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每日一詞 主題辭典 聖經人名 聖經地名 聖經英文

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目前本系統共收錄了 1,856 個聖經相關人名
以及 HDBN 包含了 2,616 個姓名的意義解釋。


中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
以利戶 ELIHU
代表
撒上1:1 代上6:27 代上6:34 代上27:18 撒上16:6 代上12:20 代上26:7 伯32:2
Easton
whose God is he. (1.) "The son of Barachel, a Buzite" (Job 32:2), one of Job's friends. When the debate between Job and his friends is brought to a close, Elihu for the first time makes his appearance, and delivers his opinion on the points at issue (Job 32-37). (2.) The son of Tohu, and grandfather of Elkanah (1 Sam. 1:1). He is called also Eliel (1 Chr. 6:34) and Eliab (6:27). (3.) One of the captains of thousands of Manasseh who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:20). (4.) One of the family of Obed-edom, who were appointed porters of the temple under David (1 Chr. 26:7).
HDBN
he is my God himself
SBD
(whose God is he (Jehovah) ). One of the interlocutors in the book of Job. [JOB JOB] He is described as the "son of Baerachel the Buzite." A forefather of Samuel the prophet. ( 1 Samuel 1:1 ) In ( 1 Chronicles 27:18 ) Elihu "of the brethren of David" is mentioned as the chief of the tribe of Judah. One of the captains of the thousands of Manasseh, ( 1 Chronicles 12:20 ) who followed David to Ziklag after he had left the Philistine army on the eve of the battle of Gilboa. A Korhite Levite in the time of David. ( 1 Chronicles 26:7 )
以利押 ELIAB
代表
民1:9 民2:7 民16:1 民16:2 民16:3 民16:4 民16:5 民16:6 民16:7 民16:8 民16:9 民16:10 民16:11 民16:12 民16:13 民16:14 撒上16:6 代上27:18 代上6:27 代上6:34 撒上1:1 代上12:9 代上12:10 代上12:11 代上12:12 代上12:13 代上12:14 代上15:18 代上15:19 代上15:20 代上16:5
ISBE
e-li-ab (eliabh, "God is father"):
(1) Prince of the tribe of Zebulun in the Exodus (Nu 1:9; 2:7; 7:24,29; 10:16).
(2) A Reubenite, father of Dathan and Abiram (Nu 16:11,12; 26:8 f; Dt 11:6).
(3) Eldest son of Jesse and brother of David (1 Sam 16:6), once called Elihu (1 Ch 27:18). He was of commanding appearance (1 Sam 16:6) and when serving with Sauls army at the time when it was confronting the Philistines and Goliath, was inclined to lord it over his brother David (1 Sam 17:28 f). His daughter Abihail became a Wife of Rehoboam (2 Ch 11:18).
(4) An Ephraimite, an ancestor of Samuel (1 Ch 6:27); called Eliel in 1 Ch 6:34, and Elihu in 1 Sam 1:1.
(5) A Gadire warrior with David (1 Ch 12:9), one of 11 mighty men (1 Ch 12:8,14).
(6) A Levite musician (1 Ch 15:18,20; 16:5).
(7) An ancestor of Judith (Judith 8:1; compare 9:2).
F. K. Farr
Easton
to whom God is father. (1.) A Reubenite, son of Pallu (Num. 16:1, 12; 26:8, 9; Deut. 11:6). (2.) A son of Helon, and chief of the tribe of Zebulun at the time of the census in the wilderness (Num. 1:9; 2:7). (3.) The son of Jesse, and brother of David (1 Sam. 16:6). It was he who spoke contemptuously to David when he proposed to fight Goliath (1 Sam. 17:28). (4.) One of the Gadite heroes who joined David in his stronghold in the wilderness (1 Chr. 12:9).
HDBN
God is my father; God is the father
SBD
(God is my father ). Son of Helon and leader of the tribe of Zebulun at the time of the census in the wilderness of Sinai. ( Numbers 1:9 ; 2:7 ; Numbers 7:24 Numbers 7:29 ; 10:16 ) (B.C. 1490.) A Reubenite, father of Dathan and Abiram. ( Numbers 16:1 Numbers 16:12 ; Numbers 26:8 Numbers 26:9 ; 11:6 ) One of Davids brothers, the eldest of the family. ( 1 Samuel 16:6 ; 1 Samuel 17:13 1 Samuel 17:28 ; 1 Chronicles 2:13 ) (B.C. 1063.) A Levite in the time of David, who was both a "porter" and a musician on the "psaltery." ( 1 Chronicles 15:18 1 Chronicles 15:20 ; 16:5 ) One of the warlike Gadite leaders who came over to David when he was in the wilderness taking refuge from Saul. ( 1 Chronicles 12:9 ) (B.C. 1061.) An ancestor of Samuel the prophet; a Kohathite Levite, son of Nahath. ( 1 Chronicles 6:27 ) (B.C. 1250). Son of Nathanael, one of the fore-fathers of Judith, and therefore belonging to the tribe of Simeon. Judith 8:1.
以利拿單 ELNATHAN
代表
王下24:8 耶36:12 耶36:13 耶36:14 耶36:15 耶36:16 耶36:17 耶36:18 耶36:19 耶36:20 耶36:21 耶36:22 耶36:23耶36:24 耶36:25 耶26:22 拉8:15 拉8:16
ISBE
el-na-than (elnathan, "God has given"):
(1) The grandfather of Jehoiachin (2 Ki 24:8).
(2) A courtier of Jehoiakim; he was one of those sent to Egypt to bring back the prophet Uriah (Jer 26:22), and one of those who heard the reading of Jeremiahs roll and entreated Jehoiakim not to burn the roll (Jer 36:12,25)--possibly the same person as (1) above.
(3, 4, 5) The name of two "chief men"--unless textual corruption has introduced the name at its second occurrence--and of one "teacher" sent for by Ezra from the camp at the river Ahava (Ezr 8:16).
F. K. Farr
Easton
whom God has given. (1.) An inhabitant of Jerusalem, the father of Nehushta, who was the mother of king Jehoiachin (2 Kings 24:8). Probably the same who tried to prevent Jehoiakim from burning the roll of Jeremiah's prophecies (Jer. 26:22; 36:12). (2.) Ezra 8:16.
HDBN
God hath given; the gift of God
SBD
or Elnathan (God hath given ). The maternal grandfather of Jehoiachin, ( 2 Kings 24:8 ) the same with Elnathan the son of Achbor. ( Jeremiah 26:22 ; Jeremiah 36:12 Jeremiah 36:25 ) The name of three persons, apparently Levites, in the time of Ezra. ( Ezra 8:16 )
以利撒反 ELZAPHAN
代表
出6:22 利10:4 民3:30 民3:31 民34:26
ISBE
el-za-fan.
See ELIZAPHAN.
HDBN
God of the northeast wind
SBD
(whom God protects ), second son of Uzziel, who was the son of Kohath son of Levi. ( Exodus 6:22 )
以利撒番 ELIZAPHAN
代表
民34:25 出6:22
ISBE
el-i-za-fan, e-liz-a-fan (elitsaphan; Septuagint Eleisaphan, Elisaphan, Elisapa, Elisaphat, "God has protected; compare tsephanyah, Zephaniah, "Yah has protected," and the Phoenician, tsephanba`al, Baal has protected"):
(1) The son of Uzziel, the son of Kohath, and so a prince of the Levitical class of the Kohathites (Nu 3:30; 1 Ch 15:8; 2 Ch 29:13). But in 1 Ch 15:8; 2 Ch 39:13 his class seems to be coordinate with that of the Kohathites. He is called Elzaphan in Ex 6:22; Lev 10:4.
(2) A "prince" or chief of Zebulun, who represented that tribe in the division of the land (Nu 34:25).
Walter R. Betteridge
SBD
(whom God protects ). A Levite, son of Uzziel, chief of the house of the Kohathites at the time of the census in the wilderness of Sinai. ( Numbers 3:30 ) (B.C. 1491.) Prince of the tribe of Zebulun. ( Numbers 34:25 )
以利斐利戶 ELIPHELEH
代表
代上15:18 代上15:18 代上15:19 代上15:20 代上15:21
Easton
God will distinguish him, one of the porters appointed to play "on the Sheminith" on the occasion of the bringing up of the ark to the city of David (1 Chr. 15:18, 21).
SBD
(whom God makes distinguished ), a Merarite Levite, one of the gate-keepers appointed by David to play on the harp "on the Sheminith" on the occasion of bringing up the ark to the city of David. ( 1 Chronicles 15:18 1 Chronicles 15:21 )
以利書亞 ELISHUA
代表
撒下5:15 代上14:5 代上3:6
ISBE
el-i-shu-a, e-lish-u-a (elishua`, " `God is rich," "God is salvation"): Son of David (2 Sam 5:15; 1 Ch 14:5); apparently called Elishama (1 Ch 3:6). In the latter locus we have most probably a misreading by the copyist of the name Elishua.
Easton
God his salvation, a son of David, 2 Sam. 5:15 = Elishama, 1 Chr. 3:6.
HDBN
God is my salvation
SBD
(God is my salvation ), one of Davids sons, born after his settlement in Jerusalem. ( 2 Samuel 5:15 ; 1 Chronicles 14:5 ) (B.C. 1044.)
以利業 ELIEL
代表
代上11:46 代上11:47 代上12:11 代上6:34 代上5:24 代上8:20 代上8:21 代上8:22 代上8:23 代上8:24 代上8:25 代上15:9 代上31:13 代上7:1
ISBE
e-li-el, el-i-el (eliel, "El is God," or "my God is God"):
(1, 2, 3) Mighty men of David (1 Ch 11:46,47; 12:11).
(4) A chief of Manasseh, east of the Jordan (1 Ch 5:24).
(5, 6) Two chiefs of Benjamin (1 Ch 8:20,22).
(7) A chief Levite from Hebron (1 Ch 15:9,11):
(8) A Kohathite in the line of Elkshah, Samuel and Heman (1 Ch 6:34).
See ELIAB (4).
(9) A Levite of the time of Hezekiah (2 Ch 31:13).
Easton
to whom God is might. (1.) A chief of Manasseh, on the east of Jordan (1 Chr. 5:24). (2.) A Gadite who joined David in the hold at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:11). (3.) One of the overseers of the offerings in the reign of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 31:13).
HDBN
God
SBD
(to whom God is strength ). One of the heads of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of Jordan. ( 1 Chronicles 5:24 ) A forefather of Samuel the prophet. ( 1 Chronicles 6:34 ) A chief man in the tribe of Benjamin. ( 1 Chronicles 8:20 ) Also a Benjamite chief. ( 1 Chronicles 8:22 ) One of the heroes of Davids guard. ( 1 Chronicles 11:46 ) Another of the same guard. ( 1 Chronicles 11:47 ) One of the Gadite heroes who came across Jordan to David when he was in the wilderness of Judah hiding from Saul. ( 1 Chronicles 12:11 ) A Kohathite Levite at the time of transportation of the ark from the house of Obed-edom to Jerusalem. ( 1 Chronicles 15:9 1 Chronicles 15:11 ) (B.C. 1043.) A Levite in the time of Hezekiah; one of the overseers of the offerings made in the temple. ( 2 Chronicles 31:13 ) (B.C. 726.)
以利沙 ELISHA
代表
王上19:16 王下2: 1 王下2: 2 王下2: 3 王下2: 4 王下2: 5 王下2: 6 王下2: 7 王下2: 8 王下2: 9 王下2: 10 王下2: 11 王下2: 12 王下2: 13 王下2: 14 王下2: 15 王下2: 16 王下2: 17 王下2: 18 王下2: 19 王下2: 20 王下2: 21 王下2:22 王下2: 23 王下2: 24 王下2: 25 王下3:1 王下3:2 王下3:3 王下3:4 王下3:5 王下3:6 王下3:7 王下3:8 王下3:9 王下3
ISBE
e-li-sha elisha`, "God is salvalion"; Septuagint Eleisaie; New Testament Elisaios, Eliseus, (Lk 4:27 the King James Version)):
I. HIS CALL AND PREPARATION
1. His Call
2. His Preparation
3. The Parting Gift of Elijah
II. His PROPHETIC CAREER
1. Record of His Career
2. His Ministry in a Private Capacity
3. His Ministry in a Public and National Capacity
4. Characteristics of His Ministry
(1) In Comparison with Elijah
(2) General Features of His Ministry
III. GENERAL ESTIMATE LITERATURE
A prophet, the disciple and successor of Elijah. He was the son of Shaphat, lived at Abel-meholah, at the northern end of the Jordan valley and a little South of the Sea of Galilee. Nothing is told of his parents but the fathers name, though he must have been a man of some wealth and doubtless of earnest piety. No hint is given of Elishas age or birth-place, and it is almost certain that he was born and reared at Abel-meholah, and was a comparatively young man when we first hear of him. His early life thus was spent on his fathers estate, in a god-fearing family, conditions which have produced so many of Gods prophets. His moral and religious nature was highly developed in such surroundings, and from his work on his fathers farm he was called to his training as a prophet and successor of Elijah.
I. His Call and Preparation.
The first mention of him occurs in 1 Ki 19:16. Elijah was at Horeb, learning perhaps the greatest lesson of his life; and one of the three duties with which he was charged was to anoint Elisha, the son of Shaphat of Abelmeholah, as prophet in his stead.
1. His Call:
Elijah soon went northward and as he passed the lands of Shaphat he saw Elisha plowing in the rich level field of his fathers farm. Twelve yoke of oxen were at work, Elisha himself plowing with the twelfth yoke. Crossing over to him Elijah threw his mantle upon the young man (1 Ki 19:19). Elisha seemed to understand the meaning of the symbolic act, and was for a moment overwhelmed with its significance. It meant his adoption as the son and successor of Elijah in the prophetic office. Naturally he would hesitate a moment before making such an important decision. As Elijah strode on, Elisha felt the irresistible force of the call of God and ran after the great prophet, announcing that he was ready to follow; only he wished to give a parting kiss to his father and mother (1 Ki 19:20). Elijah seemed to realize what it meant to the young man, and bade him "Go back again; for what have I done to thee?" The call was not such an urgent one as Elisha seemed to think, and the response had better be deliberate and voluntary. But Elisha had fully made up his mind, slew the yoke of oxen with which he was plowing, boiled their flesh with the wood of the implements he was using, and made a farewell feast for his friends. He then followed Elijah, making a full renunciation of home ties, comforts and privileges. He became Elijahs servant; and we have but one statement describing their relationship (2 Ki 3:11): he "poured water on the hands of Elijah."
2. His Preparation:
They seem to have spent several years together (1 Ki 22:1; 2 Ki 1:17), for Elisha became well known among the various schools of the prophets. While ministering to the needs of his master, Elisha learned many deep and important lessons, imbibed much of his spirit, and developed his own religious nature and efficiency until he was ready for the prophetic service himself. It seems almost certain that they lived among the schools of the prophets, and not in the mountains and hills as Elijah had previously done. During these years the tie between the two men became very deep and strong. They were years of great significance to the young prophet and of careful teaching on the part of the older. The lesson learned at Horeb was not forgotten and its meaning would be profoundly impressed upon the younger man, whose whole afterlife shows that he had deeply imbibed the teaching.
3. The Parting Gift of Elijah:
The final scene shows the strong and tender affection he cherished toward his master. Aware that the end was near, he determined to be with him until the last. Nothing could persuade him to leave Elijah. When asked what should be done for him, before his master was taken away, he asks for the elder sons portion, a double portion, of his masters spirit (2 Ki 2:9). He has no thought of equality; he would be Elijahs firstborn son. The request shows how deeply he had imbibed of his masters spirit already. His great teacher disappears in a whirlwind, and, awestruck by the wonderful sight, Elisha rends his clothes, takes up the garment of Elijah, retraces his steps to the Jordan, smites the waters to test whether the spirit of Elijah had really fallen upon him, and as the water parts, he passes over dry shod. The sons of the prophets who have been watching the proceedings from the hills, at once observe that the spirit of Elijah rested upon Elisha, and they bowed before him in reverence and submission (2 Ki 2:12-15). Elisha now begins his prophetic career which must have lasted 50 years, for it extended over the reign of Jehoram, Jehu, Jehoahaz and Joash. The change in him is now so manifest that he is universally recognized as Elijahs successor and the religious leader of the prophetic schools. The skepticism of the young prophets regarding the translation of Elijah found little sympathy with Elisha, but he is conciliatory and humors them (2 Ki 2:16-18).
II. His Prophetic Career.
1. Record of His Career:
As we study the life of Elisha we look first at the record of his career. The compiler of these records has followed no strict chronological order. Like other scripture writers he has followed the system of grouping his materials. The records in 2 Ki 2:19 through 5:27 are probably in the order of their occurrence. The events in chapters 6 through 9 cannot be chronologically arranged, as the name of the king of Israel is not mentioned. In 6:23 we are told that the Syrians came no more into the land of Israel, and 6:24 proceeds to give an account of Ben-hadads invasion and the terrible siege of Samaria. In chapter 5 Gehazi is smitten with leprosy, while in chapter 8 he is in friendly converse with the king. In chapter 13 the death of Joash is recorded, and this is followed by the record of his last interview with Elisha (2 Ki 13:14-19) which event occurred some years previously.
2. His Ministry in a Private Capacity:
When he began his career of service he carried the mantle of Elijah, but we read no more of that mantle; he is arrayed as a private citizen (2 Ki 2:12) in common garmerits (beghadhim). He carries the walking-staff of ordinary citizens, using it for working miracles (2 Ki 4:29). He seems to have lived in different cities, sojourning at Bethel or Jericho with the sons of the prophets, or dwelling in his own home in Dothan or Samaria (2 Ki 6:24,32). He passed Shunem so frequently on foot that a prophets chamber was built for his special use (2 Ki 4:8-11).
(1) Elijahs ministry began by shutting up the heavens for three and a half years; Elishas began by healing a spring of water near Jericho (2 Ki 2:21). One of these possessed certain noxious qualities, and complaint is made to Elisha that it is unfit for drinking and injurious to the land (2 Ki 2:19). He takes salt in a new vessel, casts it into the spring and the waters are healed so that there was not "from thence any more death or miscarrying" (2 Ki 2:21).
(2) Leaving Jericho, `a pleasant situation, he passes up to the highlands of Ephraim, doubtless by the Wady Suweinit, and approaches Bethel, a seat of Baal worship and headquarters of idolatry. The bald head, or perhaps closely cropped head, of Elisha, in contrast with that of Elijah, provoked the ridicule of some "young lads out of the city" who called after him "Go up, thou baldhead, their taunt manifesting the most blatant profanity and utter disregard of God or anything sacred. Elisha, justly angered, turned and cursed them in the name of Yahweh. Two bears soon break forth from the woods of that wild region and make fearful havoc among the boys. Elisha may have shown severity and a vindictiveness in this, but he was in no way to blame for the punishment which overtook the boys. He had nothing to do with the bears and was in no way responsible for the fate of the lads. The Septuagint adds that they threw stones, and the rabbis tell how Elisha was himself punished, but these attempts to tone down the affair are uncalled for and useless (2 Ki 2:23,14).
(3) From Bethel Elisha passed on to Mt. Carmel, the home of a school of the prophets, spent some time there and returned to Samaria the capital (2 Ki 2:25). His next deed of mercy was to relieve the pressing needs of a widow of one of the prophets. The name of the place is not given (2 Ki 4:1-7)
(4) On his many journeys up and down the country, he frequently passed by the little village of Shunem, on the slopes of "Little Hermon." The modern name is Solam. It was about three miles from Jezreel. Accustomed to accept hospitality of one of the women of the place, he so impressed her with his sanctity that she appealed to her husband to build a chamber for the "holy man of God, that passeth by us continually." This was done, and in return for this hospitality a son was born to the woman, who suddenly dies in early boyhood and is restored to life by the prophet (2 Ki 4:8-37).
(5) Elisha is next at Gilgal, residing with the sons of the prophets. It is a time of famine and they are subsisting on what they can find. One of them finds some wild gourds (paqqu`oth), shreds them into the pot and they are cooked. The men have no sooner begun to eat than they taste the poison and cry to Elisha, "O man of God, there is death in the pot." Throwing in some meal, Elisha at once renders the dish harmless and wholesome (2 Ki 4:38-41).
(6) Probably at about the same time and place and during the same famine, a man from Baal-shalishah brought provisions as a present to Elisha--twenty loaves of fresh barley bread and fresh ears of grain. Unselfishly Elisha commands that it be given to the people to eat. The servant declared it was altogether insufficient for a hundred men, but Elisha predicts that there will be enough and to spare (2 Ki 4:42-44). This miracle closely resembles the two miracles of Jesus.
(7) The next incident is the healing of Naaman, the leprous commander of the Syrian army (2 Ki 5:1-19). He is afflicted with the white leprosy, the most malignant kind (2 Ki 5:27). A Jewish maiden, captured in one of their numerous invasions of Eastern Israel, and sold into slavery with a multitude of others, tells her mistress, the wife of Naaman, about the wonder-working Elisha. The maiden tells her mistress that Elisha can heal the leprosy, and Naaman resolves to visit him. Through the king he obtains permission to visit Elisha with a great train and rich presents. The prophet sends his servant to tell him to dip seven times in the Jordan and he will be healed. Naaman is angered at the lack of deference on the part of Elisha and turns away in a rage to go home. Better counsels prevail, and he obeys the prophet and is cured. Elisha absolutely refuses the rich presents Naaman offers, and permits the Syrian to take some earth from Yahwehs land, that he may build an altar in Syria and worship Yahweh there. The idea was that a God was localized and could be worshipped only on his own land. Elisha grants Naaman permission apparently to worship Rimmon while avowedly he is a worshipper of Yahweh. The prophet appreciates the difficulties in Naamans path, believes in his sincerity, and by this concession in no way proves that he believes in the actual existence of a god named Rimmon, or that Yahweh was confined to his own land, or in any way sanctions idolatrous worship. He is conciliatory and tolerant, making the best of the situation.
(8) An act of severity on the part of Elisha follows, but it was richly deserved. Gehazis true character now manifests itself. He covets the rich presents brought by Naaman, runs after him, and by a clever story secures a rich present from the general. Elisha divines his trick and dooms him and his family to be afflicted with Naamans leprosy forever (2 Ki 5:20-27).
(9) A group of the sons of the prophets, probably at Jericho, finding their quarters too small, determine to build new quarters near the Jordan. While felling the timber the ax-head of one, a borrowed tool, fell into the water and disappeared. It would have been useless to have attempted to search for it in that swift and muddy stream, so he cries in distress to the prophet. Elisha breaks off a stick, casts it in the spot where the ax fell, and makes the iron swim on the surface (2 Ki 6:1-7).
3. His Ministry in a Public and National Capacity:
Elishas services to his king and country were numerous and significant.
(1) The first one recorded took place during the attempt of Jehoram to resubjugate Moab which had revolted under King Mesha. In company with Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom, his southern allies, the combined hosts found themselves without water in the wilderness of Edom. The situation is desperate. Jehoram appeals to Jehoshaphat, and on discovering that Elisha was in the camp all three kings appeal to him in their extremity. He refuses any help to Jehoram, bidding him appeal to the prophets of his father Ahab and his mother Jezebel. For Jehoshaphats sake he will help, calls for a minstrel, and under the spell of the music receives his message. He orders them to dig many trenches to hold the water which shall surely come on the morrow from the land of Edom and without rain. He moreover predicted that Moab would be utterly defeated. These predictions are fulfilled, Mesha is shut up in his capital, and in desperation sacrifices his firstborn son and heir on the walls in sight of all Israel. In great horror the Israelites withdraw, leaving Mesha in possession (2 Ki 3:4-27).
(2) His next services occurred at Samaria. The king of Syria finds that his most secret plans are divulged in some mysterious way, and he fails more than once to take the king of Israel. He suspects treachery in his army, but is told of Elishas divining powers. Elisha is living at Dothan; and thither the king of Syria sends a large army to capture him. Surrounded by night, Elisha is in no way terrified as his servant is, but prays that the young mans eyes may be opened to see the mountains full of the chariots and horses of Yahweh. Going forth to meet the Syrians as they close in, Elisha prays that they may be stricken with blindness. The word canwerim is used only here and in Gen 19:11 and probably means mental blindness, or bewilderment, a confusion of mind amounting to illusion. He now tells them that they have come to the wrong place, but he will lead them to the right place. They follow him into the very heart of Samaria and into the power of the king. The latter would have smitten them, but is rebuked by Elisha who counseled that they be fed and sent away (2 Ki 6:8-23). Impressed by such mysterious power and strange clemency the Syrians ceased their marauding attacks.
(3) The next incident must have occurred some time previous, or some time after these events. Samaria is besieged, the Israelites are encouraged to defend their capital to the last, famine prices prevail, and mothers begin to cook their children and eat them. The king in horror and rage will wreak vengeance on Elisha. The latter divines his purpose, anticipates any action on the kings part, and predicts that there will be abundance of food on the morrow. That night a panic seized the Syrian host. They imagined they heard the Hittires coming against them, and fled in headlong rout toward the Jordan. Four lepers discover the deserted camp and report the fact to the king. He suspects an ambuscade, but is persuaded to send a few men to reconnoiter. They find the camp deserted and treasures strewing the path right to the Jordan. The maritans lose no time in plundering the camp and Elishas predictions are fulfilled to the letter (2 Ki 6:24 through 7).
(4) The prophets next act was one of great significance. It was the carrying out of the first order given to Elijah at Horeb, and the time seemed ripe for it. He proceeds north to Damascus and finds Benhadad sick. Hearing of his presence the king sends a rich present by the hands of his chief captain Hazael and inquires whether he will recover. Elisha gives a double answer. He will recover, the disease will not be fatal, yet he will die. Fixing his eyes on Hazael, Elisha sees a fierce and ruthless successor to Benhadad who will be a terrible scourge to Israel. The man of God weeps, the fierce captain is ashamed, and when told of what he shall do, represents himself as a dog and not able to do such things. But the prospect is too enticing; he tells Benhadad he will recover, and on the morrow smothers him and succeeds to the throne (2 Ki 8:7-15).
(5) The next, move of Elisha was even more significant. It is the fulfilling of the second order given Elijah at Mt. Horeb. The Israelites are fighting the Syrians in defense of Ramoth-gilead. The king, Jehoram, is wounded and returns home to Jezreel to recover. Elisha seizes on the opportune moment to have the house of Ahab avenged for its many sins. He dispatches one of the young prophets with a vial of oil to Ramoth-gilead with orders to anoint Jehu, one of the captains of the army, as king over Israel. The young prophet obeys, delivers his message and flees. Jehu tries to conceal the real nature of the interview, but is forced to tell, and is at once proclaimed king. He leaps into his chariot, drives furiously to Jezreel, meets the king by the vineyard of Naborb, sends an arrow through his heart, tramples to death the queen Jezebel, butchers the kings sons and exterminates the royal family. He then treacherously murders the priests of Baal and the revolution is complete; the house of Ahab is destroyed, Baal worship overthrown and an able king is upon the throne (2 Ki 9; 10).
(6) Elisha retains his fervent and patriotic spirit until the last. His final act is in keeping with his long. life of generous deeds and faithful patriotic service. He is on his death bed, having witnessed the fearful oppressions of Israel by Hazael who made Israelites as dust under his feet. The young king Joash visits him, weeps over him, calling him, "My father, the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof." The dying prophet bids him take his bow and arrow and shoot eastward, an act symbolic of his victory over Syria. Being then commanded to smite upon the ground, he smites three times and stops. The prophet is angry, tells him he should have smitten many times, then he would have smitten
Syria many times, but now he shall smite her only thrice (2 Ki 13:14-19).
(7) The last wonder in connection with Elisha occurs after this death. His bones were reported to have vitalizing power (2 Ki 13:20-21). Tradition says that the man thus restored to life lived but an hour; but the story illustrates something of the reverence held for Elisha.
4. Characteristics of His Ministry:
(1) In Comparison with Elijah.
In many respects Elisha is a contrast to his great predecessor. Instead of a few remarkable appearances and striking events, his was a steady lifelong ministry; instead of the rugged hills his home was in the quiet valley and on the farm; instead of solitariness he loved the social life and the home. There were no sudden appearances add disappearances, people always knew where to find him. There were no long seasons of hiding or retirement, he was constantly moving about among the people or the prophetic schools. There were no spectacular revolutions, only the effect of a long steady ministry. His career resembled the latter portion of Elijahs more than the earlier. Elijah had learned well his lesson at Horeb. God is not so much in the tempest, the fire and the earthquake, as in the "still small voice" (1 Ki 19:12). Elijah was a prophet of fire, Elisha more of a pastor. The former called down fire out of heaven to consume those sent to take him; Elisha anticipates the king when he comes to take him (2 Ki 6:32,33) and gives promises of relief. He merely asks for blindness to come upon the army which surrounded him at Dothan, and spares them when the king would have smitten them (2 Ki 6:21-23). Elijah was austere and terrible, but Elisha was so companionable that the woman at Shunera built him a chamber. His prophetic insight could be helped more by the strains of music than by the mountain solitude (2 Ki 3:15). Some of his miracles resemble Elijahs. The multiplication of the oil and the cruse is much like the continued supply of meal and oil to the widow of Zarephath (1 Ki 17:10-16), and the raising of the Shunammites son like the raising of the widows son at Zarephath (1 Ki 17:17-24).
(2) General Features of His Ministry.
His services as a pastor-prophet were more remarkable than his miracles. He could be very severe in the presence of deliberate wrongdoing, stern and unflinching when the occasion required. He could weep before Hazael, knowing what he would do to Israel, yet he anointed him king of Syria (2 Ki 8:11-15). When the time was ripe and the occasion opportune, he could instigate a revolution that wiped out a dynasty, exterminated a family, and caused the massacre of the priests of Baal (2 Ki 8; 9). He possessed the confidence of kings so fully that they addressed him as father and themselves as sons (2 Ki 6:21; 13:14). He accompanied an army of invasion and three kings consult him in extremity (2 Ki 3:11-19). The king of Syria consults him in sickness (2 Ki 8:7,8). The king of Israel seems to blame him for the awful conditions of the siege and would have wreaked vengeance on him (2 Ki 6:31). He was something of a military strategist and many times saved the kings army (2 Ki 6:10). The king of Israel goes to him for his parting counsel (2 Ki 13:14-19). His advice or command seemed to be always taken unhesitatingly. His contribution to the religious life of Israel was not his least service. Under Jehu he secured the destruction of the Baal worship in its organized form. Under Hazael the nation was trodden down and almost annihilated for its apostasy. By his own ministry many were saved from bowing the knee to Baal. His personal influence among the schools of the prophets was widespread and beneficial. He that escaped the sword of Hazael was slain by Jehu, and he that escaped Jehu was slain by Elisha. Elisha finished the great work of putting down Baal worship begun by Elijah. His work was not so much to add anything to religion, as to cleanse the religion already possessed. He did not ultimately save the nation, but he did save a large remnant. The corruptions were not all eradicated, the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat were never fully overcome. He passed through a bitter and distressing national humiliation, but emerged with hope. He eagerly watched every turn of events and his counsels were more frequently adopted than those perhaps of any other prophet. He was "the chariots of Israel and tire horsemen thereof" (2 Ki 13:14). No condemnation of calf-worship at Dan and Bethel is recorded, but that does not prove that he fully sanctioned it. His was a contest between Yahweh worship and Baal worship. The corrupted form of Yahweh worship was a problem which Amos and Hosea had to face nearly a century later.
III. General Estimate.
His character was largely molded by his home life. He was friend and benefactor of foreigner as well as of Israelite. He was large-hearted and generous, tolerant to a remarkable degree, courageous and shrewd when the occasion required, a diplomat as well as a statesman, severe and stern only in the presence of evil and when the occasion demanded. He is accused of being vindictive and of employing falsehood with his enemies. His faults, however, were the faults of his age, and these were but little manifested in his long career. His was a strenuous pastors life. A homeloving and social man, his real work was that of teaching and helping, rather than working of miracles. He continually went about doing good. He was resourceful and ready and was gifted with a sense of humor. Known as "the man of God," he proved his right to the title by his zeal for God and loving service to man.

LITERATURE.
Driver, LOT, 185 f; W. R. Smith, Prophets of Israel, 85 ff; Cornill, Isr. Prophets, 14 f, 33 ff; Farrar, Books of Kings; Kuenen, Religions of Israel, I, 360 ff; Montefiore, Hibbert Lectures, 94 f; Maurice, Prophets and Kings, 142; Liddon, Sermons on Old Testament Subjects, 195-334.
J. J. Reeve
Easton
God his salvation, the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah, who became the attendant and disciple of Elijah (1 Kings 19:16-19). His name first occurs in the command given to Elijah to anoint him as his successor (1 Kings 19:16). This was the only one of the three commands then given to Elijah which he accomplished. On his way from Sinai to Damascus he found Elisha at his native place engaged in the labours of the field, ploughing with twelve yoke of oxen. He went over to him, threw over his shoulders his rough mantle, and at once adopted him as a son, and invested him with the prophetical office (comp. Luke 9:61, 62). Elisha accepted the call thus given (about four years before the death of Ahab), and for some seven or eight years became the close attendant on Elijah till he was parted from him and taken up into heaven. During all these years we hear nothing of Elisha except in connection with the closing scenes of Elijah's life. After Elijah, Elisha was accepted as the leader of the sons of the prophets, and became noted in Israel. He possessed, according to his own request, "a double portion" of Elijah's spirit (2 Kings 2:9); and for the long period of about sixty years (B.C. 892-832) held the office of "prophet in Israel" (2 Kings 5:8). After Elijah's departure, Elisha returned to Jericho, and there healed the spring of water by casting salt into it (2 Kings 2:21). We next find him at Bethel (2:23), where, with the sternness of his master, he cursed the youths who came out and scoffed at him as a prophet of God: "Go up, thou bald head." The judgment at once took effect, and God terribly visited the dishonour done to his prophet as dishonour done to himself. We next read of his predicting a fall of rain when the army of Jehoram was faint from thirst (2 Kings 3:9-20); of the multiplying of the poor widow's cruse of oil (4:1-7); the miracle of restoring to life the son of the woman of Shunem (4:18-37); the multiplication of the twenty loaves of new barley into a sufficient supply for an hundred men (4:42-44); of the cure of Naaman the Syrian of his leprosy (5:1-27); of the punishment of Gehazi for his falsehood and his covetousness; of the recovery of the axe lost in the waters of the Jordan (6:1-7); of the miracle at Dothan, half-way on the road between Samaria and Jezreel; of the siege of Samaria by the king of Syria, and of the terrible sufferings of the people in connection with it, and Elisha's prophecy as to the relief that would come (2 Kings 6:24-7:2). We then find Elisha at Damascus, to carry out the command given to his master to anoint Hazael king over Syria (2 Kings 8:7-15); thereafter he directs one of the sons of the prophets to anoint Jehu, the son of Jehoshaphat, king of Israel, instead of Ahab. Thus the three commands given to Elijah (9:1-10) were at length carried out. We do not again read of him till we find him on his death-bed in his own house (2 Kings 13:14-19). Joash, the grandson of Jehu, comes to mourn over his approaching departure, and utters the same words as those of Elisha when Elijah was taken away: "My father, my father! the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof." Afterwards when a dead body is laid in Elisha's grave a year after his burial, no sooner does it touch the hallowed remains than the man "revived, and stood up on his feet" (2 Kings 13:20-21).
HDBN
salvation of God
SBD
(God his salvation ), son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah; the attendant and disciple of Elijan, and subsequently his successor as prophet of the kingdom of Israel. The earliest mention of his name is in the command to Elijah in the cave at Horeb. ( 1 Kings 19:16 1 Kings 19:17 ) (B.C. about 900.) Elijah sets forth to obey the command, and comes upon his successor engaged in ploughing. He crosses to him and throws over his shoulders the rough mantle --a token at once of investiture with the prophets office and of adoption as a son. Elisha delayed merely to give the farewell kiss to his father and mother and preside at a parting feast with his people, and then followed the great prophet on his northward road. We hear nothing more of Elisha for eight years, until the translation of his master, when he reappears, to become the most prominent figure in the history of his country during the rest of his long life. In almost every respect Elisha presents the most complete contrast to Elijah. Elijah was a true Bedouin child of the desert. If he enters a city it is only to deliver his message of fire and be gone. Elisha, on the other hand, is a civilized man, an inhabitant of cities. His dress was the ordinary garment of an Israelite, the beged , probably similar in form to the long abbeyeh of the modern Syrians. ( 2 Kings 2:12 ) His hair was worn trimmed behind, in contrast to the disordered locks of Elijah, and he used a walking-staff, ( 2 Kings 4:29 ) of the kind ordinarily carried by grave or aged citizens. ( Zechariah 8:4 ) After the departure of his master, Elisha returned to dwell at Jericho, ( 2 Kings 2:18 ) where he miraculously purified the springs. We next meet with Elisha at Bethel, in the heart of the country, on his way from Jericho to Mount Carmel. ( 2 Kings 2:23 ) The mocking children, Elishas curse and the catastrophe which followed are familiar to all. Later he extricates Jehoram king of Israel, and the kings of Judah and Edom, from their difficulty in the campaign against Moab arising from want of water. ( 2 Kings 3:4-27 ) Then he multiplies the widows oil. ( 2 Kings 4:5 ) The next occurrence is at Shunem, where he is hospitably entertained by a woman of substance, whose son dies, and is brought to life again by Elisha. ( 2 Kings 4:8-37 ) Then at Gilgal he purifies the deadly pottage, ( 2 Kings 4:38-41 ) and multiplies the loaves. ( 2 Kings 4:42-44 ) The simple records of these domestic incidents amongst the sons of the prophets are now interrupted by an occurrence of a more important character. ( 2 Kings 5:1-27 ) The chief captain of the army of Syria, Naaman, is attacked with leprosy, and is sent by an Israelite maid to the prophet Elisha, who directs him to dip seven times in the Jordan, which he does and is healed, ( 2 Kings 5:1-14 ) while Naamans servant, Gehazi, he strikes with leprosy for his unfaithfulness. ch. ( 2 Kings 5:20-27 ) Again the scene changes. It is probably at Jericho that Elisha causes the iron axe to swim. ( 2 Kings 6:1-7 ) A band of Syrian marauders are sent to seize him, but are struck blind, and he misleads them to Samaria, where they find themselves int he presence of the Israelite king and his troops. ( 2 Kings 6:8-23 ) During the famine in Samaria, ( 2 Kings 6:24-33 ) he prophesied incredible plenty, ch. ( 2 Kings 7:1-2 ) which was soon fulfilled. ch. ( 2 Kings 7:3-20 ) We next find the prophet at Damascus. Benhadad the king is sick, and sends to Elisha by Hazael to know the result. Elisha prophesies the kings death, and announces to Hazael that he is to succeed to the throne. ( 2 Kings 8:7 2 Kings 8:15 ) Finally this prophet of God, after having filled the position for sixty years, is found on his death-bed in his own house. ( 2 Kings 13:14-19 ) The power of the prophet, however, does not terminate with his death. Even in the tomb he restores the dead to life. ch. ( 2 Kings 13:21 )
以利沙 ELISHAH
代表
創10:4 王上19:16
ISBE
e-li-sha (elishah, "God saves"; Elisa, Eleisai): Mentioned in Gen 10:4 as the eldest son of Javan, and in Ezek 27:7 as the source from which the Tyrians obtained their purple dyes. On the ground of this latter statement attempts have been made to identify it with Southern Italy or the north of Africa. Josephus (Ant., I, vi, 1) identified Elisha with the Aeolians. The Targum on Ezekiel gives "the province of Italy." Other suggestions include Hellas, Ells, and Alsa; the last named is a kingdom mentioned in the Tell el-Amarna Letters, but its precise location is unknown. It is impossible as yet to claim certainty for any of these conjectures.
A. C. Grant
Easton
the oldest of the four sons of Javan (Gen. 10:4), whose descendants peopled Greece. It has been supposed that Elishah's descendants peopled the Peloponnesus, which was known by the name of Elis. This may be meant by "the isles of Elishah" (Ezek. 27:7).
HDBN
it is God; the lamb of God
SBD
(God is salvation ), the eldest son of Javan. ( Genesis 10:4 ) The residence of his descendants is described in ( Ezekiel 27:7 ) as the isles of Elishah, whence the Phoenicians obtained their purple and blue dyes. Some connect the race of Elishah with the AEolians, others with Elishah, and in a more extended sense Peloponnesus, or even Hellas.
以利沙伯 ELISABETH
代表
路1:5 路1:39 路1:40 路1:41 路1:42 路1:43 路1:44 路1:45 路1:46 路1:47 路1:48 路1:49 路1:50 路1:51 路1:52 路1:53路1:54 路1:55
ISBE
e-liz-a-beth (Elisabet, Westcott and Hort Eleisdbet, from Heb elishebha` (Elisheba), "God is (my) oath," i.e. a worshipper of God): Wife of Zacharias the priest and mother of John the Baptist (Lk 1:5 ff). Elisabeth herself was of priestly lineage and a "kinswoman" (the King James Version COUSIN, which see) of the Virgin Mary (Lk 1:36), of whose visit to Elisabeth a remarkable account is given in Lk 1:39-56.
See ZACHARIAS.
Easton
God her oath, the mother of John the Baptist (Luke 1:5). She was a descendant of Aaron. She and her husband Zacharias (q.v.) "were both righteous before God" (Luke 1:5, 13). Mary's visit to Elisabeth is described in 1:39-63.
HDBN
Elizabeth
SBD
(the oath of God ), the wife of Zacharias and mother of John the Baptist. She was herself of the priestly family, and a relation, ( Luke 1:36 ) of the mother of our Lord.
以利沙巴 ELISHEBA
代表
出6:23
ISBE
e-lish-e-ba (elishebha`, "God swears," "God is an oath"): Daughter of Amminadab, sister of Nashon, wife of Aaron, mother of Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, the foundress, therefore, of the entire Levitical priesthood (Ex 6:23).
Easton
God is her oath, the daughter of Amminadab and the wife of Aaron (Ex. 6:23).
HDBN
same as Elisabeth
SBD
(God is her oath ), the wife of Aaron. ( Exodus 6:23 ) She was the daughter of Amminadab, and sister of Nahshon the captain of the host of Judah. ( Numbers 2:3 ) (B.C. 1491.)
以利沙法 ELISHAPHAT
代表
代下23:1
ISBE
e-lish-a-fat (elishaphat, "God is judge"): This man figures in the Levitical conspiracy against Athaliah, to make Joash king. He was one of the "captains of hundreds" employed in the enterprise by Jehoiada the priest (2 Ch 23:1).
Easton
whom God has judged, one of the "captains of hundreds" associated with Jehoiada in the league to overthrow the usurpation of Athaliah (2 Chr. 23:1).
HDBN
my God judgeth
SBD
(whom God judges ), son of Zichri; one of the captains of hundreds in the time of Jehoiada. ( 2 Chronicles 23:1 ) (B.C. 877.)
以利沙瑪 ELISHAMA
代表
民1:10 民7:43 民7:44 民7:45 民7:46 民7:47 民7:48 民7:49 民7:50 民7:51 民7:52 民7:53 撒下5:16 代上3:8 代上3:6 撒下5:15 代上14:5 耶36:12 耶36:20 耶36:21 王下25:25 耶41:1 代上2:41 代上17:8
ISBE
e-lish-a-ma (elishama`, "God has heard"):
(1) Grandfather of Joshua and son of Ammihud; prince of the tribe of Ephraim in the Exodus (Nu 1:10; 7:48,53; 1 Ch 7:26).
(2) A son of David, born in Jerusalem (2 Sam 5:16; 1 Ch 3:8).
(3) By textual corruption in 1 Ch 3:6 for Elishua, another of Davids sons; compare 2 Sam 5:15.
(4) A scribe of Jehoiakim (Jer 36:12,20,21).
(5) One "of the seed royal," grandfather of Ishmael, the slayer of Gedaliah (2 Ki 25:25; Jer 41:1).
(6) A man of the tribe of Judah (1 Ch 2:41).
(7) One of the priests appointed by Jehoshaphat to teach the law (2 Ch 17:8).
F. K. Farr
Easton
whom God hears. (1.) A prince of Benjamin, grandfather of Joshua (Num. 1:10; 1 Chr. 7:26). (2.) One of David's sons (2 Sam. 5:16). (3.) Another of David's sons (1 Chr. 3:6). (4.) A priest sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the people the law (2 Chr. 17:8).
HDBN
God hearing
SBD
(whom God hears ). The "prince" or "captain" of the tribe of Ephraim in the wilderness of Sinai. ( Numbers 1:10 ; 2:18 ; 7:48 ; 10:22 ) (B.C. 1491.) From ( 1 Chronicles 7:26 ) we find that he was grandfather to the great Joshua. A son of King David. ( 1 Samuel 5:16 ; 1 Chronicles 3:8 ; 14:7 ) Another son of David, ( 1 Chronicles 3:6 ) who in the other lists is called ELISHUA. (B.C. after 1044.) A descendant of Judah. ( 1 Chronicles 2:41 ) The father of Nethaniah and grandfather of Ishmael. ( 2 Kings 25:25 ; Jeremiah 41:1 ) Scribe of King Jehoiakim. ( Jeremiah 36:12 Jeremiah 36:20 Jeremiah 36:21 ) (B.C. 605.) A priest in the time of Jehoshaphat. ( 2 Chronicles 17:8 ) (B.C. 912).
以利法 ELIPHAZ
代表
創36:4 創36:5 創36:6 創36:7 創36:8 創36:9 創36:10 伯2:11
Easton
God his strength. (1.) One of Job's "three friends" who visited him in his affliction (4:1). He was a "Temanite", i.e., a native of Teman, in Idumea. He first enters into debate with Job. His language is uniformly more delicate and gentle than that of the other two, although he imputes to Job special sins as the cause of his present sufferings. He states with remarkable force of language the infinite purity and majesty of God (4:12-21; 15:12-16). (2.) The son of Esau by his wife Adah, and father of several Edomitish tribes (Gen. 36:4, 10, 11, 16).
HDBN
the endeavor of God
SBD
(God is his strength ). The son of Esau and Adah, and the father of Teman. ( Genesis 36:4 ; 1 Chronicles 1:35 1 Chronicles 1:36 ) The chief of the "three friends" of Job. He is called "the Temanite;" hence it is naturally inferred that he was a descendant of Teman. On him falls the main burden of the argument, that Gods retribution in this world is perfect and certain, and that consequently suffering must be a proof of previous sin. Job 4,5,15,22. The great truth brought out by him is the unapproachable majesty and purity of God. ( Job 4:12-21 ; 15:12-16 ) [JOB JOB]
以利法列 ELIPHELET
代表
代上3:6 撒下5:16 代上14:5 代上3:8 代上14:7 撒下23:34 代上8:39 拉8:13 拉10:33
ISBE
e-lif-e-let.
See ELIPHALAT; ELIPHAL.
Easton
God his deliverance. (1.) One of David's distinguished warriors (2 Sam. 23:34); called also Eliphal in 1 Chr. 11:35. (2.) One of the sons of David born at Jerusalem (1 Chr. 3:6; 14:5); called Elpalet in 1 Chr. 14:5. Also another of David's sons (1 Chr. 3:8); called Eliphalet in 2 Sam. 5:16; 1 Chr. 14:7. (3.) A descendant of king Saul through Jonathan (1 Chr. 8:39).
SBD
(the God of deliverance ). The name of a son of David, one of the children born to him after his establishment in Jerusalem. ( 1 Chronicles 3:6 ) (B.C. after 1044.) Another son of David, belonging also to the Jerusalem family, and apparently the last of his sons. ( 1 Chronicles 3:8 ) One of the thirty warriors of Davids guard. ( 2 Samuel 23:34 ) Son of Eshek, a descendant of King Saul through Jonathan. ( 1 Chronicles 8:39 ) (B.C. before 536.) One of the leaders of the Bene-Adonikam who returned from Babylon with Ezra. ( Ezra 8:13 ) (B.C. 459.) A man of the Bene-Hushum in the time of Ezra who had married a foreign wife. ( Ezra 10:33 ) (B.C. 458).
以利法勒 ELIPHAL
代表
代上11:35
ISBE
e-li-fal, el-i-fal (eliphal, "God has judged"): Son of Ur, one of the mighty men of Davids armies (1 Ch 11:35). the Revised Version (British and American) in a footnote identifies him with Eliphelet, son of Ahasbai, the son of the Maachathite (2 Sam 23:34; ef Davis, Dict. of the Bible, under the word "Ur"). See also 1 Ch 14:5,7.
HDBN
a miracle of God
SBD
(whom God judges ), son of Ur, one of Davids guard. ( 1 Chronicles 11:35 ) [ELIPHELET, 3]
以利米勒 ELIMELECH
代表
得1:2 得1:3
ISBE
e-lim-e-lek (elimelekh, "my God is king"; Abeimelech, Alimelek): Elimelech was a member of the tribe of Judah, a native of Bethlehem Judah, a man of wealth and probably head of a family or clan (Ruth 1:2,3; 2:1,3). He lived during the period of the Judges, had a hereditary possession near Bethlehem, and is chiefly known as the husband of Naomi, the mother-in-law of Ruth and ancestress of David the king. Because of a severe famine in Judea, he emigrated to the land of Moab with his wife and his sons, Mahlon and Chilion. Not long afterward he died, and his two sons married Moabite women, Ruth and Orpah. Ten years in all were spent in Moab, when the two sons died, and the three widows were left. Soon afterward Naomi decided to return to Judah, and the sequel is told in the Book of Ruth.
See RUTH; NAOMI.
J. J. Reeve
Easton
God his king, a man of the tribe of Judah, of the family of the Hezronites, and kinsman of Boaz, who dwelt in Bethlehem in the days of the judges. In consequence of a great dearth he, with his wife Naomi and his two sons, went to dwell in the land of Moab. There he and his sons died (Ruth 1:2,3; 2:1,3; 4:3,9). Naomi afterwards returned to Palestine with her daughter Ruth.
HDBN
my God is king
SBD
(my God is king ), a man of the tribe of Judah and of the family of the Hezronites, who dwelt in Bethlehem-Ephratah in the days of the Judges. (B.C. 1312.) In consequence of a great death in the land he went with his wife, Naomi, and his two sons, Mahlon and Chilion, to dwell in Moab, where he and his sons died without posterity. ( Ruth 1:2 Ruth 1:3 ) etc.
以利約乃 ELIOENAI
代表
代上26:3 代上3:23 代上4:36 代上7:8 拉10:22 拉10:27 尼12:41 代上26:3 拉8:4
ISBE
e-li-o-e-na-i.
See ELIEHOENAI.
Easton
toward Jehovah are my eyes, the name of several men mentioned in the Old Testament (1 Chr. 7:8; 4:36; Ezra 10:22, 27). Among these was the eldest son of Neariah, son of Shemaiah, of the descendants of Zerubbabel. His family are the latest mentioned in the Old Testament (1 Chr. 3:23, 24).
HDBN
toward him are mine eyes; or to him are my fountains
以利蓿 ELIZUR
代表
民1:5 民2:10
ISBE
e-li-zur (elitsur; Septuagint Eleiour, Elisour, "My God is a rock"; compare Zuriel "my rock is God" (Nu 3:35)): A chief or prince of the tribe of Reuben (Nu 1:5; 2:10; 7:30,35; 10:18).
HDBN
God is my strength; my rock; rock of God
SBD
prince of the tribe and over the host of Reuben. ( Numbers 1:5 ; 2:10 ; Numbers 7:30 Numbers 7:35 ; 10:18 )
以利薩巴 ELZABAD
代表
代上12:12 代上12:13 代上12:14 代上12:15 代上26:7
ISBE
el-za-bad (elzabhadh, "God has given"; Compare ZABDIEL and ZEBADIAH):
(1) The ninth of Davids Gadite heroes (1 Ch 12:12).
(2) A Korahite doorkeeper (1 Ch 26:7).
HDBN
the dowry of God
SBD
(whom God hath given ). One of the Gadite heroes who came across the Jordan to David. ( 1 Chronicles 12:12 ) A Korhite Levite. ( 1 Chronicles 26:7 )
以利達 ELIDAD
代表
民34:21
ISBE
e-li-dad (elidhadh, "God has loved"): Prince of Benjamin in the division of the land (Nu 34:21); perhaps the same as ELDAD (which see).
Easton
whom God has loved, son of Chislon, and chief of the tribe of Benjamin; one of those who were appointed to divide the Promised Land among the tribes (Num. 34:21).
HDBN
beloved of God
SBD
(whom God loves ), the man chosen to represent the tribe of Benjamin in the division of the land of Canaan. ( Numbers 34:21 ) (B.C. 1452.)
以利雅 ELIJAH
代表
拉10:21 拉10:26
ISBE
e-li-ja (eliyahu or (4 times) eliyah, "Yah is God"; Septuagint Eleiou, New Testament Eleias or Elias, the King James Version of New Testament Elias):
I. THE WORKS OF ELIJAH
1. The Judgment of Drought
2. The Ordeal by Prayer
3. At Horeb
4. The Case of Naboth
5. Elijah and Ahaziah
6. Elijah Translated
7. The Letter to Jehoram
II. THE WORK OF ELIJAH
III. CHARACTER OF THE PROPHET
IV. MIRACLES IN THE ELIJAH NARRATIVES
V. ELIJAH IN THE NEW TESTAMENT

LITERATURE
(1) The great prophet of the times of Ahab, king of Israel. Elijah is identified at his first appearance (1 Ki 17:1) as "Elijah the Tishbite, who was of the sojourners of Gilead." Thus his native place must have been called Tishbeh. A Tishbeh (Thisbe) in the territory of Naphtali is known from Tobit 1:2; but if (with most modern commentators) the reading of the Septuagint in 1 Ki is followed, the word translated "sojourners" is itself "Tishbeh," locating the place in Gilead and making the prophet a native of that mountain region and not merely a "sojourner" there.
I. The Works of Elijah.
In 1 Ki 16:29-34 we read of the impieties of Ahab, culminating in his patronage of the worship of the Tyrian Baal, god of his Tyrian queen Jezebel (1 Ki 16:31). 1 Ki 16:34 mentions as another instance of the little weight attached in Ahabs time to ancient prophetic threatenings, the rebuilding by Hiel the Bethelite of the banned city of Jericho, "with the loss" of Hiels eldest and youngest sons. This is the situation which calls for a judgment of Yahweh, announced beforehand, as is often the case, by a faithful prophet of Yahweh.
1. The Judgment of Drought:
Whether Elijah was already a familiar figure at the court of Ahab, the narrative beginning with 1 Ki 17:1 does not state. His garb and manner identified him as a prophet, in any case (2 Ki 1:8; compare Zec 13:4). Elijah declared in few words that Yahweh, true and only rightful God of Israel, whose messenger he was, was even at the very time sending a drought which should continue until the prophet himself declared it at an end. The term is to be fixed, indeed, not by Elijah but by Yahweh; it is not to be short ("these years"), and it is to end only when the chastisement is seen to be sufficient. Guided, as true prophets were continually, by the "word of Yahweh," Elijah then hid himself in one of the ravines east of ("before") the Jordan, where the brook Cherith afforded him water, and ravens brought him abundant food ("bread and flesh" twice daily), 1 Ki 17:2-6. As the drought advanced the brook dried up. Elijah was then directed, by the "word of Yahweh," as constantly, to betake himself beyond the western limit of Ahabs kingdom to the Phoenician village of Zarephath, near Sidon. There the widow to whom Yahweh sent him was found gathering a few sticks from the ground at the city gate, to prepare a last meal for herself and her son. She yielded to the prophets command that he himself should be first fed from her scanty store; and in return enjoyed the fulfillment of his promise, uttered in the name of Yahweh, that neither barrel of meal nor cruse of oil should be exhausted before the breaking of the drought. (Josephus, Ant, VIII, xiii, 2, states on the authority of Menander that the drought extended to Phoenicia and continued there for a full year.) But when the widows son fell sick and died, the mother regarded it as a Divine judgment upon her sins, a judgment which had been drawn upon her by the presence of the man of God. At the prayer of Elijah, life returned to the child (1 Ki 17:17-24).
"In the third year," 1 Ki 18:1 (Lk 4:25; Jas 5:17 give three years and six months as the length of the drought), Elijah was directed to show himself to Ahab as the herald of rain from Yahweh. How sorely both man and beast in Israel were pressed by drought and the resulting famine, is shown by the fact that King Ahab and his chief steward Obadiah were in person searching through the land for any patches of green grass that might serve to keep alive some of the kings own horses and mules (1 Ki 18:5,6). The words of Obadiah upon meeting with Elijah show the impression which had been produced by the prophets long absence. It was believed that the Spirit of God had carried Elijah away to some unknown, inaccessible, mysterious region (1 Ki 18:10,12). Obadiah feared that such would again be the case, and, while he entreated the prophet not to make him the bearer of a message to Ahab, appealed to his own well-known piety and zeal, as shown in his sheltering and feeding, during Jezebels persecution, a hundred prophets of Yahweh. Elijah reassured the steward by a solemn oath that he would show himself to Ahab (1 Ki 18:15). The king greeted the prophet with the haughty words, "Is it thou, thou troubler of Israel?" Elijahs reply, answering scorn with scorn, is what we should expect from a prophet; the woes of Israel are not to be charged to the prophet who declared the doom, but to the kings who made the nation deserve it (1 Ki 18:17,18).
2. The Ordeal by Prayer:
Elijah went on to challenge a test of the false gods power. Among the pensioners of Jezebel were 450 prophets of Baal and 400 prophets of the Asherah--still fed by the royal bounty in spite of the famine. Accepting Elijahs proposal, Ahab called all these and all the people to Mt. Carmel (1 Ki 18:19,20). Elijahs first word to the assembly implied the folly of their thinking that the allegiance of a people could successfully be divided between two deities: "How long go ye limping between the two sides?" (possibly "leaping over two thresholds," in ironical allusion to the custom of leaping over the threshold of an idol temple, to avoid a stumble, which would be unpropitious; compare 1 Sam 5:1-5). Taking the peoples silence as an indication that they admitted the force of his first words, Elijah went on to propose his conditions for the test: a bullock was to be offered to Baal, a bullock to Yahweh, but no fire put under; "The God that answereth by fire, let him be God." The voice of the people approved the proposal as fair (1 Ki 18:22-24). Throughout a day of blazing sunshine the prophets of Baal called in frenzy upon their god, while Elijah mocked them with merciless sarcasm (1 Ki 18:25-29). About the time for the regular offering of the evening sacrifice in the temple of Yahweh at Jerusalem, Elijah assumed control. Rebuilding an ancient altar thrown down perhaps in Jezebels persecution; using in the rebuilding twelve stones, symbolizing an undivided Israel such as was promised to the patriarch Jacob of old; drenching sacrifice and wood with water from some perennial spring under the slopes of Carmel, until even a trench about the altar, deep and wide enough to have a two-ceah (half-bushel) measure set in it, was filled--the prophet called in few and earnest words upon the God of the fathers of the nation (1 Ki 18:30-37). The answer of Yahweh by fire, consuming bullock, wood, altar and the very dust, struck the people with awe and fear. Convinced that Yahweh was God alone for them, they readily carried out the prophets stern sentence of death for the prophets of the idol god (1 Ki 18:38-40). Next the prophet bade Ahab make haste with the meal, probably a sacrificial feast for the multitude, which had been made ready; because rain was at hand. On the mountain top Elijah bowed in prayer, sending his servant seven times to look out across the sea for the coming storm. At last the appearance of a rising cloud "as small as a mans hand" was reported; and before the hurrying chariot of the king could cross the plain to Jezreel it was overtaken by "a great rain" from heavens black with clouds and wind after three rainless years. With strength above nature, Elijah ran like a courier before Ahab to the very gate of Jezreel (1 Ki 18:41-46).
3. At Horeb:
The same night a messenger from Jezebel found Elijah. The message ran, "As surely as thou art Elijah and I am Jezebel" (so the Septuagint), "so let the gods do to me, and more also" (i.e. may I be cut in pieces like a sacrificed animal if I break my vow; compare Gen 15:8-11,17,18; Jer 34:18,19), "if I make not thy life as the life of one of" the slain prophets of Baal "by to-morrow about this time." Explain Elijahs action how we may--and all the possible explanations of it have found defenders--he sought safety in instant flight. At Beersheba, the southernmost town of Judah, he left his "servant," whom the narrative does not elsewhere mention. Going onward into the southern wilderness, he sat down under the scanty shade of a desert broom-bush and prayed that he might share the common fate of mankind in death (1 Ki 19:1-4). After sleep he was refreshed with food brought by an angel. Again he slept and was fed. In the strength of that food he then wandered on for forty days and nights, until he found himself at Horeb, the mountain sacred because there Yahweh had revealed Himself to Moses (1 Ki 19:5-8). The repetition of identical words by Elijah in 1 Ki 19:10 and 14 represents a difficulty. Unless we are to suppose an accidental repetition by a very early copyist (early, since it appears already in the Septuagint), we may see in it an indication that Elijahs despondency was not easily removed, or that he sought at Horeb an especial manifestation of Yahweh for his encouragement, or both. The prophet was bidden to take his stand upon the sacred mount; and Yahweh passed by, heralded by tempest, earthquake and thunderstorm (19:9-12). These were Yahwehs fore-runners only; Yahweh was not in them, but in the "still small voice," such as the prophets were accustomed to hear within their souls. When Elijah heard the not unfamiliar inner voice, he recognized Yahweh present to hear and answer him. Elijah seems to be seeking to justify his own retreat to the wilderness by the plea that he had been "very jealous," had done in Yahwehs cause all that mortal prophet could do, before he fled, yet all in vain! The same people who had forsaken the law and "covenant" of Yahweh, thrown down His altars and slain His prophets, would have allowed the slaughter of Elijah himself at the command of Jezebel; and in him would have perished the last true servant of Yahweh in all the land of Israel (19:13,14).
Divine compassion passed by Elijahs complaint in order to give him directions for further work in Yahwehs cause. Elijah must anoint Hazael to seize the throne of Syria, Israels worst enemy among the neighboring powers; Jehu, in like manner, he must anoint to put an end to the dynasty of Ahab and assume the throne of Israel; and Elisha, to be his own successor in the prophetic office. These three, Hazael and his Syrians, Jehu and his followers, even Elisha himself, are to execute further judgments upon the idolaters and the scorners in Israel. Yahweh will leave Himself 7,000 (a round number, a limited but not an excessively small one, conveying a doctrine, like the doctrine of later prophets, of the salvation of a righteous remnant) in Israel, men proof against the judgment because they did not share the sin. If Elijah was rebuked at all, it was only in the contrast between the 7,000 faithful and the one, himself, which he believed to number all the righteous left alive in Israel (1 Ki 19:15-18).
4. The Case of Naboth:
The anointing of Hazael and of Jehu seems to have been left to Elijahs successor; indeed, we read of no anointing of Hazael, but only of a significant interview between that worthy and Elisha (2 Ki 8:7-15). Elijah next appears in the narrative as rebuker of Ahab for the judicial murder of Naboth. In the very piece of ground which the king had coveted and seized, the prophet appeared, unexpected and unwelcome, to declare upon Ahab, Jezebel and all their house the doom of a shameful death (1 Ki 21). There was present at this scene, in attendance upon the king, a captain named Jehu, the very man already chosen as the supplanter of Ahab, and he never forgot what he then saw and heard (2 Ki 9:25,26).
5. Elijah and Ahaziah:
Ahabs penitence (1 Ki 21:28,29) averted from himself some measure of the doom. His son Ahaziah pulled it down upon his own head. Sick unto death from injuries received in a fall, Ahaziah sent to ask an oracle concerning his recovery at the shrine of Baal-zebub in Ekron. Elijah met the messengers and turned them back with a prediction, not from Baal-zebub but from Yahweh, of impending death. Ahaziah recognized by the messengers description the ancient "enemy" of his house. A captain and fifty soldiers sent to arrest the prophet were consumed by fire from heaven at Elijahs word. A second captain with another fifty met the same fate. A third besought the prophet to spare his life, and Elijah went with him to the king, but only to repeat the words of doom (2 Ki 1).
6. Elijah Translated:
A foreboding, shared by the "sons of the prophets" at Beth-el and Jericho, warned Elijah that the closing scene of his earthly life was at hand. He desired to meet the end, come in what form it might, alone. Elisha, however, bound himself by an oath not to leave his master. Elijah divided Jordan with the stroke of his mantle, that the two might pass over toward the wilderness on the east. Elisha asked that he might receive a firstborns portion of the spirit which rested upon his master. "A chariot of fire, and horses of fire" appeared, and parted the two asunder; "and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven" (2 Ki 2:1-11).
7. The Letter to Jehoram:
In 2 Ch 21:12-15 we read of a "writing" from Elijah to Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah. The statements of 2 Ki 3:11,12 admit of no other interpretation than that the succession of Elisha to independent prophetic work had already occurred in the lifetime of Jehoshaphat. It has been pointed out that the difficult verse, 2 Ki 8:16, appears to mean that Jehoram began to reign at some time before the death of his father; it is also conceivable that Elijah left a message, reduced to writing either before or after his departure, for the future king of Judah who should depart from the true faith.
II. The Work of Elijah.
Ones estimate of the importance of the work of Elijah depends upon ones conception of the condition of things which the prophet confronted in Northern Israel. While it is true that the reign of Ahab was outwardly prosperous, and the king himself not without a measure of political sagacity together with personal courage, his religious policy at best involved such tolerance of false faiths as could lead only to disaster. Ever since the time of Joshua, the religion of Yahweh had been waging its combat with the old Canaanite worship of the powers of Nature, a worship rendered to local deities, the "Baalim" or "lords" of this and that neighborhood, whose ancient altars stood "upon the high mountains, and upon the hills, and under every green tree" (Dt 12:2). The god imported from Phoenicia by Jezebel bore also the title Baal; but his character and his worship were worse and more debasing than anything that had before been known. Resistance offered by the servants of Yahweh to the claims of the queens favored god led to persecution, rightly ascribed by the historian to Jezebel (1 Ki 18:4). In the face of this danger, the differences between the worship of Yahweh as carried on in the Northern Kingdom and the same worship as practiced at Jerusalem sank out of sight. The one effort of Elijah was to recall the people from the Tyrian Baal to Yahweh, the God of their fathers. The vitality of the true religion in the crisis is shown by the fidelity of such a man as Obadiah (1 Ki 18:3 f), or by the perseverance of a righteous remnant of 7,000, in spite of all that had happened of persecution (1 Ki 19:18). The work begun by Elijah was finished, not without blood, by Jehu; we hear no more of the worship of the Tyrian Baal in Israel after that anointed usurpers time (2 Ki 9; 10). To say that Elijah at Horeb "learns the gentleness of God" (Strachan in HDB) is to contradict the immediate text of the narrative and the history of the times. The direction given Elijah was that he should anoint one man to seize the throne of Syria, another to seize that of Israel, and a prophet to continue his own work; with the promme and prediction that these three forces should unite in executing upon guilty Israel the judgment still due for its apostasy from Yahweh and its worship of a false god. Elijah was not a reformer of peace; the very vision of peace was hidden from his eyes, reserved for later prophets for whom he could but prepare the way. It was his mission to destroy at whatever cost the heathen worship which else would have destroyed Israel itself, with consequences whose evil we cannot estimate. Amos and Hosea would have had no standing-ground had it not been for the work of Elijah and the influences which at Divine direction he put in operation.
III. Character of the Prophet.
It is obvious that the Scripture historian does not intend to furnish us with a character-study of the prophet Elijah. Does he furnish even the material upon which such a study may profitably be attempted? The characterization found in Jas 5:17, "Elijah was a man of like passions (margin, "nature") with us," is brief indeed; but examination of the books which have been written upon the life of Elijah leads to the conclusion that it is possible to err by attaching to events meanings which those events were never intended to bear, as well as by introducing into ones study too much of sheer imagination. It is easy, for example, to observe that Elijah is introduced to the reader with suddenness, and that his appearances and disappearances in the narrative seem abrupt; but is one warranted in arguing from this a like abruptness in the prophets character? Is not the sufficient explanation to be reached by observing that the historians purpose was not to give a complete biography of any individual, whether prophet or king, but to display the working of Yahweh upon and with the kingdoms of Israel and Judah through the prophets? Few personal details are therefore to be found recorded concerning even such a prophet as Elijah; and none at all, unless they have a direct bearing upon his message. The imagination of some has discerned a "training of Elijah" in the experiences of the prophet; but to admit that there must have been such a training does not oblige us to discover traces of it in the scenes and incidents which are recorded.
Distrusting, for the reasons above suggested, any attempt at a detailed representation of the prophets inner life, one may seek, and prize, what seems to lie upon the surface of the narrative: faith in Yahweh as God of Nature and as covenant God of the patriarchs and their descendants; consuming "zeal" against the false religion which would displace Yahweh from the place which must be His alone; keen vision to perceive hypocrisy and falsehood, and sharp wit to lash them, with the same boldness and disregard of self that must needs mark the true prophet in any age.
IV. Miracles in the Elijah Narratives.
The miraculous element must be admitted to be prominent in the experiences and works of Elijah. It cannot be estimated apart from the general position which the student finds it possible to hold concerning miracles recorded in the Old Testament. The effort to explain away one or another item in a rationalistic way is wholly unprofitable. Elijahs "ravens" may indeed be converted by a change of vowel-points into "Arabians"; but, in spite of the fact that Orientals would bring offerings of food to a holy hermit, the whole tenor of the narrative favors no other supposition than that its writer meant "ravens," and saw in the event another such exercise of the power of Yahweh over all things as was to be seen in the supply of meal and oil for the prophet and the widow of Zarephath, the fire from heaven, the parting of the Jordan, or the ascension of the prophet by whirlwind into heaven. Some modern critics recognize a different and later source in the narrative of 2 Ki 1; but here again no real difficulty, if any difficulty there be, is removed. The stern prophet who would order the slaughter of the 450 Baal prophets might well call down fire to consume the soldiers of an apostate and a hostile king. The purpose and meaning of the Elijah chapters is to be grasped by those who accept their authors conception of Yahweh, of His power, and of His work in Nature and with men, rather than by those who seek to replace that conception by another.
V. Elijah in the New Testament.
Malachi (4:5) names Elijah as the forerunner of "the great and terrible day of Yahweh," and the expectation founded upon this passage is alluded to in Mk 6:15 parallel Lk 9:8; Mt 16:14 parallel Mk 8:28 parallel Lk 9:19; Mt 27:47-49 parallel Mk 15:35,36. The interpretation of Malachis prophecy foreshadowed in the angelic annunciation to Zacharias Lk 1:17), that John the Baptist should do the work of another Elijah, is given on the authority of Jesus Himself (Mt 11:14). The appearance of Elijah, with Moses, on the Mount of Transfiguration, is recorded in Mt 17:1-13 parallel Mk 9:2-13 parallel Lk 9:28-36, and in Mt 11:14 parallel Mk 9:13 Jesus again identifies the Elijah of Malachi with John the Baptist. The fate of the soldiers of Ahaziah (2 Ki 1) is in the mind of James and John on one occasion (Lk 9:54). Jesus Himself alludes to Elijah and his sojourn in the land of Sidon (Lk 4:25,26). Paul makes use of the prophets experience at Horeb (Rom 11:2-4). In Jas 5:17,18 the work of Elijah affords an instance of the powerful supplication of a righteous man.
(2) A "head of a fathers house" of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Ch 8:27, the King James Version "Eliah").
(3) A man of priestly rank who had married a foreign wife (Ezr 10:21).
(4) A layman who had married a foreign wife (Ezr 10:26).

LITERATURE.
The histories of Israel and commentaries on Kings are many. Those which tend to rationalizing tend also to decrease the importance of Elijah to the history. F. W. Robertson, Sermons, 2nd series, V; Maurice, Prophets and Kings of the Old Testament, Sermon VIII; Milligan, Elijah ("Men of the Bible" series); W. M. Taylor, Elijah the Prophet.
F. K. Farr
Easton
whose God is Jehovah. (1.) "The Tishbite," the "Elias" of the New Testament, is suddenly introduced to our notice in 1 Kings 17:1 as delivering a message from the Lord to Ahab. There is mention made of a town called Thisbe, south of Kadesh, but it is impossible to say whether this was the place referred to in the name given to the prophet. Having delivered his message to Ahab, he retired at the command of God to a hiding-place by the brook Cherith, beyond Jordan, where he was fed by ravens. When the brook dried up God sent him to the widow of Zarephath, a city of Zidon, from whose scanty store he was supported for the space of two years. During this period the widow's son died, and was restored to life by Elijah (1 Kings 17: 2-24). During all these two years a famine prevailed in the land. At the close of this period of retirement and of preparation for his work (comp. Gal. 1:17, 18) Elijah met Obadiah, one of Ahab's officers, whom he had sent out to seek for pasturage for the cattle, and bade him go and tell his master that Elijah was there. The king came and met Elijah, and reproached him as the troubler of Israel. It was then proposed that sacrifices should be publicly offered, for the purpose of determining whether Baal or Jehovah were the true God. This was done on Carmel, with the result that the people fell on their faces, crying, "The Lord, he is the God." Thus was accomplished the great work of Elijah's ministry. The prophets of Baal were then put to death by the order of Elijah. Not one of them escaped. Then immediately followed rain, according to the word of Elijah, and in answer to his prayer (James 5:18). Jezebel, enraged at the fate that had befallen her priests of Baal, threatened to put Elijah to death (1 Kings 19:1-13). He therefore fled in alarm to Beersheba, and thence went alone a day's journey into the wilderness, and sat down in despondency under a juniper tree. As he slept an angel touched him, and said unto him, "Arise and eat; because the journey is too great for thee." He arose and found a cake and a cruse of water. Having partaken of the provision thus miraculously supplied, he went forward on his solitary way for forty days and forty nights to Horeb, the mount of God, where he took up his abode in a cave. Here the Lord appeared unto him and said, "What dost thou here, Elijah?" In answer to his despondent words God manifests to him his glory, and then directs him to return to Damascus and anoint Hazael king over Syria, and Jehu king over Israel, and Elisha to be prophet in his room (1 Kings 19:13-21; comp. 2 Kings 8:7-15; 9:1-10). Some six years after this he warned Ahab and Jezebel of the violent deaths they would die (1 Kings 21:19-24; 22:38). He also, four years afterwards, warned Ahaziah (q.v.), who had succeeded his father Ahab, of his approaching death (2 Kings 1:1-16). (See NABOTH
HDBN
God the Lord
SBD
(my God is Jehovah ) has been well entitled "the grandest and the most romantic character that Israel ever produced." "Elijah the Tishbite,... of the inhabitants of Gilead" is literally all that is given us to know of his parentage and locality. Of his appearance as he "stood before" Ahab (B.C. 910) with the suddenness of motion to this day characteristic of the Bedouins from his native hills, we can perhaps realize something from the touches, few but strong, of the narrative. His chief characteristic was his hair, long and thick, and hanging down his back. His ordinary clothing consisted of a girdle of skin round his loins, which he tightened when about to move quickly. ( 1 Kings 18:46 ) But in addition to this he occasionally wore the "mantle" or cape of sheepskin which has supplied us with one of our most familiar figures of speech. His introduction, in what we may call the first act of his life, is the most startling description. He suddenly appears before Ahab, prophesies a three-years drought in Israel, and proclaims the vengeance of Jehovah for the apostasy of the king. Obliged to flee from the vengeance of king, or more probably of the queen (comp. ( 1 Kings 19:2 ) he was directed to the brook Cherith. There in the hollow of the torrent bed he remained, supported in the miraculous manner with which we are all familiar, till the failing of the brook obliged him to forsake it. His next refuge was at Zarephath. Here in the house of the widow woman Elijah performed the miracles of prolonging the oil and the meal, and restored the son of the widow to life after his apparent death. 1Kin 17. In this or some other retreat an interval of more than two years must have elapsed. The drought continued, and at last the full horrors of famine, caused by the failure of the crops, descended on Samaria. Again Elijah suddenly appears before Ahab. There are few more sublime stories in history than the account of the succeeding events --with the servant of Jehovah and his single attendant on the one hand, and the 850 prophets of Baal on the other; the altars, the descending fire of Jehovah consuming both sacrifice and altar; the rising storm, and the ride across the plain to Jezreel. 1Kin 18. Jezebel vows vengeance, and again Elijah takes refuge in flight into the wilderness, where he is again miraculously fed, and goes forward, in the strength of that food, a journey of forty days to the mount of God, even to Horeb, where he takes refuge in a cave, and witnesses a remarkable vision of Jehovah. ( 1 Kings 19:9-18 ) He receives the divine communication, and sets forth in search of Elisha, whom he finds ploughing in the field, and anoints him prophet in his place. ch. 19. For a time little is heard of Elijah, and Ahab and Jezebel probably believed they had seen the last of him. But after the murder of Naboth, Elijah, who had received an intimation from Jehovah of what was taking place, again suddenly appears before the king, and then follow Elijahs fearful denunciation of Ahab and Jezebel, which may possibly be recovered by putting together the words recalled by Jehu, ( 2 Kings 9:26 2 Kings 9:36 2 Kings 9:37 ) and those given in ( 1 Kings 21:19-25 ) A space of three or four years now elapses (comp. ( 1 Kings 22:1 1 Kings 22:51 ; 2 Kings 1:17 ) before we again catch a glimpse of Elijah. Ahaziah is on his death-bed, ( 1 Kings 22:51 ; 2 Kings 1:1 2 Kings 1:2 ) and sends to an oracle or shrine of Baal to ascertain the issue of his illness; but Elijah suddenly appears on the path of the messengers, without preface or inquiry utters his message of death, and as rapidly disappears. The wrathful king sends two bands of soldiers to seize Elijah, and they are consumed with fire; but finally the prophet goes down and delivers to Ahaziahs face the message of death. No long after Elijah sent a message to Jehoram denouncing his evil doings, and predicting his death. ( 2 Chronicles 21:12-15 ) It was at Gilgal --probably on the western edge of the hills of Ephraim-- that the prophet received the divine intimation that his departure was at hand. He was at the time with Elisha, who seems now to have become his constant companion, and who would not consent to leave him. "And it came to pass as they still went on and talked, that, behold, a chariot of fire and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." (B.C. 896.) Fifty men of the sons of the prophets ascended the abrupt heights behind the town, and witnessed the scene. How deep was the impression which he made on the mind of the nation may be judged of from the fixed belief which many centuries after prevailed that Elijah would again appear for the relief and restoration of his country, as Malachi prophesied. ( Malachi 4:5 ) He spoke, but left no written words, save the letter to Jehoram king of Judah. ( 2 Chronicles 21:12-15 )
以利雅哈巴 ELIAHBA
代表
撒下23:32 代上11:33
ISBE
e-li-a-ba, e-li-a-ba (elyach-ba, "God hides"): One of Davids 30 mighty men (2 Sam 23:32; 1 Ch 11:33).
HDBN
my God the Father
SBD
(whom God hides ), on of the thirty of Davids guard. ( 2 Samuel 23:32 ; 1 Chronicles 11:33 ) (B.C. 1046.)
以利雅大 ELIADA
代表
撒下5:16 代上3:8 代上14:7 代上17:17 王上11:23
Easton
whom God cares for. (1.) One of David's sons born after his establishment in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 5:16). (2.) A mighty man of war, a Benjamite (2 Chr. 17:17). (3.) An Aramite of Zobah, captain of a marauding band that troubled Solomon (1 Kings 11:23).
HDBN
knowledge of God
SBD
(known by God ). One of Davids sons; according to the lists, the youngest but one of the family born to him after his establishment in Jerusalem. ( 2 Samuel 5:16 ; 1 Chronicles 3:8 ) (B.C. after 1033.) A mighty man of war, a Benjamite, who led 200,000 of his tribe to the army of Jehoshaphat. ( 2 Chronicles 17:17 ) (B.C. 945.)


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary