himself a palace, and continued for eighteen years to oppress the children of Israel, who paid him tribute. He was slain by Ehud. [EHUD] A town of Judah in the low country. ( Joshua 15:39 ) The name survives in the modern Ajlan , a shapeless mass of ruins, about 10 miles from Eleutheropolis and 14 from Gaza, on the south of the great maritime plain.
伊示雅 ISHIJAH
代表
代上10:3 代上7:3 代上12:6 代上24:21 代上24:24 上代24:25
ISBE
i-shi-ja.
See ISSHIJAH.
SBD
(whom Jehovah lends ), a lay Israelite of the Bene-Harim who had married a foreign wife. ( Ezra 10:31 ) (B.C. 459.)
伊示雅 ISHIAH
代表
拉10:31
ISBE
i-shi-ya.
See ISSHIAH.
HDBN
it is the Lord
SBD
(whom Jehovah lends ), the fifth of the five sons of Izrahiah, one of the heads of the tribe of Issachar in the time of David. ( 1 Chronicles 7:3 ) (B.C. 1046.)
伊突 JETUR
代表
創25:15
ISBE
je-tur (yeTur, meaning uncertain): a "son" of Ishmael (Gen 25:15 parallel 1 Ch 1:31); against this clan the two and a half tribes warred (1 Ch 5:18 f); they are the Itureans of New Testament times.
See ITURAEA.
Easton
an enclosure, one of the twelve sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15).
HDBN
order; succession; mountainous
SBD
(an enclosure ). ( Genesis 25:15 ; 1 Chronicles 1:31 ; 5:19 ) [ITURAEA]
伯利恒 BETH-LEHEM
代表
代上4:4 代上2:51
HDBN
house of bread
伯拉巴 BETH-RAPHA
代表
代上4:12
ISBE
beth-ra-fa (beth rapha; B, ho Bathraia, Bathrepha): The name occurs only in the genealogical list in 1 Ch 4:12. It does not seem possible now to associate it with any particular place or clan.
HDBN
house of health
伯拉斯都 BLASTUS
代表
徒12:20
ISBE
blas-tus (Blastos, "shoot"): The chamberlain of Herod Agrippa I, whose services as an intermediary between them and the king were gained by the people of Tyre and Sidon. These cities were dependent on Israel for corn and other provisions, and when Herod, on the occasion of some commercial dispute, forbade the export of foodstuffs to Tyre and Sidon, they were at his mercy and were compelled to ask for peace. "Having made Blastus the kings chamberlain their friend," probably by means of a bribe, the Phoenician embassy was given an opportunity of setting their case before Herod (Acts 12:20 ff).
S. F. Hunter
Easton
chamberlain to king Herod Agrippa I. (Acts 12:20). Such persons generally had great influence with their masters.
HDBN
that buds or brings forth
SBD
(sprout ), the chamberlain of Herod Agrippa I. ( Acts 12:20 )
伯提沙撒 BELTSHAZZAR
代表
但1:7 但2:26 但5:12
伯沙撒 BELSHAZZAR
代表
但5:1 但5:2 但5:3 但5:4 但5:5 但5:6 但5:7 但5:8 但5:9 但5:10 但5:11 但5:12 但5:13 但5:14 但5:15 但5:16 但5:17 但5:18 但5:19 但5:20 但5:21 但5:22 但5:23 但5:24 但5:25 但5:26 但5:27 但5:28 但5:29 但5:30 但5:31
ISBE
bel-shaz-ar (belshatstsar; Baltasar, Babylonian Bel-shar-usur): According to Dan 5:30, he was the Chaldean king under whom Babylon was taken by Darius the Mede. The Babylonian monuments speak a number of times of a Bel-shar-usur who was the "firstborn son, the offspring of the heart of" Nabunaid, the last king of the Babylonian empire, that had been founded by Nabopolassar, the father of Nebuchadnezzar, at the time of the death of Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria, in 626 BC. There is no doubt that this Belshazzar is the same as the Belshazzar of Dnl. It is not necessary to suppose that Belshazzar was at any time king of the Babylonian empire in the sense that Nebuchadnezzar and Nabunaid were. It is probable, as M. Pognon argues, that a son of Nabunaid, called Nabunaid after his father, was king of Babylon, or Babylonian king, in Harran (Haran), while his father was overlord in Babylon. This second Nabunaid is called "the son of the offspring of the heart" of Nabunaid his father. It is possible that this second Nabundid was the king who was killed by Cyrus, when he crossed the Tigris above Arbela in the 9th year of Nabunaid his father, and put to death the king of the country (see the Nabunaid-Cyrus Chronicle col. ii, 17); since according to the Eshki-Harran inscription, Nabunaid the Second died in the 9th year of Nabunaid the First. Belshazzar may have been the son of the king who is said in the same chronicle to have commanded the Babylonian army in Accad from the 6th to the 11th year of Nabunaid I; or, possibly longer, for the annals before the 6th and after the 11th year are broken and for the most part illegible. This same son of the king is most probably mentioned again in the same chronicle as having died in the night in which Babylon was captured by Gobryas of Gutium. As Nabunaid II, though reigning at Hatran under the overlordship of his father, is called king of Babylon on the same inscription on which his father is called by the same title; so Belshazzar may have been called king of Babylon, although he was only crown prince. It is probable also, that as Nabunaid I had made one of his sons king of Harran, so he had made another king of Chaldea. This would account for Belshazzars being called in Dan 5:30 the Chaldean king, although, to be sure, this word Chaldean may describe his race rather than his kingdom. The 3rd year of Belshazzar spoken of in Dan 8:1, would then refer to his 3rd year as subking of the Chaldeans under his father Nabunaid, king of Babylon, just as Cambyses was later subking of Babylon, while his fathe r Cyrus was king of the lands. From the Book of Daniel we might infer that this subkingdom embraced Chaldea and Susiana, and possibly the province of Babylon; and from the Nabunaid-Cyrus Chronicle that it extended over Accad as well. That the city of Babylon alone was sometimes at least governed by an official called king is highly probable, since the father of Nergal-har-ucur is certainly, and the father of Nabunaid I is probably, called king of Babylon, in both of which cases, the city, or at most the province, of Babylon must have been meant, since we know to a certainty all of the kings who had been ruling over the empire of Babylon since 626 BC, when Nabopolassar became king, and the names of neither of these fathers of kings is found among them.
In addition to Nabunaid II, Belshazzar seems to have had another brother named Nebuchadnezzar, since the two Babylonian rebels against Darius Hystaspis both assumed the name of Nebuchadnezzar the son of Nabunaid (see the Behistun Inscription, I, 85, 89, 95). He had a sister also named Ina-esagilaremat, and a second named probably Ukabushai-na.
Belshazzar had his own house in Babylon, where he seems to have been engaged in the woolen or clothing trade. He owned also estates from which he made large gifts to the gods. His father joins his name with his own in some of his prayers to the gods, and apparently appointed him commander of the army of Accad, whose especial duty it was to defend the city of Babylon against the attacks of the armies of Media and Persia.
It would appear from the Nabunaid-Cyrus Chronicle, that Belshazzar was de facto king of the Babylonian empire, all that was left of it, from the 4th to the 8th month of the 17th year of the reign of his father Nabunaid, and that he died on the night in which Babylon was taken by Gobryas of Gutium (that is, probably, Darius the Mede (see DARIUS)).
The objection to the historical character of the narrative of Daniel, based upon the fact that Belshazzar in 5:11,18 is said to have been the son of Nebuchadnezzar whereas the monuments state that he was the son of Nabunaid, is fully met by supposing that one of them was his real and the other his adoptive father; or by supposing that the queen-mother and Daniel referred to the greatest of his predecessors as his father, just as Omri is called by the Assyrians the father of Jehu, and as the claimants to the Medo-Pers throne are called on the Behistun Inscription the sons of Cyaxares, and as at present the reigning sheikhs of northern Arabia are all called the sons of Rashid, although in reality they are not his sons.

LITERATURE.
The best sources of information as to the life and times of Belshazzar for English readers are: The Records of the Past; Pinches, The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records of Assyria and Babylonia; Sayce. The Higher Criticism and the Monuments; and W. W. Wrights two great works, Daniel and His Prophecies and Daniel and His Critics.
R. Dick Wilson
Easton
Bel protect the king!, the last of the kings of Babylon (Dan. 5:1). He was the son of Nabonidus by Nitocris, who was the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar and the widow of Nergal-sharezer. When still young he made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and when heated with wine sent for the sacred vessels his "father" (Dan. 5:2), or grandfather, Nebuchadnezzar had carried away from the temple in Jerusalem, and he and his princes drank out of them. In the midst of their mad revelry a hand was seen by the king tracing on the wall the announcement of God's judgment, which that night fell upon him. At the instance of the queen (i.e., his mother) Daniel was brought in, and he interpreted the writing. That night the kingdom of the Chaldeans came to an end, and the king was slain (Dan. 5:30). (See NERGAL-SHAREZER
HDBN
master of the treasure
SBD
(prince of Bel ), the last king of Babylon. In ( Daniel 5:2 ) Nebuchadnezzar is called the father of Belshazzar. This, of course, need only mean grandfather or ancestor. According to the well-known narrative Belshazzar gave a splendid feast in his palace during the siege of Babylon (B.C. 538), using the sacred vessels of the temple, which Nebuchadnezzer had brought from Jerusalem. The miraculous appearance of the handwriting on the wall, the calling in of Daniel to interpret its meaning the prophecy of the overthrow of the kingdom, and Belshazsars death, accorded in Dan. 5.
伯羅哥羅 PROCHORUS
代表
徒6:5
ISBE
prok-o-rus (Prochoros) : One of "the seven" chosen by the Christian community in Jerusalem to superintend the dispensing of charity to the widows and other poor (Acts 6:5). The name is Greek, and he may have been a Hellenist. According to tradition he became bishop of Nicomedia and died a martyr at Antioch.
HDBN
he that presides over the choirs
SBD
(leader of the chorus ), one of the seven deacons, being the third of the list, and named next after Stephen and Philip. ( Acts 6:5 )
伯迦得 BETH-GADER
代表
代上2:51
ISBE
beth-ga-der (bethgadher; Baithgedor, or (Codex Vaticanus) Baithgaidon): The name occurs between those of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim in 1 Ch 2:51. It is possibly identical with Geder of Josh 12:13.
HDBN
a house for a mouse
SBD
(house of the wall ), doubtless a place, though it occurs in the genealogies of Judah as if a person. ( 1 Chronicles 2:51 )
伸崙 SHIMRON
代表
創46:13 民26:24 代上7:1
Easton
watch-post, an ancient city of the Canaanites; with its villages, allotted to Zebulun (Josh. 19:15); now probably Semunieh, on the northern edge of the plain of Esdraelon, 5 miles west of Nazareth.
SBD
(watch-height ). A city of Zebulun. ( Joshua 11:1 ; 19:15 ) Its full appellation was perhaps Shimron-meron. The fourth son of Issachar according to the lists of Genesis, ( Genesis 46:13 ) and Numbers, ( Numbers 26:24 ) and the head of the family of the Shimronites.
伸帥 SHIMSHAI
代表
拉4:8
ISBE
shim-shi, shim-sha-i (shimshay; Codex Vaticanus Samasa, Samae, Sameais Samesa; Codex Alexandrinus Samsai; Lucian, Samaias, throughout; in 1 Esdras 2:17 he is called "Semellius," the Revised Version (British and American) "Samellius"; a number of explanations of this name have been offered, but no one has been generally favored. One conjecture traces it to an Old Iranian caritative sh-sh-m-y conformed to shamash; another prefers the Old Bactrian simezhi = simaezhi; compare BDB, under the word The name looks as though it were derived from shemesh, "the sun"): A state secretary who, with REHUM (which see) and others, wrote to Artaxerxes to persuade him to prohibit the rebuilding of the temple (Ezr 4:8,9,17,23).
Horace J. Wolf
Easton
the shining one, or sunny, the secretary of Rehum the chancellor, who took part in opposing the rebuilding of the temple after the Captivity (Ezra 4:8, 9, 17-23).
HDBN
my son
DAN
代表
創30:6 創30:5
Easton
a judge. (1.) The fifth son of Jacob. His mother was Bilhah, Rachel's maid (Gen. 30:6, "God hath judged me", Heb. dananni). The blessing pronounced on him by his father was, "Dan shall judge his people" (49:16), probably in allusion to the judgeship of Samson, who was of the tribe of Dan. The tribe of Dan had their place in the march through the wilderness on the north side of the tabernacle (Num. 2:25, 31; 10:25). It was the last of the tribes to receive a portion in the Land of Promise. Its position and extent are described in Josh. 19:40-48. The territory of Dan extended from the west of that of Ephraim and Benjamin to the sea. It was a small territory, but was very fertile. It included in it, among others, the cities of Lydda, Ekron, and Joppa, which formed its northern boundary. But this district was too limited. "Squeezed into the narrow strip between the mountains and the sea, its energies were great beyond its numbers." Being pressed by the Amorites and the Philistines, whom they were unable to conquer, they longed for a wider space. They accordingly sent out five spies from two of their towns, who went north to the sources of the Jordan, and brought back a favourable report regarding that region. "Arise," they said, "be not slothful to go, and to possess the land," for it is "a place where there is no want of any thing that is in the earth" (Judg. 18:10). On receiving this report, 600 Danites girded on their weapons of war, and taking with them their wives and their children, marched to the foot of Hermon, and fought against Leshem, and took it from the Sidonians, and dwelt therein, and changed the name of the conquered town to Dan (Josh. 19:47). This new city of Dan became to them a new home, and was wont to be spoken of as the northern limit of Palestine, the length of which came to be denoted by the expression "from Dan to Beersheba", i.e., about 144 miles. "But like Lot under a similar temptation, they seem to have succumbed to the evil influences around them, and to have sunk down into a condition of semi-heathenism from which they never emerged. The mounds of ruins which mark the site of the city show that it covered a considerable extent of ground. But there remains no record of any noble deed wrought by the degenerate tribe. Their name disappears from the roll-book of the natural and the spiritual Israel.", Manning's Those Holy Fields. This old border city was originally called Laish. Its modern name is Tell el-Kady, "Hill of the Judge." It stands about four miles below Caesarea Philippi, in the midst of a region of surpassing richness and beauty. (2.) This name occurs in Ezek 27:19, Authorize Version; but the words there, "Dan also," should be simply, as in the Revised Version, "Vedan," an Arabian city, from which various kinds of merchandise were brought to Tyre. Some suppose it to have been the city of Aden in Arabia. (See MAHANEH-DAN
HDBN
judgment; he that judges
SBD
(a judge ). The fifth son of Jacob, and the first of Bilhah, Rachels maid. ( Genesis 30:6 ) (B.C. after 1753.) The origin of the name is given in the exclamation of Rachel. The records of Dan are unusually meagre. Only one son is attributed to him, ( Genesis 46:23 ) but his tribe was, with the exception of Judah, the most numerous of all. In the division of the promised land Dan was the last of the tribes to receive his portion, which was the smallest of the twelve. ( Joshua 19:48 ) But notwithstanding its smallness it had eminent natural advantages. On the north and east it was completely embraced by its two brother tribes Ephraim and Benjamin, while on the southeast and south it joined Judah, and was thus surrounded by the three most powerful states of the whole confederacy. It was a rich and fertile district; but the Amorites soon "forced them into the mountain," ( Judges 1:34 ) and they had another portion granted them. Judges 18. In the "security" and "quiet," ( Judges 18:7 Judges 18:10 ) of their rich northern possession the Danites enjoyed the leisure and repose which had been denied them in their original seat. In the time of David Dan still kept its place among the tribes. ( 1 Chronicles 12:35 ) Asher is omitted, but the "prince of the tribe of Dan" is mentioned in the list of ( 1 Chronicles 27:22 ) But from this time forward the name as applied to the tribe vanishes; it is kept alive only by the northern city. In the genealogies of 1Chr 2-12, Dan is omitted entirely. Lastly, Dan is omitted from the list of those who were sealed by the angel in the vision of St. John. ( Revelation 7:5-7 ) The well-known city, so familiar as the most northern landmark of Palestine, in the common expression "from Dan even to beersheba." The name of the place was originally LAISH or LESHEM. ( Joshua 19:47 ) After the establishment of the Danites at Dan it became the acknowledged extremity of the country. It is now Tell el-Kadi , a mound, three miles from Banias, from the foot of which gushes out one of the largest fountains in the world, the main source of the Jordan.
但以利 DANIEL
代表
代上3:1
ISBE
dan-yel (daniyel, dani-el, "God is my judge"; Daniel):
(1) One of the sons of David (1 Ch 3:1).
(2) A Levite of the family of Ithamar (Ezr 8:2; Neh 10:6).
(3) A prophet of the time of Nebuchadnezzar and Cyrus, the hero and author of the Book of Daniel.
1. Early Life:
We know nothing of the early life of Daniel, except what is recorded in the book bearing his name. Here it is said that he was one of the youths of royal or noble seed, who were carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar in the third year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah. These youths were without blemish, well-favored, skillful in all wisdom, endued with knowledge, and understanding science, and such as had ability to stand in the kings palace. The king commanded to teach them the knowledge and tongue of the Chaldeans; and appointed for them a daily portion of the kings food and of the wine which he drank. After having been thus nourished for three years, they were to stand before the king. Ashpenaz, the master or chief of the eunuchs, into whose hands they had been entrusted, following a custom of the time, gave to each of these youths a new and Babylonian name. To Daniel, he gave the name Belteshazzar. In Babylonian this name was probably Belu-lita-sharri-usur, which means "O Bel, protect thou the hostage of the king," a most appropriate name for one in the place which Daniel occupied as a hostage of Jehoiakim at the court of the king of Babylon. The youths were probably from 12 to 15 years of age at the time when they were carried captive. (For changes of names, compare Joseph changed to Zaphenath-paneah (Gen 41:45); Eliakim, to Jehoiakim (2 Ki 23:34); Mattaniah, to Zedekiah (2 Ki 24:17); and the tw names of the high priest Johanans brother in the Sachau Papyri, i.e. Ostan and Anani.)
Having purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the food and drink of the king, Daniel requested of Ashpenaz permission to eat vegetables and drink water. Through the favor of God, this request was granted, notwithstanding the fear of Ashpenaz that his head would be endangered to the king on account of the probably resulting poor appearance of the youths living upon this blood-diluting diet, in comparison with the expected healthy appearance of the others of their class. However, ten days trial having been first granted, and at the end of that time their countenances having been found fairer and their flesh fatter than the other youths, the permission was made permanent; and God gave to Daniel and his companions knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom, and to Daniel understanding in all visions and dreams; so that at the end of the three years when the king communed with them, he found them much superior to all the magicians and enchanters in every matter of wisdom and understanding.
2. Dream-Interpreter:
Daniels public activities were in harmony with his education. His first appearance was as an interpreter of the dream recorded in Dan 2. Nebuchadnezzar having seen in his dream a vision of a great image, excellent in brightness and terrible in appearance, its head of fine gold, its breast and its arms of silver, its belly and its thighs of brass, its legs of iron, its feet part of iron and part of clay, beheld a stone cut out without hands smiting the image and breaking it in pieces, until it became like chaff and was carried away by the wind; while the stone that smote the image became a great mountain and filled the whole earth. When the king awoke from his troubled sleep, he forgot, or reigned that he had forgotten, the dream, and summoned the wise men of Babylon both to tell him the dream and to give the interpretation thereof. The wise men having said that they could not tell the dream, nor interpret it as long as it was untold, the king threatened them with death. Daniel, who seems not to have been present when the other wise men were before the king, when he was informed of the threat of the king, and that preparations were being made to slay all of the wise men of Babylon, himself and his three companions included, boldly went in to the king and requested that he would appoint a time for him to appear to show the interpretation, Then he went to his house, and he and his companions prayed, and the dream and its interpretation were made known unto Daniel. At the appointed time, the dream was explained and the four Hebrews were loaded with wealth and given high positions in the service of the king. In the 4th chapter, we have recorded Daniels interpretation of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar about the great tree that was hewn at the command of an angel, thus prefiguring the insanity of the king.
3. Interpreter of Signs:
Daniels third great appearance in the book is in chapter 5, where he is called upon to explain the extraordinary writing upon the wall of Belshazzars palace, which foretold the end of the Babylonian empire and the incoming of the Medes and Persians. For this service Daniel was clothed with purple, a chain of gold put around his neck, and he was made the third ruler in the kingdom.
4. Seer of Visions:
Daniel, however, was not merely an interpreter of other mens visions. In the last six chapters we have recorded four or five of his own visions, all of which are taken up with revelations concerning the future history of the great world empires, especially in their relation to the people of God, and predictions of the final triumph of the Messiahs kingdom.
5. Official of the Kings:
In addition to his duties as seer and as interpreter of signs and dreams, Daniel also stood high in the governmental service of Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazzar, and Darius the Mede, and perhaps also of Cyrus. The Book of Dnl, our only reliable source of information on this subject, does not tell us much about his civil duties and performances. It does say, however, that he was chief of the wise men, that he was in the gate of the king, and that he was governor over the whole province of Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar; that Belshazzar made him the third ruler in his kingdom; and that Darius made him one of the three presidents to whom his hundred and twenty satraps were to give account; and that he even thought to set him over his whole kingdom. In all of these positions he seems to have conducted himself with faithfulness and judgment. While in the service of Darius the Mede, he aroused the antipathy of the other presidents and of the satraps. Unable to find any fault with his official acts, they induced the king to make a decree, apparently general in form and purpose, but really aimed at Daniel alone. They saw that they could find no valid accusation against him, unless they found it in connection with something concerning the law of his God. They therefore caused the king to make a decree that no one should make a request of anyone for the space of thirty days, save of the king. Daniel, having publicly prayed three times a day as he was in the habit of doing, was caught in the act, accused, and on account of the irrevocability of a law of the Medes and Persians, was condemned in accordance with the decree to be cast into a den of lions. The king was much troubled at this, but was unable to withhold the punishment. However, he expressed to Daniel his belief that his God in whom he trusted continually would deliver him; and so indeed it came to pass. For in the morning, when the king drew near to the mouth of the den, and called to him, Daniel said that God had sent His angel and shut the mouths of the lions. So Daniel was taken up unharmed, and at the command of the king his accusers, having been cast into tile den, were destroyed before they reached the bottom.

LITERATURE.
Besides the commentaries and other works mentioned in the article on the Book of Daniel, valuable information may be found in Josephus and in Payne Smiths Lectures on Daniel.
R. Dick Wilson
Easton
God is my judge, or judge of God. (1.) David's second son, "born unto him in Hebron, of Abigail the Carmelitess" (1 Chr. 3:1). He is called also Chileab (2 Sam. 3:3). (2.) One of the four great prophets, although he is not once spoken of in the Old Testament as a prophet. His life and prophecies are recorded in the Book of Daniel. He was descended from one of the noble families of Judah (Dan. 1:3), and was probably born in Jerusalem about B.C. 623, during the reign of Josiah. At the first deportation of the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar (the kingdom of Israel had come to an end nearly a century before), or immediately after his victory over the Egyptians at the second battle of Carchemish, in the fourth year of the reign of Jehoiakim (B.C. 606), Daniel and other three noble youths were carried off to Babylon, along with part of the vessels of the temple. There he was obliged to enter into the service of the king of Babylon, and in accordance with the custom of the age received the Chaldean name of Belteshazzar, i.e., "prince of Bel," or "Bel protect the king!" His residence in Babylon was very probably in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar, now identified with a mass of shapeless mounds called the Kasr, on the right bank of the river. His training in the schools of the wise men in Babylon (Dan. 1:4) was to fit him for service to the empire. He was distinguished during this period for his piety and his stict observance of the Mosaic law (1:8-16), and gained the confidence and esteem of those who were over him. His habit of attention gained during his education in Jerusalem enabled him soon to master the wisdom and learning of the Chaldeans, and even to excel his compeers. At the close of his three years of discipline and training in the royal schools, Daniel was distinguished for his proficiency in the "wisdom" of his day, and was brought out into public life. He soon became known for his skill in the interpretation of dreams (1:17; 2:14), and rose to the rank of governor of the province of Babylon, and became "chief of the governors" (Chald. Rab-signin) over all the wise men of Babylon. He made known and also interpreted Nebuchadnezzar's dream; and many years afterwards, when he was now an old man, amid the alarm and consternation of the terrible night of Belshazzar's impious feast, he was called in at the instance of the queen-mother (perhaps Nitocris, the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar) to interpret the mysterious handwriting on the wall. He was rewarded with a purple robe and elevation to the rank of "third ruler." The place of "second ruler" was held by Belshazzar as associated with his father, Nabonidus, on the throne (5:16). Daniel interpreted the handwriting, and "in that night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans slain." After the taking of Babylon, Cyrus, who was now master of all Asia from India to the Dardanelles, placed Darius (q.v.), a Median prince, on the throne, during the two years of whose reign Daniel held the office of first of the "three presidents" of the empire, and was thus practically at the head of affairs, no doubt interesting himself in the prospects of the captive Jews (Dan. 9), whom he had at last the happiness of seeing restored to their own land, although he did not return with them, but remained still in Babylon. His fidelity to God exposed him to persecution, and he was cast into a den of lions, but was miraculously delivered; after which Darius issued a decree enjoining reverence for "the God of Daniel" (6:26). He "prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian," whom he probably greatly influenced in the matter of the decree which put an end to the Captivity (B.C. 536). He had a series of prophetic visions vouch-safed to him which opened up the prospect of a glorious future for the people of God, and must have imparted peace and gladness to his spirit in his old age as he waited on at his post till the "end of the days." The time and circumstances of his death are not recorded. He probably died at Susa, about eighty-five years of age. Ezekiel, with whom he was contemporary, mentions him as a pattern of righteousness (14:14, 20) and wisdom (28:3). (See NEBUCHADNEZZAR
HDBN
judgment of God; God my judge
SBD
(judgment of God ). The second son of David, by Abigail the Carmelitess. ( 1 Chronicles 3:1 ) In ( 2 Samuel 3:3 ) he is called Chileab. (B.C. about 1051.) The fourth of the greater prophets." Nothing is known of his parentage or family. He appears, however, to have been of royal or noble descent, ( Daniel 1:3 ) and to have possessed considerable personal endowments. ( Daniel 1:4 ) He was taken to Babylon in "the third year of Jehoiakim" (B.C. 604), and trained for the kings service. He was divinely supported in his resolve to abstain from the "kings meat" for fear of defilement. ( Daniel 1:8-16 ) At the close of his three years discipline, ( Daniel 1:5 Daniel 1:18 ) Daniel had an opportunity of exercising his peculiar gift, ( Daniel 1:17 ) of interpreting dreams, on the occasion of Nebuchadnezzars decree against the Magi. ( Daniel 2:14 ) ff. In consequence of his success he was made "ruler of the whole province of Babylon." ( Daniel 2:48 ) He afterwards interpreted the second dream of Nebuchadnezzar, ( Daniel 4:8-27 ) and the handwriting on the wall which disturbed the feast of Belshazzar. ( Daniel 5:10-28 ) At the accession of Darius he was made first of the "three presidents" of the empire, ( Daniel 6:2 ) and was delivered from the lions den, into which he had been cast for his faithfulness to the rites of his faith. ( Daniel 6:10-23 ) cf. Bel and Dr. 29-42. At the accession of Cyrus he still retained his prosperity, ( Daniel 6:28 ) cf. Dani 1:21 though he does not appear to have remained at Babylon, cf. ( Daniel 1:21 ) and in "the third year of Cyrus" (B.C. 534) he saw his last recorded vision, on the banks of the Tigris. ( Daniel 10:1 Daniel 10:4 ) In the prophecies of Ezekiel mention is made of Daniel as a pattern of righteousness, ( Ezekiel 14:14 Ezekiel 14:20 ) and wisdom. ( Ezekiel 28:3 ) The narrative in ( Daniel 1:11 ) implies that Daniel was conspicuously distinguished for purity and knowledge at a very early age. A descendant of Ithamar, who returned with Ezra. ( Ezra 8:2 ) A priest who sealed the covenant drawn up by Nehemiah, B.C. 445. ( Nehemiah 10:6 ) He is perhaps the same as No. 3.
但以理 DANIEL
代表
但1:3 但1:4 但1:5 但1:6 但1:7 代上3:1 拉8:2 尼10:6 撒下3:3
ISBE
dan-yel (daniyel, dani-el, "God is my judge"; Daniel):
(1) One of the sons of David (1 Ch 3:1).
(2) A Levite of the family of Ithamar (Ezr 8:2; Neh 10:6).
(3) A prophet of the time of Nebuchadnezzar and Cyrus, the hero and author of the Book of Daniel.
1. Early Life:
We know nothing of the early life of Daniel, except what is recorded in the book bearing his name. Here it is said that he was one of the youths of royal or noble seed, who were carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar in the third year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah. These youths were without blemish, well-favored, skillful in all wisdom, endued with knowledge, and understanding science, and such as had ability to stand in the kings palace. The king commanded to teach them the knowledge and tongue of the Chaldeans; and appointed for them a daily portion of the kings food and of the wine which he drank. After having been thus nourished for three years, they were to stand before the king. Ashpenaz, the master or chief of the eunuchs, into whose hands they had been entrusted, following a custom of the time, gave to each of these youths a new and Babylonian name. To Daniel, he gave the name Belteshazzar. In Babylonian this name was probably Belu-lita-sharri-usur, which means "O Bel, protect thou the hostage of the king," a most appropriate name for one in the place which Daniel occupied as a hostage of Jehoiakim at the court of the king of Babylon. The youths were probably from 12 to 15 years of age at the time when they were carried captive. (For changes of names, compare Joseph changed to Zaphenath-paneah (Gen 41:45); Eliakim, to Jehoiakim (2 Ki 23:34); Mattaniah, to Zedekiah (2 Ki 24:17); and the tw names of the high priest Johanans brother in the Sachau Papyri, i.e. Ostan and Anani.)
Having purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the food and drink of the king, Daniel requested of Ashpenaz permission to eat vegetables and drink water. Through the favor of God, this request was granted, notwithstanding the fear of Ashpenaz that his head would be endangered to the king on account of the probably resulting poor appearance of the youths living upon this blood-diluting diet, in comparison with the expected healthy appearance of the others of their class. However, ten days trial having been first granted, and at the end of that time their countenances having been found fairer and their flesh fatter than the other youths, the permission was made permanent; and God gave to Daniel and his companions knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom, and to Daniel understanding in all visions and dreams; so that at the end of the three years when the king communed with them, he found them much superior to all the magicians and enchanters in every matter of wisdom and understanding.
2. Dream-Interpreter:
Daniels public activities were in harmony with his education. His first appearance was as an interpreter of the dream recorded in Dan 2. Nebuchadnezzar having seen in his dream a vision of a great image, excellent in brightness and terrible in appearance, its head of fine gold, its breast and its arms of silver, its belly and its thighs of brass, its legs of iron, its feet part of iron and part of clay, beheld a stone cut out without hands smiting the image and breaking it in pieces, until it became like chaff and was carried away by the wind; while the stone that smote the image became a great mountain and filled the whole earth. When the king awoke from his troubled sleep, he forgot, or reigned that he had forgotten, the dream, and summoned the wise men of Babylon both to tell him the dream and to give the interpretation thereof. The wise men having said that they could not tell the dream, nor interpret it as long as it was untold, the king threatened them with death. Daniel, who seems not to have been present when the other wise men were before the king, when he was informed of the threat of the king, and that preparations were being made to slay all of the wise men of Babylon, himself and his three companions included, boldly went in to the king and requested that he would appoint a time for him to appear to show the interpretation, Then he went to his house, and he and his companions prayed, and the dream and its interpretation were made known unto Daniel. At the appointed time, the dream was explained and the four Hebrews were loaded with wealth and given high positions in the service of the king. In the 4th chapter, we have recorded Daniels interpretation of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar about the great tree that was hewn at the command of an angel, thus prefiguring the insanity of the king.
3. Interpreter of Signs:
Daniels third great appearance in the book is in chapter 5, where he is called upon to explain the extraordinary writing upon the wall of Belshazzars palace, which foretold the end of the Babylonian empire and the incoming of the Medes and Persians. For this service Daniel was clothed with purple, a chain of gold put around his neck, and he was made the third ruler in the kingdom.
4. Seer of Visions:
Daniel, however, was not merely an interpreter of other mens visions. In the last six chapters we have recorded four or five of his own visions, all of which are taken up with revelations concerning the future history of the great world empires, especially in their relation to the people of God, and predictions of the final triumph of the Messiahs kingdom.
5. Official of the Kings:
In addition to his duties as seer and as interpreter of signs and dreams, Daniel also stood high in the governmental service of Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazzar, and Darius the Mede, and perhaps also of Cyrus. The Book of Dnl, our only reliable source of information on this subject, does not tell us much about his civil duties and performances. It does say, however, that he was chief of the wise men, that he was in the gate of the king, and that he was governor over the whole province of Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar; that Belshazzar made him the third ruler in his kingdom; and that Darius made him one of the three presidents to whom his hundred and twenty satraps were to give account; and that he even thought to set him over his whole kingdom. In all of these positions he seems to have conducted himself with faithfulness and judgment. While in the service of Darius the Mede, he aroused the antipathy of the other presidents and of the satraps. Unable to find any fault with his official acts, they induced the king to make a decree, apparently general in form and purpose, but really aimed at Daniel alone. They saw that they could find no valid accusation against him, unless they found it in connection with something concerning the law of his God. They therefore caused the king to make a decree that no one should make a request of anyone for the space of thirty days, save of the king. Daniel, having publicly prayed three times a day as he was in the habit of doing, was caught in the act, accused, and on account of the irrevocability of a law of the Medes and Persians, was condemned in accordance with the decree to be cast into a den of lions. The king was much troubled at this, but was unable to withhold the punishment. However, he expressed to Daniel his belief that his God in whom he trusted continually would deliver him; and so indeed it came to pass. For in the morning, when the king drew near to the mouth of the den, and called to him, Daniel said that God had sent His angel and shut the mouths of the lions. So Daniel was taken up unharmed, and at the command of the king his accusers, having been cast into tile den, were destroyed before they reached the bottom.

LITERATURE.
Besides the commentaries and other works mentioned in the article on the Book of Daniel, valuable information may be found in Josephus and in Payne Smiths Lectures on Daniel.
R. Dick Wilson
Easton
God is my judge, or judge of God. (1.) David's second son, "born unto him in Hebron, of Abigail the Carmelitess" (1 Chr. 3:1). He is called also Chileab (2 Sam. 3:3). (2.) One of the four great prophets, although he is not once spoken of in the Old Testament as a prophet. His life and prophecies are recorded in the Book of Daniel. He was descended from one of the noble families of Judah (Dan. 1:3), and was probably born in Jerusalem about B.C. 623, during the reign of Josiah. At the first deportation of the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar (the kingdom of Israel had come to an end nearly a century before), or immediately after his victory over the Egyptians at the second battle of Carchemish, in the fourth year of the reign of Jehoiakim (B.C. 606), Daniel and other three noble youths were carried off to Babylon, along with part of the vessels of the temple. There he was obliged to enter into the service of the king of Babylon, and in accordance with the custom of the age received the Chaldean name of Belteshazzar, i.e., "prince of Bel," or "Bel protect the king!" His residence in Babylon was very probably in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar, now identified with a mass of shapeless mounds called the Kasr, on the right bank of the river. His training in the schools of the wise men in Babylon (Dan. 1:4) was to fit him for service to the empire. He was distinguished during this period for his piety and his stict observance of the Mosaic law (1:8-16), and gained the confidence and esteem of those who were over him. His habit of attention gained during his education in Jerusalem enabled him soon to master the wisdom and learning of the Chaldeans, and even to excel his compeers. At the close of his three years of discipline and training in the royal schools, Daniel was distinguished for his proficiency in the "wisdom" of his day, and was brought out into public life. He soon became known for his skill in the interpretation of dreams (1:17; 2:14), and rose to the rank of governor of the province of Babylon, and became "chief of the governors" (Chald. Rab-signin) over all the wise men of Babylon. He made known and also interpreted Nebuchadnezzar's dream; and many years afterwards, when he was now an old man, amid the alarm and consternation of the terrible night of Belshazzar's impious feast, he was called in at the instance of the queen-mother (perhaps Nitocris, the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar) to interpret the mysterious handwriting on the wall. He was rewarded with a purple robe and elevation to the rank of "third ruler." The place of "second ruler" was held by Belshazzar as associated with his father, Nabonidus, on the throne (5:16). Daniel interpreted the handwriting, and "in that night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans slain." After the taking of Babylon, Cyrus, who was now master of all Asia from India to the Dardanelles, placed Darius (q.v.), a Median prince, on the throne, during the two years of whose reign Daniel held the office of first of the "three presidents" of the empire, and was thus practically at the head of affairs, no doubt interesting himself in the prospects of the captive Jews (Dan. 9), whom he had at last the happiness of seeing restored to their own land, although he did not return with them, but remained still in Babylon. His fidelity to God exposed him to persecution, and he was cast into a den of lions, but was miraculously delivered; after which Darius issued a decree enjoining reverence for "the God of Daniel" (6:26). He "prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian," whom he probably greatly influenced in the matter of the decree which put an end to the Captivity (B.C. 536). He had a series of prophetic visions vouch-safed to him which opened up the prospect of a glorious future for the people of God, and must have imparted peace and gladness to his spirit in his old age as he waited on at his post till the "end of the days." The time and circumstances of his death are not recorded. He probably died at Susa, about eighty-five years of age. Ezekiel, with whom he was contemporary, mentions him as a pattern of righteousness (14:14, 20) and wisdom (28:3). (See NEBUCHADNEZZAR
HDBN
judgment of God; God my judge
SBD
(judgment of God ). The second son of David, by Abigail the Carmelitess. ( 1 Chronicles 3:1 ) In ( 2 Samuel 3:3 ) he is called Chileab. (B.C. about 1051.) The fourth of the greater prophets." Nothing is known of his parentage or family. He appears, however, to have been of royal or noble descent, ( Daniel 1:3 ) and to have possessed considerable personal endowments. ( Daniel 1:4 ) He was taken to Babylon in "the third year of Jehoiakim" (B.C. 604), and trained for the kings service. He was divinely supported in his resolve to abstain from the "kings meat" for fear of defilement. ( Daniel 1:8-16 ) At the close of his three years discipline, ( Daniel 1:5 Daniel 1:18 ) Daniel had an opportunity of exercising his peculiar gift, ( Daniel 1:17 ) of interpreting dreams, on the occasion of Nebuchadnezzars decree against the Magi. ( Daniel 2:14 ) ff. In consequence of his success he was made "ruler of the whole province of Babylon." ( Daniel 2:48 ) He afterwards interpreted the second dream of Nebuchadnezzar, ( Daniel 4:8-27 ) and the handwriting on the wall which disturbed the feast of Belshazzar. ( Daniel 5:10-28 ) At the accession of Darius he was made first of the "three presidents" of the empire, ( Daniel 6:2 ) and was delivered from the lions den, into which he had been cast for his faithfulness to the rites of his faith. ( Daniel 6:10-23 ) cf. Bel and Dr. 29-42. At the accession of Cyrus he still retained his prosperity, ( Daniel 6:28 ) cf. Dani 1:21 though he does not appear to have remained at Babylon, cf. ( Daniel 1:21 ) and in "the third year of Cyrus" (B.C. 534) he saw his last recorded vision, on the banks of the Tigris. ( Daniel 10:1 Daniel 10:4 ) In the prophecies of Ezekiel mention is made of Daniel as a pattern of righteousness, ( Ezekiel 14:14 Ezekiel 14:20 ) and wisdom. ( Ezekiel 28:3 ) The narrative in ( Daniel 1:11 ) implies that Daniel was conspicuously distinguished for purity and knowledge at a very early age. A descendant of Ithamar, who returned with Ezra. ( Ezra 8:2 ) A priest who sealed the covenant drawn up by Nehemiah, B.C. 445. ( Nehemiah 10:6 ) He is perhaps the same as No. 3.


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary