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每日一詞 主題辭典 聖經人名 聖經地名 聖經英文

搜尋方式: 本搜尋引擎限搜尋一個字,採模糊比對。

目前本系統共收錄了 1,856 個聖經相關人名
以及 HDBN 包含了 2,616 個姓名的意義解釋。


中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
撒巴第業 ZABDIEL
代表
代上27:2
ISBE
zab-di-el (zabhdiel, "my gift is El (God)"; Zabdiel):
(1) Father of Jashobeam (1 Ch 27:2), or rather Ishbaal (Curtis, Chronicles, 290 f).
(2) An overseer of the priests (Neh 11:14).
(3) An Arabian who beheaded Alexander Balas and sent his head to Ptolemy (1 Macc 11:17).
Easton
gift of God. (1.) The father of Jashobeam, who was one of David's officers (1 Chr. 27:2). (2.) An overseer of the priests after the Captivity (Neh. 11:14).
撒布 ZACCUR
代表
拉 8:14
ISBE
zak-ur (zakkur, perhaps "ventriloquist" (Gray, Nu, 137)):
(1) Father of Shammua the Reubenite spy (Nu 13:4).
(2) A Simeonite (1 Ch 4:26); the King James Version "Zacchur."
(3) Levites: (a) a Merarite (1 Ch 24:27); (b) a "son" of Asaph (1 Ch 25:2,10; Neh 12:35); (c) Neh 10:12 (Hebrew verse 13), and probably the same as in Neb 13:13, father of Hanan.
(4) A marginal reading in Ezr 8:14 for Zabbud where Kethibh is really "Zabud".
See ZABBUD.
(5) Son of Imri and one of the builders of Jerusalem (Neh 3:2).
David Francis Roberts
Easton
mindful. (1.) Father of Shammua, who was one of the spies sent out by Moses (Num. 13:4). (2.) A Merarite Levite (1 Chr. 24:27). (3.) A son of Asaph, and chief of one of the courses of singers as arranged by David (1 Chr. 25:2, 10). (4.) Son of Imri (Neh. 3:2). (5.) A Levite (Neh. 10:12). (6.) The son of Mattaniah (Neh. 13:13).
HDBN
of the male kind; mindful
SBD
(mindful ). Father of Shammua, the Reubenite spy. ( Numbers 13:4 ) (B.C. 1451.) A Merarite Levite, son of Jaaziah. ( 1 Chronicles 24:27 ) Son of Asaph the singer. ( 1 Chronicles 25:2 1 Chronicles 25:10 ; Nehemiah 12:35 ) The son of Imri who assisted Nehemiah in rebuilding the city wall. ( Nehemiah 3:2 ) (B.C. 446.) A Levite, or family of Levites, who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. ( Nehemiah 10:18 ) (B.C. 410.) A Levite whose son or descendant Hanan was one of the treasurers over the treasuries appointed by Nehemiah. ( Nehemiah 13:13 )
撒布得 ZABUD
代表
王上4:5
ISBE
za-bud (zabhudh, "bestowed"):
(1) A son of Nathan (the prophet, probably) said in Kings to be chief minister to Solomon and also the kings friend (1 Ki 4:5; 1 Ch 2:36). The American Revised Version margin has "priest" for "chief minister." Benzinger (Kurz. Hand-Commentary, 18) holds that "this expression is a marginal gloss here," while Kittel (Handkomm., 31) holds it to be genuine, though it is wanting in the Septuagint. Some suggest cokhen (see SHEBNA) for kohen. The expression "kings friend" (compare 2 Sam 15:37; 16:16) is, says Kittel, an old Canaanite title, found also in the Tell el-Amarna Letters.
(2) See ZACCUR, (4); PRIESTS AND LEVITES.
David Francis Roberts
Easton
gift, the son of Nathan, who was "king's friend" in the court of Solomon (1 Kings 4:5).
SBD
(given ), son of Nathan, ( 1 Kings 4:5 ) is described as a priest (Authorized Version "principal officer"), and as holding at the court of Solomon the confidential post of "kings friend," which had been occupied by Hushai the Archite during the reign of David. ( 2 Samuel 15:37 ; 16:16 ; 1 Chronicles 27:33 ) (B.C. 1012.)
撒底 ZABDI
代表
書7:1 書7:17 代上8:19 尼11:17 代上27:27
ISBE
zab-di (zabhdi>, perhaps "(a) gift of Yahweh" or "my gift" = New Testament "Zebedee"):
(1) An ancestor of Achan (Josh 7:1,17,18). Some Septuagint manuscripts and 1 Ch 2:6 have "Zimri" (zimri); "the confusion of the Hebrew letter beth (b) and the Hebrew letter mem (m) is phonetic; the confusion of the Hebrew letter daleth (d) and the Hebrew letter resh (r) is graphic" (Curtis, Chronicles, 86).
See ZIMRI, (3).
(2) A Benjamite, son of Shimei (1 Ch 8:19), and possibly a descendant of Ehud (Curtis).
(3) "The Shiphmite," one of Davids officers who had charge of the wine-cellars (1 Ch 27:27). The Septuagints Codex Vaticanus has Zachrei (probably Zichri).
(4) An ancestor of Mattaniah (Neh 11:17). Luc. and 1 Ch 9:15 have "Zichri."
See ZICHRI, I, 2.
David Francis Roberts
Easton
gift of Jehovah. (1.) An ancestor of Achan (Josh. 7:1, 17, 18). He is probably the "Zimri" of 1 Chr. 2:6. (2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:19). (3.) Called "the Shiphmite," one of David's officers, who had charge of his vineyards (1 Chr. 27:27). (4.) A Levite, one of the sons of Asaph (Neh. 11:17); probably the same as Zichri (1 Chr. 9:15), and Zaccur (Neh. 12:35).
HDBN
same as Zabad
SBD
(my gift ). Son of Zerah the son of Judah, and ancestor of Achan. ( Joshua 7:1 Joshua 7:17 Joshua 7:18 ) (B.C. before 1480.) A Benjamite, of the sons of Shimhi. ( 1 Chronicles 8:19 ) (B.C. about 1442.) Davids officer over the produce of the vineyards for the wine-cellars. ( 1 Chronicles 21:27 ) (B.C. 1043.) Son of Asaph the minstrel, ( Nehemiah 11:17 ) called ZACCUR in ( Nehemiah 12:35 ) and ZICHRI in ( 1 Chronicles 9:15 ) (B.C. before 446.)
撒弗 SAPH
代表
撒下21:18 代上20:4
ISBE
saf (caph; Codex Vaticanus Saph; Codex Alexandrinus Sephe): A Philistine, one of the four champions of the race of Rapha ("giant") who was slain by Sibbecai, one of Davids heroes (2 Sam 21:18; 1 Ch 20:4). It is supposed by some that he was the son of the giant Goliath, but this is not proved. In 1 Ch 20:4, the same person is called "Sippai."
Easton
extension, the son of the giant whom Sibbechai slew (2 Sam. 21:18); called also Sippai (1 Chr. 20:4).
HDBN
rushes; sea-moss
SBD
(tall ), one of the sons of the giant slain by Sibbechai the Hushathite. ( 2 Samuel 21:18 ) In ( 1 Chronicles 20:4 ) he is called SIPPAI. (B.C. about 1050.)
撒弗他 SABTAH
代表
代上1:9
Easton
rest, the third son of Cush (Gen. 10:7; 1 Chr. 1:9).
HDBN
a going about or circuiting; old age
SBD
(striking ), ( Genesis 10:7 ) or Sabta, ( 1 Chronicles 1:9 ) the third in order of the sons of Cush. (B.C. 2218.)
撒弗提迦 SABTECHA
代表
代上1:9
Easton
the fifth son of Cush (id.).
SBD
or Sabtechah (striking ), ( Genesis 10:7 ; 1 Chronicles 1:9 ) the fifth in order of the sons of Cush. (B.C. 2218.)
撒慕拿 ZALMUNNA
代表
士8:5 士8:6 士8:7 士8:8 士8:9 士8:10 士8:11 士8:12 士8:13 士8:14 士8:15 士8:16 士8:17 士8:18 士8:19 士8:20 士8:21
Easton
one of the two kings of Midian whom the "Lord delivered" into the hands of Gideon. He was slain afterwards with Zebah (Judg. 8:5-21). (See ZEBAH
HDBN
shadow; image; idol forbidden
SBD
[ZEBAH]
撒拉 SARAH
代表
創17:15 來11:11 加4:22 加4:23 加4:24 加4:25 加4:26 加4:27 加4:28 加4:29 加4:30 加4:31 彼前3:6
Easton
princess, the wife and at the same time the half-sister of Abraham (Gen. 11:29; 20:12). This name was given to her at the time that it was announced to Abraham that she should be the mother of the promised child. Her story is from her marriage identified with that of the patriarch till the time of her death. Her death, at the age of one hundred and twenty-seven years (the only instance in Scripture where the age of a woman is recorded), was the occasion of Abraham's purchasing the cave of Machpelah as a family burying-place. In the allegory of Gal. 4:22-31 she is the type of the "Jerusalem which is above." She is also mentioned as Sara in Heb. 11:11 among the Old Testament worthies, who "all died in faith." (See ABRAHAM
HDBN
lady; princess; princess of the multitude
SBD
(princess ). The wife and half-sister, ( Genesis 20:12 ) of Abraham, and mother of Isaac. Her name is first introduced in ( Genesis 11:29 ) as Sarai. The change of her name from Sarai, my princess (i.e. Abrahams), to Sarah, princess (for all the race), was made at the same time that Abrams name was changed to Abraham, --on the establishment of the covenant of circumcision between him and God. Sarahs history is of course that of Abraham. [ABRAHAM] She died at Hebron at the age of 127 years, 28 years before her husband and was buried by him in the cave of (B.C. 1860.) She is referred to in the New Testament as a type of conjugal obedience in ( 1 Peter 3:6 ) and as one of the types of faith in ( Hebrews 11:11 ) Sarah, the daughter of Asher. ( Numbers 26:46 )
撒拉鐵 SHEALTIEL
代表
拉3:2尼12:1
ISBE
she-ol-ti-el (shealtiel, but in Hag 1:12,14; 2:2, shaltiel; Septuagint and the New Testament always Salathiel, hence, "Salathiel" of 1 Esdras 5:5,48,56; 6:2; the King James Version of Mt 1:12; Lk 3:27): Father of Zerubbabel (Ezr 3:2,8; 5:2; Neh 12:1; Hag 1:1,12,14; 2:2,23). But, according to 1 Ch 3:17, Shealtiel was the oldest son of King Jeconiah; in 3:19 the Massoretic Text makes Pedaiah, a brother of Shealtiel, the father of Zerubbabel (compare Curtis, ICC).
Easton
asked for of God, father of Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:2, 8; Neh. 12:1).
HDBN
same as Salathiel
撒拔 ZABAD
代表
代上2:36 代上11:41 代上7:21 代下24:26 拉10:27 拉10:33 拉10:34
ISBE
za-bad (zabhadh, perhaps a contraction for (1) zebhadhyah, "Yahweh has given," i.e. Zebadiah; or (2) zabhdiel, "El (God) is my gift" (HPN, 222 f); Zabed(t), with many variants):
(1) A Jerahmeelite (1 Ch 2:36,37), son of Nathan (see NATHAN, IV).
(2) An Ephraimite, son of Tahath (1 Ch 7:21).
(3) Son of Ahlai (1 Ch 11:41) and one of Davids mighty men (the name is wanting in 2 Sam 23:24-29).
(4) Son of Shimeath the Ammonitess (2 Ch 26); he was one of the murderers of King Joash of Judah; called "Jozacar" in 2 Ki 12:21 (Hebrew verse 22). Perhaps the name in Chronicles should be Zacar (zakhar),
(5) Name of three men who had married foreign wives: (a) son of Zattu (Ezr 10:27)= "Sabathus" of 1 Esdras 9:28; (b) son of Hashum (Ezr 10:33) = "Sabanneus" of 1 Esdras 9:33; (c) son of Nebo (Ezr 10:43) = "Zabadeas" of 1 Esdras 9:35.
David Francis Roberts
Easton
gift. (1.) One of David's valiant men (1 Chr. 11:41), the descendant of Ahlai, of the "children of Sheshan" (2:31). (2.) A descendant of Tahath (7:21). (3.) The son of Shemath. He conspired against Joash, king of Judah, and slew him (2 Chr. 24:25, 26). He is called also Jozachar (2 Kings 12:21). (4.) Ezra 10:27. (5.) Ezra 10:33. (6.) Ezra 10:43.
HDBN
dowry; endowed
SBD
(gift ). Son of Nathan son of Attai, son of Ahlai Sheshans daughter, ( 1 Chronicles 2:31-37 ) and hence called son of Ahlai. ( 1 Chronicles 11:41 ) (B.C. 1046.) He was one of Davids mighty men but none of his deeds have been recorded. The chief interest connected with him is in his genealogy, which is of considerable importance in a chronological point of view. An Ephraimite, if the text of ( 1 Chronicles 7:21 ) Isa correct. Son of Shimeath, an Ammonitess; an assassin who, with Jehozabad, slew King Joash, according to ( 2 Chronicles 24:26 ) (B.C. 840); but in ( 2 Kings 12:21 ) his name is written, probably more correctly, JOZACHAR. A layman of Israel, of the sons of Zattu, who put away his foreign wife at Ezras command. ( Ezra 10:27 ) (B.C. 458.) One of the descendants of Hashum who had married a foreign wife after the captivity. ( Ezra 10:33 ) (B.C. 458.) One of the sons of Nebo whose name is mentioned under the same circumstances as the two preceding. ( Ezra 10:43 )
撒母耳 SAMUEL
代表
撒上1:4 撒上1:5 撒上1:6 撒上1:7 撒上1:8 撒上1:9 撒上1:10 撒上1:11 撒上1:12 撒上1:13 撒上1:14 撒上1:15 撒上1:16 撒上1:17 撒上1:18 撒上1:19 撒上1:20 撒上1:21 撒上1:22 撒上1:23 撒上1:24 撒上1:25 撒上1:26 撒上1:27 撒上1:28 撒上7:15
ISBE
sam-u-el (shemuel; Samouel): The word "Samuel" signifies "name of God," or "his name is El" (God). Other interpretations of the name that have been offered are almost certainly mistaken. The play upon the name in 1 Sam 1:20 is not intended of course to be an explanation of its meaning, but is similar to the play upon the name Moses in Ex 2:10 and frequently elsewhere in similar instances. Thus, by the addition of a few letters shemuel becomes shaul meel, "asked of God," and recalls to the mother of Samuel the circumstances of the divine gift to her of a son. Outside of 1st Samuel the name of the great judge and prophet is found in Jer 15:1; Ps 99:6 and in 1 and 2 Chronicles. The reference in Jeremiah seems intended to convey the same impression that is given by the narrative of 1 Samuel, that in some sense Samuel had come to be regarded as a second Moses, upon whom the mantle of the latter had fallen, and who had been once again the deliverer and guide of the people at a great national crisis.
1. Sources and Character of the History:
The narrative of the events of the life of Samuel appears to be derived from more than one source (see SAMUEL, BOOKS OF). The narrator had before him and made use of biographies and traditions, which he combined into a single consecutive history. The completed picture of the prophets position and character which is thus presented is on the whole harmonious and consistent, and gives a very high impression of his piety and loyalty to Yahweh, and of the wide influence for good which he exerted. There are divergences apparent in detail and standpoint between the sources or traditions, some of which may probably be due merely to misunderstanding of the true nature of the events recorded, or to the failure of the modern reader rightly to appreciate the exact circumstances and time. The greater part of the narrative of the life of Samuel, however, appears to have a single origin.
2. Life:
In the portion of the general history of Israel contained in 1 Samuel are narrated the circumstances of the future prophets birth (chapter 1); of his childhood and of the custom of his parents to make annual visits to the sanctuary at Shiloh (2:11,18-21,26); of his vision, and the universal recognition of him as a prophet enjoying the special favor of Yahweh (3 through 4:1). The narrative is then interrupted to describe the conflicts with the Philistines, the fate of Eli and his sons, and the capture of the ark of God. It is only after the return of the ark, and apparently at the close of the 20 years during which it was retained at Kiriath-jearim, that Samuel again comes forward publicly, exhorting the people to repentance and promising them deliverance from the Philistines. A summary narrative is then given of the summoning of a national council at Mizpah, at which Samuel "judged the children of Israel," and offered sacrifice to the Lord, and of Yahwehs response in a great thunderstorm, which led to the defeat and panic-stricken flight of the Philistines. Then follows the narrative of the erection of a commemorative stone or pillar, Eben-ezer, "the stone of help," and the recovery of the Israelite cities which the Philistines had captured (7:5-14). The narrator adds that the Philistines came no more within the border of Israel all the days of Samuel (7:13); perhaps with an intentional reference to the troubles and disasters of which this people was the cause in the time of Saul. A brief general statement is appended of Samuels practice as a judge of going on annual circuit through the land, and of his home at Ramah (7:15-17).
No indication is given of the length of time occupied by these events. At their close, however, Samuel was an old man, and his sons who had been appointed judges in his place or to help him in his office proved themselves unworthy (1 Sam 8:1-3). The elders of the people therefore came to Samuel demanding the appointment of a king who should be his successor, and should judge in his stead. The request was regarded by the prophet as an act of disloyalty to Yahweh, but his protest was overruled by divine direction, and at Samuels bidding the people dispersed (1 Sam 8:4-22).
At this point the course of the narrative is again interrupted to describe the family and origin of Saul, his personal appearance, and the search for the lost asses of his father (1 Sam 9:1-5); his meeting with Samuel in a city in the land of Zuph, in or on the border of the territory of Benjamin (Zuph is the name of an ancestor of Elkanah, the father of Samuel, in 1 Sam 1:1), a meeting of which Samuel had received divine pre-intimation (1 Sam 9:15 f) ; the honorable place given to Saul at the feast; his anointing by Samuel as ruler of Israel, together with the announcement of three "signs," which should be to Saul assurances of the reality of his appointment and destiny; the spirit of prophecy which took possession of the future king, whereby is explained a proverbial saying which classed Saul among the prophets; and his silence with regard to what had passed between himself and Samuel on the subject of the kingdom (1 Sam 9:6 through 10:16).
It is usually, and probably rightly, believed that the narrative of these last incidents is derived from a different source from that of the preceding chapters. Slight differences of inconsistency or disagreement lie on the surface. Samuels home is not at Ramah, but a nameless city in the land of Zuph, where he is priest of the high place, with a local but, as far as the narrative goes, not a national influence or reputation; and it is anticipated that he will require the customary present at the hands of his visitors (1 Sam 9:6-8). He is described, moreover, not as a judge, nor does he discharge judicial functions, but expressly as a "seer," a name said to be an earlier title equivalent to the later "prophet" (1 Sam 9:9,11,19). Apart, however, from the apparently different position which Samuel occupies, the tone and style of the narrative is altogether distinct from that of the preceding chapters. It suggests, both in its form and in the religious conceptions which are assumed or implied, an older and less elaborated tradition than that which has found expression in the greater part of the book; and it seems to regard events as it were from a more primitive standpoint than the highly religious and monotheistic view of the later accounts. Its value as a witness to history is not impaired, but perhaps rather enhanced by its separate and independent position. The writer or compiler of 1 Samuel has inserted it as a whole in his completed narrative at the point which he judged most suitable. To the same source should possibly be assigned the announcement of Sauls rejection in 13:8-15a.
The course of the narrative is resumed at 1 Sam 10:17 ff, where, in a second national assembly at Mizpah, Saul is selected by lot and accepted by the people as king (10:17-24); after which the people dispersed, and Saul returned to his home at Gibeah (10:25-27). At a solemn assembly at Gilgal, at which the kingship is again formally conferred upon Saul, Samuel delivered a farewell address to his fellow-countrymen. A thunderstorm terrified the people; they were reassured, however, by Samuel with promises of the protection and favor of Yahweh, if they continued to fear and serve Him (11:14 through 12:25). Later the rejection of Saul for disobedience and presumption is announced by Samuel (13:8-15a). The commission to destroy Amalek is delivered to Saul by Samuel; and the rejection of the king is again pronounced because of his failure to carry out the command. Agag is then slain by Samuel with his own hand; and, the latter having returned to his home at Ramah, the narrator adds that he remained there in seclusion until the day of his death, "mourning" for Saul, but refusing to meet him again (1 Samuel 15). Finally the death and burial of Samuel at Ramah, together with the lamentation of the people for him, are briefly recorded in 1 Sam 25:1, and referred to again in 28:3.
Two incidents of Samuels life remain, in which he is brought into relation with the future king David. No indication of date or circumstance is given except that the first incident apparently follows immediately upon the second and final rejection of Saul as recorded in 1 Samuel 15. In 16:1-13 is narrated the commission of Samuel to anoint a successor to Saul, and his fulfillment of the commission by the choice of David the son of Jesse, the Bethlehemite. And, in a later chapter (19:18-24), a second occasion is named on which the compelling spirit of prophecy came upon Saul, and again the proverbial saying, "Is Saul also among the prophets?" is quoted (19:24; compare 10:11,12), and is apparently regarded as taking its origin from this event.
The anointing of David by Samuel is a natural sequel to his anointing of Saul, when the latter has been rejected and his authority and rights as king have ceased. There is nothing to determine absolutely whether the narrative is derived from the same source as the greater part of the preceding history. Slight differences of style and the apparent presuppositions of the writer have led most scholars to the conclusion that it has a distinct and separate origin. If so, the compiler of the Books of Samuel drew upon a third source for his narrative of the life of the seer, a source which there is no reason to regard as other than equally authentic and reliable. With the second incident related in 1 Sam 19:18-24, the case is different. It is hardly probable that so striking a proverb was suggested and passed into currency independently on two distinct occasions. It seems evident that here two independent sources or authorities were used, which gave hardly reconcilable accounts of the origin of a well-known saying, in one of which it has been mistakenly attributed to a similar but not identical occurrence in the life of Saul. In the final composition of the book both accounts were then inserted, without notice being taken of the inconsistency which was apparent between them.
Yet later in the history Samuel is represented as appearing to Saul in a vision at Endor on the eve of his death (1 Sam 28:11-20). The witch also sees the prophet and is stricken with fear. He is described as in appearance an old man "covered with a robe" (1 Sam 28:14). In characteristically grave and measured tones he repeats the sentence of death against the king for his disobedience to Yahweh, and announces its execution on the morrow; Sauls sons also will die with him (1 Sam 28:19), and the whole nation will be involved in the penalty and suffering, as they all had a part in the sin.
The high place which Samuel occupies in the thought of the writers and in the tradition and esteem of the people is manifest throughout the history. The different sources from which the narrative is derived are at one in this, although perhaps not to an equal degree. He is the last and greatest of the judges, the first of the prophets, and inaugurates under divine direction the Israelite kingdom and the Davidic line.
3. Character and Influence of Samuel:
It is not without reason, therefore, that he has been regarded as in dignity and importance occupying the position of a second Moses in relation to the people. In his exhortations and warnings the Deuteronomic discourses of Moses are reflected and repeated. He delivers the nation from the hand of the Philistines, as Moses from Pharaoh and the Egyptians, and opens up for them a new national era of progress and order under the rule of the kings whom they have desired. Thus, like Moses, he closes the old order, and establishes the people with brighter prospects upon more assured foundations of national prosperity and greatness. In nobility of character and utterance also, and in fidelity to Yahweh, Samuel is not unworthy to be placed by the side of the older lawgiver. The record of his life is not marred by any act or word which would appear unworthy of his office or prerogative. And the few references to him in the later literature (Ps 99:6; Jer 15:1; 1 Ch 6:28; 9:22; 11:3; 26:28; 29:29; 2 Ch 35:18) show how high was the estimation in which his name and memory were held by his fellow-countrymen in subsequent ages.

LITERATURE.
The literature is given in the article, SAMUEL, BOOKS OF (which see).
A. S. Geden
Easton
heard of God. The peculiar circumstances connected with his birth are recorded in 1 Sam. 1:20. Hannah, one of the two wives of Elkanah, who came up to Shiloh to worship before the Lord, earnestly prayed to God that she might become the mother of a son. Her prayer was graciously granted; and after the child was weaned she brought him to Shiloh nd consecrated him to the Lord as a perpetual Nazarite (1:23-2:11). Here his bodily wants and training were attended to by the women who served in the tabernacle, while Eli cared for his religious culture. Thus, probably, twelve years of his life passed away. "The child Samuel grew on, and was in favour both with the Lord, and also with men" (2:26; comp. Luke 2:52). It was a time of great and growing degeneracy in Israel (Judg. 21:19-21; 1 Sam. 2:12-17, 22). The Philistines, who of late had greatly increased in number and in power, were practically masters of the country, and kept the people in subjection (1 Sam. 10:5; 13:3). At this time new communications from God began to be made to the pious child. A mysterious voice came to him in the night season, calling him by name, and, instructed by Eli, he answered, "Speak, Lord; for thy servant heareth." The message that came from the Lord was one of woe and ruin to Eli and his profligate sons. Samuel told it all to Eli, whose only answer to the terrible denunciations (1 Sam. 3:11-18) was, "It is the Lord; let him do what seemeth him good", the passive submission of a weak character, not, in his case, the expression of the highest trust and faith. The Lord revealed himself now in divers manners to Samuel, and his fame and his influence increased throughout the land as of one divinely called to the prophetical office. A new period in the history of the kingdom of God now commenced. The Philistine yoke was heavy, and the people, groaning under the wide-spread oppression, suddenly rose in revolt, and "went out against the Philistines to battle." A fierce and disastrous battle was fought at Aphek, near to Ebenezer (1 Sam. 4:1, 2). The Israelites were defeated, leaving 4,000 dead "in the field." The chiefs of the people thought to repair this great disaster by carrying with them the ark of the covenant as the symbol of Jehovah's presence. They accordingly, without consulting Samuel, fetched it out of Shiloh to the camp near Aphek. At the sight of the ark among them the people "shouted with a great shout, so that the earth rang again." A second battle was fought, and again the Philistines defeated the Israelites, stormed their camp, slew 30,000 men, and took the sacred ark. The tidings of this fatal battle was speedily conveyed to Shiloh; and so soon as the aged Eli heard that the ark of God was taken, he fell backward from his seat at the entrance of the sanctuary, and his neck brake, and he died. The tabernacle with its furniture was probably, by the advice of Samuel, now about twenty years of age, removed from Shiloh to some place of safety, and finally to Nob, where it remained many years (21:1). The Philistines followed up their advantage, and marched upon Shiloh, which they plundered and destroyed (comp. Jer. 7:12; Ps. 78:59). This was a great epoch in the history of Israel. For twenty years after this fatal battle at Aphek the whole land lay under the oppression of the Philistines. During all these dreary years Samuel was a spiritual power in the land. From Ramah, his native place, where he resided, his influence went forth on every side among the people. With unwearied zeal he went up and down from place to place, reproving, rebuking, and exhorting the people, endeavouring to awaken in them a sense of their sinfulness, and to lead them to repentance. His labours were so far successful that "all the house of Israel lamented after the Lord." Samuel summoned the people to Mizpeh, one of the loftiest hills in Central Palestine, where they fasted and prayed, and prepared themselves there, under his direction, for a great war against the Philistines, who now marched their whole force toward Mizpeh, in order to crush the Israelites once for all. At the intercession of Samuel God interposed in behalf of Israel. Samuel himself was their leader, the only occasion in which he acted as a leader in war. The Philistines were utterly routed. They fled in terror before the army of Israel, and a great slaughter ensued. This battle, fought probably about B.C. 1095, put an end to the forty years of Philistine oppression. In memory of this great deliverance, and in token of gratitude for the help vouchsafed, Samuel set up a great stone in the battlefield, and called it "Ebenezer," saying, "Hitherto hath the Lord helped us" (1 Sam. 7:1-12). This was the spot where, twenty years before, the Israelites had suffered a great defeat, when the ark of God was taken. This victory over the Philistines was followed by a long period of peace for Israel (1 Sam. 7:13, 14), during which Samuel exercised the functions of judge, going "from year to year in circuit" from his home in Ramah to Bethel, thence to Gilgal (not that in the Jordan valley, but that which lay to the west of Ebal and Gerizim), and returning by Mizpeh to Ramah. He established regular services at Shiloh, where he built an altar; and at Ramah he gathered a company of young men around him and established a school of the prophets. The schools of the prophets, thus originated, and afterwards established also at Gibeah, Bethel, Gilgal, and Jericho, exercised an important influence on the national character and history of the people in maintaining pure religion in the midst of growing corruption. They continued to the end of the Jewish commonwealth. Many years now passed, during which Samuel exercised the functions of his judicial office, being the friend and counsellor of the people in all matters of private and public interest. He was a great statesman as well as a reformer, and all regarded him with veneration as the "seer," the prophet of the Lord. At the close of this period, when he was now an old man, the elders of Israel came to him at Ramah (1 Sam. 8:4, 5, 19-22); and feeling how great was the danger to which the nation was exposed from the misconduct of Samuel's sons, whom he had invested with judicial functions as his assistants, and had placed at Beersheba on the Philistine border, and also from a threatened invasion of the Ammonites, they demanded that a king should be set over them. This request was very displeasing to Samuel. He remonstrated with them, and warned them of the consequences of such a step. At length, however, referring the matter to God, he acceded to their desires, and anointed Saul (q.v.) to be their king (11:15). Before retiring from public life he convened an assembly of the people at Gilgal (ch. 12), and there solemnly addressed them with reference to his own relation to them as judge and prophet. The remainder of his life he spent in retirement at Ramah, only occasionally and in special circumstances appearing again in public (1 Sam. 13, 15) with communications from God to king Saul. While mourning over the many evils which now fell upon the nation, he is suddenly summoned (ch.16) to go to Bethlehem and anoint David, the son of Jesse, as king over Israel instead of Saul. After this little is known of him till the time of his death, which took place at Ramah when he was probably about eighty years of age. "And all Israel gathered themselves together, and lamented him, and buried him in his house at Ramah" (25:1), not in the house itself, but in the court or garden of his house. (Comp. 2 Kings 21:18; 2 Chr. 33:20; 1 Kings 2:34; John 19:41.) Samuel's devotion to God, and the special favour with which God regarded him, are referred to in Jer. 15:1 and Ps. 99:6.
HDBN
heard of God; asked of God
SBD
was the son of Elkanah and Hannah, and was born at Ramathaim-zophim, among the hills of Ephraim. [RAMAH No. 2] (B.C. 1171.) Before his birth he was dedicated by his mother to the office of a Nazarite and when a young child, 12 years old according to Josephus he was placed in the temple, and ministered unto the Lord before Eli." It was while here that he received his first prophetic call. ( 1 Samuel 3:1-18 ) He next appears, probably twenty years afterward, suddenly among the people, warning them against their idolatrous practices. ( 1 Samuel 7:3 1 Samuel 7:4 ) Then followed Samuels first and, as far as we know, only military achievement, ch. ( 1 Samuel 7:5-12 ) but it was apparently this which raised him to the office of "judge." He visited, in the discharge of his duties as ruler, the three chief sanctuaries on the west of Jordan --Bethel, Gilgal and Mizpeh. ch. ( 1 Samuel 7:16 ) His own residence was still native city, Ramah, where he married, and two sons grew up to repeat under his eyes the same perversion of high office that he had himself witnessed in his childhood in the case of the two sons of Eli. In his old age he shared his power with them, ( 1 Samuel 8:1-4 ) but the people dissatisfied, demanded a king, and finally anointed under Gods direction, and Samuel surrendered to him his authority, ( 1 Samuel 12:1 ) ... though still remaining judge. ch. ( 1 Samuel 7:15 ) He was consulted far and near on the small affairs of life. ( 1 Samuel 9:7 1 Samuel 9:8 ) From this fact, combined with his office of ruler, an awful reverence grew up around him. No sacrificial feast was thought complete without his blessing. Ibid. ( 1 Samuel 9:13 ) A peculiar virtue was believed to reside in his intercession. After Saul was rejected by God, Samuel anointed David in his place and Samuel became the spiritual father of the psalmist-king. The death of Samuel is described as taking place in the year of the close of Davids wanderings. It is said with peculiar emphasis, as if to mark the loss, that "all the Israelites were gathered together" from all parts of this hitherto-divided country, and "lamented him," and "buried him" within his own house, thus in a manner consecrated by being turned into his tomb. ( 1 Samuel 25:1 ) Samuel represents the independence of the moral law, of the divine will, as distinct from legal or sacerdotal enactments, which is so remarkable a characteristic of all the later prophets. He is also the founder of the first regular institutions of religious instructions and communities for the purposes of education.
撒珥根 SARGON
代表
賽20:1
ISBE
sar-gon (722-705 BC): The name of this ruler is written cargon, in the Old Testament, Shar-ukin in the cuneiform inscriptions, Arna, in the Septuagint, and Arkeanos, in the Ptolemaic Canon. Sargon is mentioned but once by name in the Old Testament (Isa 20:1), when he sent his Tartan (turtannu) against Ashdod, but he is referred to in 2 Ki 17:6 as "the king of Assyria" who carried Israel into captivity.
Shalmaneser V had laid siege to Samaria and besieged it three years. But shortly before or very soon after its capitulation, Sargon, perhaps being responsible for the kings death, overthrew the dynasty, and in his annals credited himself with the capture of the city and the deportation of its inhabitants. Whether he assumed the name of the famous ancient founder of the Accad dynasty is not known.
Sargon at the beginning of his reign was confronted with a serious situation in Babylon. Merodach-baladan of Kaldu, who paid tribute to previous rulers, on the change of dynasty had himself proclaimed king, New Years Day, 721 BC. At Dur-ilu, Sargon fought with the forces of Merodachbalddan and his ally Khumbanigash of Elam, but although he claimed a victory the result was apparently indecisive. Rebellions followed in other parts of the kingdom.
In 720 BC Ilu-bidi (or Yau-bidi), king of Hamath, formed a coalition against Sargon with Hanno of Gaza, Sibu of Egypt, and with the cities Arpad, Simirra, Damascus and Samaria. He claims that Sibu fled, and that he captured and flayed Ilu-bidi, burned Qarqar, and carried Hanno captive to Assyria. After destroying Rapihu, he carried away 9,033 inhabitants to Assyria.
In the following year Ararat was invaded and the Hittite Carchemish fell before his armies. The territory of Rusas, king of Ararat, as well as a part of Melitene became Assyrian provinces.
In 710 BC Sargon directed his attention to Merodachbaladan, who no longer enjoyed the support of Elam, and whose rule over Babylon had not been popular with his subjects. He was driven out from Babylon and also from his former capital Bit-Yakin, and Sargon had himself crowned as the shakkanak of Babylon.
In 706 BC the new city called Dur-Sharrukin was dedicated as his residence. A year later he was murdered. It was during his reign that the height of Assyrian ascendancy had been reached.
A. T. Clay
Easton
(In the inscriptions, "Sarra-yukin" [the god] has appointed the king; also "Sarru-kinu," the legitimate king.) On the death of Shalmaneser (B.C. 723), one of the Assyrian generals established himself on the vacant throne, taking the name of "Sargon," after that of the famous monarch, the Sargon of Accad, founder of the first Semitic empire, as well as of one of the most famous libraries of Chaldea. He forthwith began a conquering career, and became one of the most powerful of the Assyrian monarchs. He is mentioned by name in the Bible only in connection with the siege of Ashdod (Isa. 20:1). At the very beginning of his reign he besieged and took the city of Samaria (2 Kings 17:6; 18:9-12). On an inscription found in the palace he built at Khorsabad, near Nieveh, he says, "The city of Samaria I besieged, I took; 27,280 of its inhabitants I carried away; fifty chariots that were among them I collected," etc. The northern kingdom he changed into an Assyrian satrapy. He afterwards drove Merodach-baladan (q.v.), who kept him at bay for twelve years, out of Babylon, which he entered in triumph. By a succession of victories he gradually enlarged and consolidated the empire, which now extended from the frontiers of Egypt in the west to the mountains of Elam in the east, and thus carried almost to completion the ambitious designs of Tiglath-pileser (q.v.). He was murdered by one of his own soldiers (B.C. 705) in his palace at Khorsabad, after a reign of sixteen years, and was succeeded by his son Sennacherib.
HDBN
who takes away protection
SBD
(prince of the sea ), one of the greatest of the Assyrian kings, is mentioned by name but once in Scripture-- ( Isaiah 20:1 ) He was the successor of Shalmaneser, and was Sennacheribs father and his reigned from B.C. 721 to 702, and seems to have been a usurper. He was undoubtedly a great and successful warrior. In his annals, which cover a space of fifteen years, from B.C. 721 to 706, he gives an account of his warlike expeditions against Babylonia and Susiana on the south, Media on the east, Armenia and Cappadocia toward the north, Syria, Palestine, Arabia and Egypt toward the west and southwest. In B.C. 712 he took Ashdod, by one of his generals, which is the event which causes the mention of his name in Scripture. It is not as a warrior only that Sargon deserves special mention among the Assyrian kings. He was also the builder of useful works, and of one of the most magnificent of the Assyrian palaces.
撒瑪 SHEMER
代表
代上6:47 王上16:34
ISBE
she-mer (shemer; Semer, Lucian, Semmer):
(1) The owner of the hill which Omri bought and which became the site of Samaria (1 Ki 16:24, shomeron). Shemer may be an ancient clan name. The fact, however, that the mountain was called Shomeron when Omri bought it makes one doubt that the city of Samaria was named after Shemer; the passage is questionable. The real etymology of Samaria roots it in "watch mountain" (see Stade, Zeitschrift, 165 f).
(2) A Merarite (1 Ch 6:46 (31), Semmer).
(3) An Asherite (1 Ch 7:34, A and Lucian, Somer), called "Shomer" in 1 Ch 7:32.
(4) A Benjamite (1 Ch 8:12, Codex Vaticanus Semer; Codex Alexandrinus Semmer; Lucian, Samaiel); the Revised Version (British and American) "Shemed," the King James Version "Shamed."
The Hebrew manuscripts differ; some read "Shemer," others "Shemedh."
Horace J. Wolf
HDBN
guardian; thorn
SBD
(preserved ), the owner of the hill on which the city of Samaria was built. ( 1 Kings 16:24 ) (B.C. 917.) [SAMARIA]
撒番 ZAAVAN
代表
創36:27 代上42
ISBE
za-a-van (za`-awan, meaning unknown): A Horite descendant of Seir (Gen 36:27; 1 Ch 1:42). In 1 Chronicles, Lucian has Zauan = Samaritan z-w-`-n i.e. Zaw`an, from a root meaning "to tremble," "fear" (see ..., BDB). King James Version has "Zavan" in 1 Chronicles.
Easton
terror, one of the "dukes of Edom" (Gen. 36:27); called also Zavan (1 Chr. 1:42).
HDBN
trembling
SBD
or Zavan (migratory ), a Horite chief, son of Ezer the son of Seir. ( Genesis 36:27 ; 1 Chronicles 1:42 )
撒發那忒巴內亞 ZAPHNATH-PAANEAH
代表
創41:45
Easton
the name which Pharaoh gave to Joseph when he raised him to the rank of prime minister or grand vizier of the kingdom (Gen. 41:45). This is a pure Egyptian word, and has been variously explained. Some think it means "creator," or "preserver of life." Brugsch interprets it as "governor of the district of the place of life", i.e., of Goshen, the chief city of which was Pithom, "the place of life." Others explain it as meaning "a revealer of secrets," or "the man to whom secrets are revealed."
HDBN
one who discovers hidden things
撒督 ZADOK
代表
撒下8:17 代上12:28 代上18:16 王下15:32 王下15:33 代下27:1 尼3:4 尼3:29 太1:14
ISBE
za-dok (tsadowq, once tsadhoq (1 Ki 1:26), similar to tsaddiq, and tsadduq, post-Biblical, meaning justus, "righteous"; Septuagint Sadok): Cheyne in Encyclopedia Biblica suggests that Zadok was a modification of a Gentilic name, that of the Zidkites the Negeb, who probably derived their appellation from the root ts-d-q, a secondary title of the god they worshipped. At the same time Cheyne admits that cultivated Israelites may have interpreted Zadok as meaning "just," "righteous"--a much more credible supposition.
(1) Zadok the son of Ahitub (2 Sam 8:17)--not of Ahitub the ancestor of Ahimelech (1 Sam 14:3) and of Abiathar, his son (1 Sam 22:20).
(2) Zadok father of Jerusha, mother of Jotham, and wife of Uzziah king of Judah (2 Ki 15:33; 2 Ch 27:1).
(3) Zadok the son of Ahitub and father of Shallum (1 Ch 6:12) or Meshullam (Neh 11:11), and the ancestor of Ezra (7:1,2).
(4) Zadok the son of Baana, a wall-builder in the time of Nehemiah (Neh 3:4), and probably one of the signatories to the covenant made by the princes, priests and Levites of Israel (Neh 10:21)--in both places his name occurring immediately after that of Meshezabel.
(5) Zodak the son of Immer, and, like the preceding, a repairer of the wall (Neh 3:29).
(6) Zodak a scribe in the time of Nehemiah (13:13). Whether this was the same as either of the two preceding cannot be determined.
The first of these filled a larger place in Old Testament history than either of the others; and to him accordingly the following paragraphs refer. They set forth the accounts given of him first in Samuel and Kings and next in Chronicles; after which they state and criticize the critical theory concerning him.
1. In Samuel and Kings:
(1) In these older sources Zodak first appears in Davids reign, after Israel and Judah were united under him, as joint occupant with Ahimelech of the high priests office and his name taking precedence of that of his colleague Ahimelech, the son of Abiathar (2 Sam 8:17).
(2) On Davids flight from Jerusalem, occasioned by Absaloms rebellion, Zadok and Abiathar (now the joint high priest), accompanied by the whole body of the Levites, followed the king across the Kidron, bearing the Ark of the Covenant, which, however, they were directed to carry back to the city, taking with them their two sons, Ahimaaz the son of Zadok, and Jonathan the son of Abiathar, to act as spies upon the conduct of the rebels and send information to the king (2 Sam 15:24-36; 17:15,17-21).
(3) On the death of Absalom, Zodak and Abiathar were employed by David as intermediaries between himself and the elders of Judah to consult about his return to the city, which through their assistance was successfully brought about (2 Sam 19:11).
(4) When, toward the end of Davids life, Adonijah the son of Haggith, and therefore the crown prince, put forward his claim to the throne of all Israel, taking counsel with Joab and Abiathar, Zodak along with Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada, and Nathan the prophet, espoused the cause of Solomon, Bathshebas son, and acting on Davids instructions anointed him as king in Gihon (1 Ki 1:8,26,32-45).
(5) Accordingly, when Solomon found himself established on the throne, he put Zodak in the room of Abiathar, i.e. made him sole high priest, while retaining Abiathar in the priestly office, though deposed from a position of coordinate authority with Zodak (1 Ki 2:26,27,35; 4:4).
2. In Chronicles:
(1) As in the earlier sources so in these, Zodaks father was Ahitub and his son Ahimaaz--the information being added that they were all descendants from Aaron through Eleazar (1 Ch 6:50-53).
(2) Among the warriors who came to Hebron to turn the kingdom of Saul to David was "Zodak, a young man mighty of valor," who was followed by 22 captains of his father house (1 Ch 12:26-28).
(3) Along with Abiathar and the Levites, Zodak was directed by David to bring up the Ark from the house of Obed-edom to the tent pitched for it on Mt. Zion, when Zodak was appointed to officiate at Gibeon, while Abiathar, it is presumed, ministered in Jerusalem (1 Ch 15:11; 16:39).
(4) Toward the end of Davids reign Zodak and Abimelech the son of Abiathar acted as priests, Zodak as before having precedence (1 Ch 18:16).
(5) To them was committed by the aged king the task of arranging the priests and Levites according to their several duties, it being intimated by the narrator that Zodak was of the sons of Eleazar, and Ahimelech (in 1 Ch 18:16, named Abiathar; see above) of the sons of Ithamar (1 Ch 24:3). In 1 Ch 24:6 Ahimelech is called the son of Abiathar, while in 18:16, Abiathars son is Abimelech--which suggests that the letters "b" and "h" were interchangeable in the name of Abiathars sons.
(6) When Solomon was anointed king, Zodak was anointed (sole) priest (1 Ch 29:22).
Obviously a large measure of agreement exists between the two narratives. Yet some points demand explanation.
3. Harmony of the Accounts:
(1) The seeming discrepancy between the statements in the earlier sources, that Zodaks colleague in the high priests office is first named Ahimelech (2 Sam 8:17) and afterward Abiathar (2 Sam 15:24), should occasion little perplexity. Either Ahimelech and Abiathar were one and the same person--not an unlikely supposition (see above); or, what is more probable, Abiathar was Ahimelechs son and had succeeded to his fathers office.
(2) Zodaks appearance as a young soldier among the captains who brought David to Jerusalem (assuming that Zodak the soldier was Zodak the priest, which is not absolutely certain) need create no difficulty, if Zodak was not then of age to succeed his father in the priestly office. The earlier sources do not make Zodak an acting priest till after Davids accession to the throne of all Israel.
(3) Neither should it prove an insoluble problem to explain how, soon after Davids accession to the throne of Judah and Israel, Zodak should be found engaged along with Abiathar in bringing up the Ark to Mt. Zion, as by this time Zodak had obviously entered on the high-priestly office, either in succession to or as colleague of his father.
(4) That Zodak was left to officiate at Gibeon where the tabernacle was, while Abiathar was selected to exercise office in the capital, in no way conflicts with the earlier account and seems reasonable as a distribution of official duties. Why Zodak was sent to Gibeon, where the tabernacle was, and not kept at Jerusalem whither the Ark had been brought, he being always named before Abiathar and probably looked upon as the principal high priest, may have had its reason either in the fact that the king regarded Gibeon as the central sanctuary for national worship, the tabernacle being there (Solomon obviously did; see 2 Ch 1:3), and therefore as the proper place for the principal high priest; or in the fact that Zodak was younger than Abiathar and therefore less fitted than his older colleague to be at court, as an adviser to the king.
(5) That toward the end of Davids reign, not Abiathar, but his son Ahimelech (or Abimelech), should be introduced as joint high priest with Zodak will not be surprising, if Abiathar was by this time an old man, as his father was at the beginning of Davids reign. That grandfather and grandson should have the same name is as likely to have been common then as it is today.
(6) That Zodak should have been appointed sole high priest on Solomons accession (1 Ch 29:22) is not inconsistent with the statement (1 Ki 4:4) that under Solomon Zodak and Abiathar were priests. Abiathar might still be recognized as a priest or even as a high priest, though no longer acting as such. The act of deposition may have affected his son Ahimelech as well, and if both father and son were degraded, perhaps this was only to the extent of excluding them from the chief dignity of high priest.
4. The Higher Critical Theory:
The higher criticism holds: (1) that the Zadok of Davids reign was not really an Aaronite descended from Eleazar through Ahitub, who was not Zadoks father but Ahimelechs (Gray in EB, article "Ahitub"), but an adventurer, a soldier of fortune who had climbed up into the priests office, though by what means is not known (Wellhausen, GJ, 145); (2) that up till Zadoks appearance the priesthood had been in Ithamars line, though, according to the insertion by a later writer in the text of 1 Sam 2 (see 2:27 ff), in Elis day it was predicted that it should pass from Elis house and be given to another; (3) that when Abiathar or Ahimelech or both were deposed and Zadok instituted sole high priest by Solomon, this fictitious prophecy was fulfilled--though in reality there was neither prophecy nor fulfillment; (4) that during the exile Ezekiel in his sketch of the vision-temple represented the Zadokites as the only legitimate priests, while the others of the line of A were degraded to be Levites; (5) that in order to establish the legitimacy of Zadok the writer of the Priestly Code (P) invented his Aaronic descent through Eleazar and inserted the fictitious prophecy in 1 Samuel.
5. Criticism of This Theory:
(1) This theory proceeds upon the assumption, not that the Chronicler was a post-exilic writer (which is admitted), but that he deliberately and purposely idealized and to that extent falsified the past history of his people by ascribing to them a faithful adherence to the Levitical institutions of the Priestly Code, which, according to this theory, were not then in existence--in other words by representing the religious institutions and observances of his own age as having existed in the nation from the beginning. Were this theory established by well-accredited facts, it would doubtless require to be accepted; but the chief, if not the only, support it has is derived from a previous reconstruction of the sacred text in accordance with theory it is called on to uphold.
(2) That the father of Zadok was not Ahitub, a priest of the line of Eleazar, is arrived at by declaring the text in 2 Sam 8:17 to have been intentionally corrupted, presumably by a late redactor, the original form of the verse having been, according to criticism (Wellhausen, TBS, 176 f): "Abiathar the son of Ahimelech, the son of Ahitub, and Zadok were priests." But if this was the original form of the words it is not easy to explain why they should have been so completely turned round as to say the opposite, namely, that Ahimelech was the son of Abiathar, and that Ahitub was the father of Zadok., when in reality he was the father of Ahimelech. If, as Cornill admits (Einl, 116), the Chronicler worked "with good, old historical material," it is not credible that he made it say the opposite of what it meant.
(3) If Zadok was not originally a priest, but only a military adventurer, why should David have made him a priest at all? Wellhausen says (GI, 20) that when David came to the throne he "attached importance to having as priests the heirs of the old family who had served the Ark at Shiloh." But if so, he had Abiathar of the line of Ithamar at hand, and did not need to go to the army for a priest. If, however, it be urged that in making Zadok a priest he gave him an inferior rank to Abiathar, and sent him to Gibeon where the tabernacle was, why should both sources so persistently place Zadok before Abiathar?
(4) If Zadok was originally a soldier not connected with the priesthood, and only became a priest after David came to Jerusalem, why should the earlier source have omitted to record this, when no reason existed, so far as one can discover, why it should have been left out? And why should the priestly disposed Chronicler have incorporated this in his narrative when all his inclinations should have moved him to omit it, more especially when he was intending to invent (according to the critical theory) for the young warrior an Aaronite descent?
(5) That the prediction of the fall of Elis house (1 Sam 2:27-36) was inserted by a late writer to justify its supersession by the line of Zadok has no foundation except the presupposition that prediction is impossible, which fair-minded criticism cannot admit. The occurrence of the word "anointed" it is contended, presupposes the monarchy. This, however, it only predicts; and at the most, as Driver sees (Introduction, 164), cannot prove the fictitious character of the prophecy, but merely that it has been "recast by the narrator and colored by the associations with which he himself is familiar"; and even this is entirely hypothetical.
(6) Ezekiels reference to Zadoks descendants as the only legitimate priests in the vision-temple does not prove that Zadok himself was a soldier who climbed up into the priesthood. Even if the critical interpretation of the vision-temple were correct, it in no way affects the personality of Zadok, and certainly does not disprove his original connection with the priesthood or his descent from Eleazar.
T. Whitelaw
Easton
righteous. (1.) A son of Ahitub, of the line of Eleazer (2 Sam. 8:17; 1 Chr. 24:3), high priest in the time of David (2 Sam. 20:25) and Solomon (1 Kings 4:4). He is first mentioned as coming to take part with David at Hebron (1 Chr. 12:27, 28). He was probably on this account made ruler over the Aaronites (27:17). Zadok and Abiathar acted as high priests on several important occasions (1 Chr. 15:11; 2 Sam. 15:24-29, 35, 36); but when Adonijah endeavoured to secure the throne, Abiathar went with him, and therefore Solomon "thrust him out from being high priest," and Zadok, remaining faithful to David, became high priest alone (1 Kings 2:27, 35; 1 Chr. 29:22). In him the line of Phinehas resumed the dignity, and held it till the fall of Jerusalem. He was succeeded in his sacred office by his son Azariah (1 Kings 4:2; comp. 1 Chr. 6:3-9). (2.) The father of Jerusha, who was wife of King Uzziah, and mother of King Jotham (2 Kings 15:33; 2 Chr. 27:1). (3.) "The scribe" set over the treasuries of the temple by Nehemiah along with a priest and a Levite (Neh. 13:13). (4.) The sons of Baana, one of those who assisted in rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:4).
HDBN
just; justified
SBD
(just ). Son of Ahitub and one of the two chief priests in the time of David, Abiathar being the other. Zadok was of the house of Eleazar the son of Aaron, ( 1 Chronicles 24:3 ) and eleventh in descent from Aaron. ( 1 Chronicles 12:28 ) He joined David at Hebron after Sauls death, ( 1 Chronicles 12:28 ) and thenceforth his fidelity to David was inviolable. When Absalom revolted and David fled from Jerusalem, Zadok and all the Levites bearing the ark accompanied him. When Absalom was dead, Zadok and Abiathar were the persons who persuaded the elders of Judah to invite David to return. ( 2 Samuel 19:11 ) When Adonijah, in Davids old age, set up for king, and had persuaded Joab, and Abiathar the priest, to join his party, Zadok was unmoved, and was employed by David to anoint Solomon to be king in his room. ( 1 Kings 1:34 ) For this fidelity he was rewarded by Solomon who "thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the Lord," and "put in Zadok the priest" in his room. ( 1 Kings 2:27 1 Kings 2:35 ) From this time, however, we hear little of him. Zadok and Abiathar were of nearly equal dignity. ( 2 Samuel 15:35 2 Samuel 15:36 ; 19:11 ) The duties of the office were divided, Zadok ministered before the tabernacle at Gibeon, ( 1 Chronicles 16:39 ) Abiathar had the care of the ark at Jerusalem. According to the genealogy of the high priests in ( 1 Chronicles 6:12 ) there was a second Zadok, son of a second Ahitub son of Amariah, about the time of King Ahaziah. It is probable that no such person as this second Zadok ever existed, but that the insertion of the two names is a copyists error. Father of Jerushah, the wife of King Uzziah and mother of King Jotham. ( 2 Kings 15:33 ; 2 Chronicles 27:1 ) Son of Baana, and 5. Son of Immer, persons who repaired a portion of the wall in Nehemiahs time. ( Nehemiah 3:4 Nehemiah 3:29 ) In ( 1 Chronicles 9:11 ) and Nehe 11:11 mention is made, in a genealogy, of Zadok, the son of Meraioth, the son of Ahitub; but it can hardly be doubtful that Meraioth is inserted by the error of a copyist, and that Zadok the son of Ahitub is meant.
撒縵以色 SHALMANESER
代表
王下17:3 王下18:9
ISBE
shal-ma-ne-zer (shalmanecer; Septuagint Samennasar, Salmandsar): The name of several Assyrian kings. See ASSYRIA; CAPTIVITY. It is Shalmaneser IV who is mentioned in the Biblical history (2 Ki 17:3; 18:9). He succeeded Tiglathpileser on the throne in 727 BC, but whether he was a son of his predecessor, or a usurper, is not apparent. His reign was short, and, as no annals of it have come to light, we have only the accounts contained in 2 Kings for his history. In the passages referred to above, we learn that Hoshea, king of Israel, who had become his vassal, refused to continue the payment of tribute, relying upon help from So, king of Egypt. No help, however, came from Egypt, and Hoshea had to face the chastising forces of his suzerain with his own unaided resources, the result being that he was taken prisoner outside Samaria and most likely carried away to Nineveh. The Biblical narrative goes on to say that the king of Assyria came up throughout all the land, and went up to Samaria and besieged it 3 years. There is reason to believe that, as the siege of Samaria was proceeding, Shalmaneser retired to Nineveh and died, for, when the city was taken in 722 BC, it is Sargon who claims, in his copious annals, to have captured it and carried its inhabitants into captivity. It is just possible that Shalman (Hos 10:14) is a contraction for Shalmaneser, but the identity of Shalman and of Beth-arbel named in the same passage is not sufficiently made out.

LITERATURE.
Schrader, COT, I, 258 ff; McCurdy, HPM, I, 387 ff.
T. Nicol
HDBN
peace; tied; chained; perfection; retribution
SBD
(fire-worshipper ) was the Assyrian king who reigned probably between Tiglath-Pileser and Sargon, B.C. 727-722. He led the forces of Assyria into Palestine, where Hoshea, the last king of Israel, had revolted against his authority. ( 2 Kings 17:3 ) Hoshea submitted and consented to pay tribute; but he soon after concluded all alliance with the king of Egypt, and withheld his tribute in consequence. In B.C. 723 Shalmaneser invaded Palestine for the second time, and, as Hoshea refused to submit, laid siege to Samaria. The siege lasted to the third year, B.C. 721, when the Assyrian arms prevailed. ( 2 Kings 17:4-6 ; 18:9-11 ) It is uncertain whether Shalmaneser conducted the siege to its close, or whether he did not lose his crown to Sargon before the city was taken.
撒罕 ZAHAM
代表
代下11:19
ISBE
za-ham (zaham, meaning uncertain; Septuagint Codex Alexandrinus Zalam, Codex Vaticanus Rhoollam): A son of King Rehoboam (2 Ch 11:19).
HDBN
crime; filthiness; impurity
SBD
(fatness ), son of Rehoboam by Abihail the daughter of Eliab. ( 2 Chronicles 11:19 )
撒羅米 SALOME
代表
太27:56 可16:1 可16:2
ISBE
sa-lo-me (Salome):
(1) One of the holy women who companied with Jesus in Galilee, and ministered to Him (Mk 15:40,41). She was present at the crucifixion (Mk 15:40), and was among those who came to the tomb of Jesus on the resurrection morning (Mk 16:1,2). Comparison with Mt 27:56 clearly identifies her with the wife of Zebedee. It is she, therefore, whose ambitious request for her sons James and John is recorded in Mt 20:20-24; Mk 10:35-40. From Jn 19:25 many infer that she was a sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus (thus Meyer, Luthardt, Alford); others (as Godet) dispute the inference.
(2) Salome was the name of the daughter of Herodias who danced before Herod, and obtained as reward the head of John the Baptist (Mt 14:3-11; Mk 6:17-28; compare Josephus, Ant, XVIII, v, 4). She is not named in the Gospels.
James Orr
Easton
perfect. (1.) The wife of Zebedee and mother of James and John (Mat. 27:56), and probably the sister of Mary, the mother of our Lord (John 19:25). She sought for her sons places of honour in Christ's kingdom (Matt. 20:20, 21; comp. 19:28). She witnessed the crucifixion (Mark 15:40), and was present with the other women at the sepulchre (Matt. 27:56). (2.) "The daughter of Herodias," not named in the New Testament. On the occasion of the birthday festival held by Herod Antipas, who had married her mother Herodias, in the fortress of Machaerus, she "came in and danced, and pleased Herod" (Mark 6:14-29). John the Baptist, at that time a prisoner in the dungeons underneath the castle, was at her request beheaded by order of Herod, and his head given to the damsel in a charger, "and the damsel gave it to her mother," whose revengeful spirit was thus gratified. "A luxurious feast of the period" (says Farrar, Life of Christ) "was not regarded as complete unless it closed with some gross pantomimic representation; and doubtless Herod had adopted the evil fashion of his day. But he had not anticipated for his guests the rare luxury of seeing a princess, his own niece, a grand-daughter of Herod the Great and of Mariamne, a descendant, therefore, of Simon the high priest and the great line of Maccabean princes, a princess who afterwards became the wife of a tetrarch [Philip, tetrarch of Trachonitis] and the mother of a king, honouring them by degrading herself into a scenic dancer."
HDBN
same as Salmon
SBD
(peaceful ). The wife of Zebedee, ( Matthew 27:56 ; Mark 15:40 ) and probably sister of Mary the mother of Jesus, to whom reference is made in ( John 19:25 ) The only events recorded of Salome are that she preferred a request on behalf of her two sons for seats of honor in the kingdom of heaven, ( Matthew 20:20 ) that she attended at the crucifixion of Jesus, ( Mark 15:40 ) and that she visited his sepulchre. ( Mark 16:1 ) She is mentioned by name on only the two latter occasions. The daughter of Herodias by her first husband, Herod Philip. ( Matthew 14:6 ) She married in the first the tetrarch of Trachonitis her paternal uncle, sad secondly Aristobulus, the king of Chalcis.
撒萊 SARAI
代表
創11:29 創17:15
Easton
my princess, the name originally borne by Sarah (Gen. 11:31; 17:15).
HDBN
my lady; my princess
撒薩 ZAZA
代表
代上2:33
ISBE
za-za (zaza, meaning unknown; the Septuagints Codex Vaticanus Ozam; Codex Alexandrinus Ozaza): A Jerahmeelite (1 Ch 2:33).
Easton
plenty, a descendant of Judah (1 Chr. 2:33).
HDBN
belonging to all
SBD
one of the sons of Jonathan, a descendant of Jerahmeel. ( 1 Chronicles 2:33 )
撒西金 SARSECHIM
代表
耶39:3
ISBE
sar-se-kim, sar-se-kim (sarckhim): A prince of Nebuchadnezzar, present at the taking of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in the 11th year of Zedekiah (Jer 39:3). The versions with their various readings--"Nabousachar" "Nabousarach," "Sarsacheim"--point to a corrupt text. The best emendation is the reading "Nebhoshazibhon" ( = Nabusezib-anni, "Nebo delivers me"); this is based on the reading in Jer 39:13.
HDBN
master of the wardrobe
SBD
(prince of the eunuchs ), one of the generals of Nebuchadnezzars army at the taking of Jerusalem. ( Jeremiah 39:3 ) (B.C. 588.)
撒該 ZACCHAEUS
代表
路19:1 路19:2 路19:3 路19:4 路19:5 路19:6 路19:7 路19:8 路19:9 路19:10
ISBE
za-ke-us (Zakchaios, from zakkay, "pure"):
(1) A publican with whom Jesus lodged during His stay in Jericho (Lk 19:1-10). He is not mentioned in the other Gospels. Being a chief publican, or overseer, among the tax-gatherers, Zaccheus had additional opportunity, by farming the taxes, of increasing that wealth for which his class was famous. Yet his mind was not entirely engrossed by material considerations, for he joined the throng which gathered to see Jesus on His entrance into the city. Of little stature, he was unable either to see over or to make his way through the press, and therefore scaled a sycomore tree. There he was singled out by Jesus, who said to him, "Zacchaeus, make haste, and come down; for to-day I must abide at thy house" (Lk 19:5). The offer thus frankly made by Jesus was accepted eagerly and gladly by Zaccheus; and the murmurings of the crowd marred the happiness of neither. How completely the new birth was accomplished in Zaccheus is testified by his vow to give half of his goods to the poor, and to make fourfold restitution where he had wrongfully exacted. The incident reveals the Christian truth that just as the publican Zaccheus was regarded by the rest of the Jews as a sinner and renegade who was unworthy to be numbered among the sons of Abraham, and was yet chosen by our Lord to be His host, so the social outcast of modern life is still a son of God, within whose heart the spirit of Christ is longing to make its abode. "For the Son of man came to seek and to save that which was lost" (Lk 19:10).
(2) An officer of Judas Maccabeus (2 Macc 10:19).
(3) A Zaccheus is mentioned in the Clementine Homilies (iii.63) as having been a companion of Peter and appointed bishop of Caesarea.
(4) According to the Gospel of the Childhood, by Thomas, Zaccheus was also the name of the teacher of the boy Jesus.
C. M. Kerr
Easton
pure, a superintendant of customs; a chief tax-gather (publicanus) at Jericho (Luke 19:1-10). "The collection of customs at Jericho, which at this time produced and exported a considerable quantity of balsam, was undoubtedly an important post, and would account for Zacchaeus being a rich man." Being short of stature, he hastened on before the multitude who were thronging about Christ as he passed through Jericho on his way to Jerusalem, and climbed up a sycamore tree that he might be able to see him. When our Lord reached the spot he looked up to the publican among the branches, and addressing him by name, told him to make haste and come down, as he intended that day to abide at his house. This led to the remarkable interview recorded by the evangelist, and to the striking parable of the ten pounds (Luke 19:12-27). At Er-riha (Jericho) there is a large, venerable looking square tower, which goes by the traditional name of the House of Zacchaeus.
SBD
(pure ), a tax-collector near Jericho, who, being short in stature climbed up into a sycamore tree in order to obtain a sight of Jesus as he passed through that place. ( Luke 19:1-10 ) Zacchaeus was a Jew, as may be inferred from his name and from the fact that the Saviour speaks of him expressly as "a son of Abraham." The term which designates his office -"the chief among the publicans" -is unusual, but describes him, no doubt, as the superintendent of customs or tribute in the district of Jericho, where he lived. The office must have been a lucrative one in such a region, and it is not strange that Zacchaeus is mentioned by the evangelists as a rich man. The Saviour spent the night probably in the house of Zacchaeus, and the next day pursued his journey. He was in the caravan from Galilee which was going to Jerusalem to keep the Passover. indicates this entry was also found in Easton's Bible Dictionary
撒路 SALU
代表
民25:14
ISBE
sa-lu (calu; Septuagint: Codex Vaticanus Salmon; Codex Alexandrinus Salo; the King James Version has "Salom" in 1 Macc 2:26): A prince and the head of a house of the tribe of Simeon and the father of Zimri who was slain by Phinehas along with the Midianite woman whom he had brought to the camp of Israel (Nu 25:14; 1 Macc 2:26).
SBD
(weighed ), the father of Zimri the prince of the Simeonites who was slain by Phinehas. ( Numbers 25:14 ) Called also Salom. (B.C.1452.)


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary