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每日一詞 主題辭典 聖經人名 聖經地名 聖經英文

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目前本系統共收錄了 1,856 個聖經相關人名
以及 HDBN 包含了 2,616 個姓名的意義解釋。


中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
耶路沙 JERUSHA
代表
王下15:33 代下27:1
ISBE
je-roo-sha (yerusha, "taken possession of," i.e. "married"): In 2 Ki 15:33 = "Jerushah" (yerushah, same meaning) of 2 Ch 27:1, the mother of King Jotham of Judah. Zadok was her fathers name; he may be the priest of 1 Ch 6:12 (Hebrew 5:38).
Easton
possession, or possessed; i.e., "by a husband", the wife of Uzziah, and mother of king Jotham (2 Kings 15:33).
HDBN
banished; possession; inheritance
SBD
(possessed ), daughter of Zadok and queen of Uzziah. ( 2 Kings 15:33 ) (B.C. 806.)
耶雷布 JAREB
代表
何5:13 何10:6 王下15:19 王下15:29
ISBE
ja-reb, jar-eb (yarebh, "let him contend"; Septuagint Iareim):
1. Obscurity of the Name:
Is mentioned twice in Hos (5:13; 10:6) as an Assyrian king who received tribute from Israel. We do not, however, know of an Assyrian king of that name, or of such a place as is indicated by "the king of Jareb" (5:13 King James Version, margin). Sayce (HCM, 417) thinks Jareb may possibly be the earlier name of Sargon who took Samaria in 722 BC, as the passages in which it appears seem to relate to the last struggles of the Northern Kingdom. This conjecture he bases on the probability that the successor of Shalmaneser IV, following the example of other usurpers of the Assyrian throne before him, assumed the name of Sargon. Those who hold that Hoseas prophecies are probably not later than 734 BC reject this view.
2. Meaning of the Word:
If we take the Hebrew text in Hos 5:13 as it stands (melekh yarebh), Jareb cannot be regarded as the name of a person, owing to the absence of the article before melekh, "king," which is always inserted in such a case. It is probably an epithet or nickname applied to the Assyrian king, as is suggested by the Revised Version margin ("a king that should contend") and the King James Version margin ("the king that should plead"), being derived from the ribh, "to strive." The rendering would then be "King Combat," "King Contentious," indicating Assyrias general hostility to Israel and the futility of applying for help to that quarter against the will of Yahweh. Some suggest that for melekh yarebh we should read malki rabh (i being the old nominative termination), or melekh rabh, "Great King," a title frequently applied to Assyrian monarchs. Others, following the Septuagint, would read melekh ram, "High King."
3. Historical Reference:
The historical reference, if it be to any recorded incident, may be to the attempt of Menahem, king of Israel in 738 BC, to gain over the Assyrians by a large subsidy to Pul, who assumed the name of Tiglath-pileser (2 Ki 15:19). In this case, as both Epraim and Judah are mentioned in the protasis, we should have to suppose that Ephraim made application on behalf of both kingdoms. If "Judah" be inserted before "sent" to complete the parallel, then the clause would be interpreted of Ahaz, king of Judah, who offered a heavy bribe to Tiglath-pileser to help him to withstand the combined attack of Rezin of Syria and Pekah of Israel (2 Ki 16:7 f). But perhaps there may be no particular allusions in the two clauses of the apodosis, but only a reference to a general tendency on the part of both kingdoms to seek Assyrian aid.
4. Other Views:
Cheyne would make a violent change in the verse. He would substitute "Israel" for "Judah" as warranted by Hos 12:2, insert "Israel" before "sent," change ashshur,"Assyria," into mitstsur, the North Arabian land of Mucri, "references to which underlie many passages in the Old Testament," and for melekh yarebh, he would read melekh `arabhi, "king of Arabia." For other views see ICC.
James Crichton
HDBN
a revenger
SBD
(adversary ) is to be explained either as the proper name of a country or person, as a noun in apposition, or as a verb from a root, rub , "to contend plead." All these senses are represented in the Authorized Version and the marginal readings, ( Hosea 5:13 ; 10:6 ) and the east preferable has been inserted in the text. Jareb is most probably the name of some city of Assyria or another name of the country itself.
胡巴 HUPPAH
代表
代上24:13
ISBE
hup-a (chuppah, "protection"): The priest in charge of the 13th course as prescribed under David (1 Ch 24:13).
SBD
(protected ), a priest in the time of David. ( 1 Chronicles 24:13 )
腓利 PHILIP
代表
徒6:5
Easton
lover of horses. (1.) One of the twelve apostles; a native of Bethsaida, "the city of Andrew and Peter" (John 1:44). He readily responded to the call of Jesus when first addressed to him (43), and forthwith brought Nathanael also to Jesus (45,46). He seems to have held a prominent place among the apostles (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; John 6:5-7; 12:21, 22; 14:8, 9; Acts 1:13). Of his later life nothing is certainly known. He is said to have preached in Phrygia, and to have met his death at Hierapolis. (2.) One of the "seven" (Acts 6:5), called also "the evangelist" (21:8, 9). He was one of those who were "scattered abroad" by the persecution that arose on the death of Stephen. He went first to Samaria, where he laboured as an evangelist with much success (8:5-13). While he was there he received a divine command to proceed toward the south, along the road leading from Jerusalem to Gaza. These towns were connected by two roads. The one Philip was directed to take was that which led through Hebron, and thence through a district little inhabited, and hence called "desert." As he travelled along this road he was overtaken by a chariot in which sat a man of Ethiopia, the eunuch or chief officer of Queen Candace, who was at that moment reading, probably from the Septuagint version, a portion of the prophecies of Isaiah (53:6,7). Philip entered into conversation with him, and expounded these verses, preaching to him the glad tidings of the Saviour. The eunuch received the message and believed, and was forthwith baptized, and then "went on his way rejoicing." Philip was instantly caught away by the Spirit after the baptism, and the eunuch saw him no more. He was next found at Azotus, whence he went forth in his evangelistic work till he came to Caesarea. He is not mentioned again for about twenty years, when he is still found at Caesarea (Acts 21:8) when Paul and his companions were on the way to Jerusalem. He then finally disappears from the page of history. (3.) Mentioned only in connection with the imprisonment of John the Baptist (Matt. 14:3; Mark 6:17; Luke 3:19). He was the son of Herod the Great, and the first husband of Herodias, and the father of Salome. (See HEROD PHILIP I.
HDBN
warlike; a lover of horses
SBD
(lover of horses ) the apostle was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter, ( John 1:44 ) and apparently was among the Galilean peasants of that district who flocked to hear the preaching of the Baptist. The manner in which St. John speaks of him indicates a previous friendship with the sons of Jona and Zebedee, and a consequent participation in their messianic hopes. The close union of the two in John 6 and 12 suggests that he may have owed to Andrew the first tidings that the hope had been fulfilled. The statement that Jesus found him ( John 1:43 ) implies a previous seeking. In the lists of the twelve apostles, in the Synoptic Gospel, his name is as uniformly at the head of the second group of four as the name of Peter is at that of the first, ( Matthew 10:3 ; Mark 5:18 ; Luke 6:14 ) and the facts recorded by St. John give the reason of this priority. Philip apparently was among the first company of disciples who were with the Lord at the commencement of his ministry at the marriage at Cana, on his first appearance as a prophet in Jerusalem, John 2. The first three Gospels tell us nothing more of him individually. St.John with his characteristic fullness of personal reminiscences, records a few significant utterances. ( John 6:5-9 ; 12:20-22 ; 14:8 ) No other fact connected with the name of Philip is recorded in the Gospels. He is among the company of disciples at Jerusalem after the ascension ( Acts 1:13 ) and on the day of Pentecost. After this all is uncertain and apocryphal, According tradition he preached in Phrygia, and died at Hierapolis.
腓利門 PHILEMON
代表
門2 門8 門9 門10 門11 門12 門13 門14 門15 門16 門17 門18 門19 門20
ISBE
fi-le-mon, fi-le-mun (Philemon): Among the converts of Paul, perhaps while at Ephesus, was one whom he calls a "fellow-worker," Philemon (Philem 1:1). He was probably a man of some means, was celebrated for his hospitality (Philem 1:5-7) and of considerable importance in the ecclesia at Colosse. It was at his house (Philem 1:2) that the Colossian Christians met as a center. It is more than probable that this was a group of the Colossian church rather than the entire ekklesia. His wife was named Apphia (Philem 1:2); and Archippus (Philem 1:2) was no doubt his son. From Col 4:17 we learn that Archippus held an office of some importance in Colosse, whether he was a presbyter (Abbott, ICC), or an evangelist, or perhaps the reader (Zahn), we cannot tell. He is called here (Philem 1:2) Pauls "fellow-soldier."
The relation between the apostle and Philemon was so close and intimate that Paul does not hesitate to press him, on the basis of it, to forgive his slave, Onesimus, for stealing and for running away.
See PHILEMON, EPISTLE TO.
Tradition makes Philemon the bishop of Colosse (Apostolical Constitutions, vii, 46), and the Greek Martyrology (Menae) for November 22 tells us that he together with his wife and son and Onesimus were martyred by stoning before Androcles, the governor, in the days of Nero. With this the Latin Martyrology agrees (compare Lightfoot, Ignatius, II, 535). This evidence, however, is unsatisfactory and cannot be trusted as giving unquestionable facts as to Philemon. The only sure information is that in the epistle bearing his name.
Charles Smith Lewis
Easton
an inhabitant of Colosse, and apparently a person of some note among the citizens (Col. 4:9; Philemon 1:2). He was brought to a knowledge of the gospel through the instrumentality of Paul (19), and held a prominent place in the Christian community for his piety and beneficence (4-7). He is called in the epistle a "fellow-labourer," and therefore probably held some office in the church at Colosse; at all events, the title denotes that he took part in the work of spreading a knowledge of the gospel.
HDBN
who kisses
SBD
the name of the Christian to whom Paul addressed his epistle in behalf of Onesimus. He was a native probably of Colosse, or at all events lived in that city when the apostle wrote to him: first, because Onesimus was a Colossian, ( Colossians 4:9 ) and secondly because Archippus was a Colossian, ( Colossians 4:17 ) whom Paul associates with Philemon at the beginning of his letter. ( Philemon 1:1 Philemon 1:2 ) It is related that Philemon became bishop of Colosse, and died as a martyr under Nero. It is evident from the letter to him that Philemon was a man of property and influence, since he is represented as the head of a numerous household, and as exercising an expensive liberality toward his friends and the poor in general. He was indebted to the apostle Paul as the medium of his personal participation in the gospel. It is not certain under what circumstances they became known to each other. It is evident that on becoming a disciple he gave no common proof of the sincerity and power of his faith. His character as shadowed forth in the epistle to him, is one of the noblest which the sacred record makes known to us.
腓力 PHILIP
代表
太10:3 可3:18 路6:14 徒1:13 路3:19 路3:1 徒6:5 徒8:5 徒21:8 徒21:9
Easton
lover of horses. (1.) One of the twelve apostles; a native of Bethsaida, "the city of Andrew and Peter" (John 1:44). He readily responded to the call of Jesus when first addressed to him (43), and forthwith brought Nathanael also to Jesus (45,46). He seems to have held a prominent place among the apostles (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; John 6:5-7; 12:21, 22; 14:8, 9; Acts 1:13). Of his later life nothing is certainly known. He is said to have preached in Phrygia, and to have met his death at Hierapolis. (2.) One of the "seven" (Acts 6:5), called also "the evangelist" (21:8, 9). He was one of those who were "scattered abroad" by the persecution that arose on the death of Stephen. He went first to Samaria, where he laboured as an evangelist with much success (8:5-13). While he was there he received a divine command to proceed toward the south, along the road leading from Jerusalem to Gaza. These towns were connected by two roads. The one Philip was directed to take was that which led through Hebron, and thence through a district little inhabited, and hence called "desert." As he travelled along this road he was overtaken by a chariot in which sat a man of Ethiopia, the eunuch or chief officer of Queen Candace, who was at that moment reading, probably from the Septuagint version, a portion of the prophecies of Isaiah (53:6,7). Philip entered into conversation with him, and expounded these verses, preaching to him the glad tidings of the Saviour. The eunuch received the message and believed, and was forthwith baptized, and then "went on his way rejoicing." Philip was instantly caught away by the Spirit after the baptism, and the eunuch saw him no more. He was next found at Azotus, whence he went forth in his evangelistic work till he came to Caesarea. He is not mentioned again for about twenty years, when he is still found at Caesarea (Acts 21:8) when Paul and his companions were on the way to Jerusalem. He then finally disappears from the page of history. (3.) Mentioned only in connection with the imprisonment of John the Baptist (Matt. 14:3; Mark 6:17; Luke 3:19). He was the son of Herod the Great, and the first husband of Herodias, and the father of Salome. (See HEROD PHILIP I.
HDBN
warlike; a lover of horses
SBD
(lover of horses ) the apostle was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter, ( John 1:44 ) and apparently was among the Galilean peasants of that district who flocked to hear the preaching of the Baptist. The manner in which St. John speaks of him indicates a previous friendship with the sons of Jona and Zebedee, and a consequent participation in their messianic hopes. The close union of the two in John 6 and 12 suggests that he may have owed to Andrew the first tidings that the hope had been fulfilled. The statement that Jesus found him ( John 1:43 ) implies a previous seeking. In the lists of the twelve apostles, in the Synoptic Gospel, his name is as uniformly at the head of the second group of four as the name of Peter is at that of the first, ( Matthew 10:3 ; Mark 5:18 ; Luke 6:14 ) and the facts recorded by St. John give the reason of this priority. Philip apparently was among the first company of disciples who were with the Lord at the commencement of his ministry at the marriage at Cana, on his first appearance as a prophet in Jerusalem, John 2. The first three Gospels tell us nothing more of him individually. St.John with his characteristic fullness of personal reminiscences, records a few significant utterances. ( John 6:5-9 ; 12:20-22 ; 14:8 ) No other fact connected with the name of Philip is recorded in the Gospels. He is among the company of disciples at Jerusalem after the ascension ( Acts 1:13 ) and on the day of Pentecost. After this all is uncertain and apocryphal, According tradition he preached in Phrygia, and died at Hierapolis.
腓力斯 FELIX
代表
徒23:24 徒24:1 徒24:2 徒24:3 徒24:4 徒24:5 徒24:6 徒24:7 徒24:8 徒24:9 徒24:10 徒24:11 徒24:12 徒24:13 徒24:14 徒24:15 徒24:16 徒24:17 徒24:18 徒24:19 徒24:20 徒24:21 徒24:22 徒24:24 徒24:25 徒24:26
Easton
happy, the Roman procurator of Judea before whom Paul "reasoned" (Acts 24:25). He appears to have expected a bribe from Paul, and therefore had several interviews with him. The "worthy deeds" referred to in 24:2 was his clearing the country of banditti and impostors. At the end of a two years' term, Porcius Festus was appointed in the room of Felix (A.D. 60), who proceeded to Rome, and was there accused of cruelty and malversation of office by the Jews of Caesarea. The accusation was rendered nugatory by the influence of his brother Pallas with Nero. (See Josephus, Ant. xx. 8, 9.) Drusilla, the daughter of Herod Agrippa, having been induced by Felix to desert her husband, the king of Emesa, became his adulterous companion. She was seated beside him when Paul "reasoned" before the judge. When Felix gave place to Festus, being "willing to do the Jews a pleasure," he left Paul bound.
HDBN
happy
SBD
(happy ), a Roman procurator of Judea appointed by the emperor Claudius in A.D. 53. He ruled the province in a mean, cruel and profligate manner. His period of office was full of troubles and seditions. St. Paul was brought before Felix in Caesarea. He was remanded to prison, and kept there two years in hopes of extorting money from him. ( Acts 24:26 Acts 24:27 ) At the end of that time Porcius Festus [FESTUS] was appointed to supersede Felix, who, on his return to Rome, was accused by the Jews in Caesarea, and would have suffered the penalty due to his atrocities had not his brother Pallas prevailed with the emperor Nero to spare him. This was probably about A.D. 60. The wife of Felix was Drusilla, daughter of Herod Agrippa I., who was his third wife and whom he persuaded to leave her husband and marry him.
腓吉路 PHYGELUS
代表
提後1:15
SBD
Used in the Revised Version in ( 2 Timothy 1:15 ) for PHYGELLUS.
腓理徒 PHILETUS
代表
提後2:17 提後2:18
ISBE
fi-le-tus (Philetos (2 Tim 2:17)):
1. The Nature of His Error:
This person is mentioned by Paul, who warns Timothy against him as well as against his associate in error, Hymeneus. The apostle speaks of Hymeneus and Philetus as instances of men who were doing most serious injury to the church by their teaching, and by what that teaching resulted in, both in faith and morals. The specific error of these men was that they denied that there would be any bodily resurrection. They treated all Scriptural references to such a state, as figurative or metaphorical. They spiritualized it absolutely, and held that the resurrection was a thing of the past. No resurrection was possible, so they taught, except from ignorance to knowledge, from sin to righteousness. There would be no day when the dead would hear the voice of Christ and come forth out of the grave. The Christian, knowing that Christ was raised from the dead, looked forward to the day when his body should be raised in the likeness of Christs resurrection. But this faith was utterly denied by the teaching of Hymeneus and Philetus.
2. How It Overthrew Faith:
This teaching of theirs, Paul tells us, had overthrown the faith of some. It would also overthrow Christian faith altogether, for if the dead are not raised, neither is Christ risen from the dead, and "ye are yet in your sins" (1 Cor 15:17).
The denial of the resurrection of the body, whether of mankind generally or of Christ, is the overthrow of the faith. It leaves nothing to cling to, no living Christ, who saves and leads and comforts His people. The apostle proceeds to say that teaching of this kind "eats as doth a gangrene," and that it increases unto more ungodliness. As a canker or gangrene eats away the flesh, so does such teaching eat away Christian faith. Paul is careful to say, more than once, that the teaching which denies that there will be a resurrection of the dead leads inevitably to "ungodliness" and to "iniquity."
See HYMENAEUS.
John Rutherfurd
Easton
amiable, with Hymenaeus, at Ephesus, said that the "resurrection was past already" (2 Tim. 2:17, 18). This was a Gnostic heresy held by the Nicolaitanes. (See ALEXANDER
HDBN
amiable; beloved
SBD
(beloved ) was possibly a disciple of Hymenaeus, with whom he is associated in ( 2 Timothy 2:17 ) and who is named without him in an earlier epistle. ( 1 Timothy 1:20 ) (A.D. 68-64) Thep appear to have been persons who believed the Scripture of the Old Testament, but misinterpreted them, allegorizing away the doctrine of the resurrection and resolving it all into figure and metaphor. The delivering over unto Satan. seems to have been a form of excommunication declaring the person reduced to the state of a heathen; and in the apostolic age it was accompanied with supernatural or miraculous effects upon the bodies of the persons so delivered.
臨門 RIMMON
代表
撒下4:2
Easton
pomegranate. (1.) A man of Beeroth (2 Sam. 4:2), one of the four Gibeonite cities. (See Josh. 9:17.) (2.) A Syrian idol, mentioned only in 2 Kings 5:18. (3.) One of the "uttermost cities" of Judah, afterwards given to Simeon (Josh. 15:21, 32; 19:7; 1 Chr. 4:32). In Josh. 15:32 Ain and Rimmon are mentioned separately, but in 19:7 and 1 Chr. 4:32 (comp. Neh. 11:29) the two words are probably to be combined, as forming together the name of one place, Ain-Rimmon=the spring of the pomegranate. It has been identified with Um er-Rumamin, about 13 miles south-west of Hebron. (4.) "Rock of," to which the Benjamites fled (Judg. 20:45, 47; 21:13), and where they maintained themselves for four months after the fearful battle at Gibeah, in which they were almost exterminated, 600 only surviving out of about 27,000. It is the present village of Rummon, "on the very edge of the hill country, with a precipitous descent toward the Jordan valley," supposed to be the site of Ai.
HDBN
exalted; pomegranate
SBD
(pomegranate ) the name of several towns. A city of Zebulun ( 1 Chronicles 6:77 ; Nehemiah 11:29 ) a Levitical city, the present Rummaneh , six miles north of Nazareth. A town in the southern portion of Judah, ( Joshua 15:3 ) allotted to Simeon, ( Joshua 19:7 ; 1 Chronicles 4:32 ) probably 13 miles southwest of Hebron. Rimmon-parez (pomegranate of the breach ), the name of a march-station in the wilderness. ( Numbers 33:19 Numbers 33:20 ) No place now known has been identified with it. Rimmon the Rock, a cliff or inaccessible natural fastness, in which the six hundred Benjamites who escaped the slaughter of Gibeah took refuge. ( Judges 20:45 Judges 20:47 ; 21:13 ) In the wild country which lies on the east of the central highlands of Benjamin the name is still found attached to a village perched on the summit of a conical chalky hill, visible in all directions, and commanding the whole country. A Benjamite of Beeroth, the father of Rechab and Baanah, the murderers of Ish-bosheth. ( 2 Samuel 4:2 2 Samuel 4:5 2 Samuel 4:9 )
臼利 GEUEL
代表
民13:15
ISBE
gu-el, ge-u-el (geuel, "majesty of God"): The spy from the tribe of Gad (Nu 13:15), sent by Moses to spy out the land of Canaan.
HDBN
Gods redemption
SBD
(majesty of God ), son of Machi the Gadite spy. ( Numbers 13:15 ) (B.C 1490.)
舍伊拉 SHEERAH
代表
代上7:24
ISBE
she-e-ra (sheerah; Codex Alexandrinus Saara, Codex Vaticanus omits): A daughter of Ephraim, who, according to the Massoretic Text of 1 Ch 7:24 (the King James Version "Sherah"), built the two Beth-horons and Uzzen-sheerah. The verse has been suspected because elsewhere in the Old Testament the founders of cities are men. Uzzen-sheerah as a place is unidentified; Conder suggests as the site Bet Sira, a village 2 miles Southwest of the Lower Beth-horon (Mem 3 16).
舍伯那 SHEBNA
代表
賽22:15 賽22:16 賽22:17 賽22:18 賽22:19 賽22:20 賽22:21 賽22:22 賽22:23 賽22:24 賽22:25 王下18:18 王下18:26 王下19:2
ISBE
sheb-na (shebhna; Somnas; but shebhnah, in 2 Ki 18:18,26; meaning uncertain (2 Ki 18:18,26,37 and 19:2 = Isa 36:3,11,22 and 37:2; lsa 22:15)):
1. Position in Isaiah 22:
In Isa 22:15 Shebna is referred to as he "who is over the house," or household, apparently that of the king. The phrase is translated "steward of the house" in the Revised Version (British and American) of Gen 43:16,19; 44:1, and occurs also in 39:4, "overseer"; 44:4. It is used of an officer of the Northern Kingdom in 1 Ki 16:9; 18:3; 2 Ki 10:5. This officer is distinguished from him "that was over the city" in 2 Ki 10:5, and it is said in 2 Ki 15:5 that after his father Azariah was stricken with leprosy, "Jotham, the kings son, was over the household, judging all the people of the land." Again Isa 22:15 speaks of "this cokhen," a phrase that must apply to Shebna if the prophecy refers to him. This word is the participle of a verb meaning "to be of use or service," so "to benefit" in Job 15:3; 22:2; 34:9. The feminine participle is employed of Abishag in 1 Ki 1:2,4, where King James Version, margin translates "cherisher"; BDB renders it "servitor" or "steward" in Isa 22:15. It occurs also as a Canaanite gloss in the Tell el-Amarna Letters (Winckler, number 237,9). The cokhen was evidently a high officer: Shebna had splendid chariots (22:18), but what the office exactly was is not certain. The other reference to Shebna in the title of the prophecy would lead one to conclude that it denoted him "who was over the household," i.e. governor of the palace, probably, or major-domo. The word cokhen is thus a general title; others deny this, maintaining that it would then occur more frequently.
2. Shebna in 2 Kings 18 f:
In 2 Ki 18 f = Isa 36 f we find too a Shebna mentioned among the officers of Hezekiah. There he is called the copher, "scribe" or "secretary," i.e. a minister of state of some kind, whereas Eliakim is he "who is over the household." Is then the Shebna of Isa 22 the same as this officer? It is of course possible that two men of the same name should hold high office about the same time. We find a Joshua (ben Asaph) "recorder" under Hezekiah (2 Ki 18:18) and a Joshua (ben Joahaz) having the very same position under Josiah a century later (2 Ch 34:8). But such a coincidence is rare. Had there been two high officers of state bearing this name, it is most probable that they would somehow have been distinguished one from the other. Shebnas name is thought to be Aramaic, thus pointing to a foreign descent, but G. B. Gray, "Isa," ICC, 373 ff, denies this. We can perhaps safely infer that he was a parvenu from the fact that he was hewing himself a sepulcher in Jerusalem, apparently among those of the nobility, whereas a native would have an ancestral burial-place in the land.
However, in 2 Kings, Shebna is the scribe and not the governor of the palace. How is this to be explained? The answer is in Isaiahs prophecy.
3. Isaiah 22:15 ff:
The prophecy of Isa 22 divides itself into 3 sections. The words "against (not as the Revised Version (British and American) "unto") Shebna who is over the house," or palace, are properly the title of the prophecy, and should come therefore at the very beginning of verse 15.
(1) Isa 22:15-18 form one whole. In 22:16 the words "hewing him out a sepulchre," etc., should be placed immediately before the rest of the verse as 22:16a with the rest of the section is in the second person. We thus read (22:15-17): `Against Shebna who was over the house. Thus saith the Lord, Yahweh of hosts, Go unto this steward (Revised Version margin) that is hewing him out a sepulchre on high, graying a habitation for himself in the rock, (and say) What doest thou here and whom hast thou here that thou hast hewed thee out here a sepulchre? Behold, Yahweh of hosts, .... etc. G.H. Box (Isaiah) would further transpose some parts of 22:17 f. Shebna is to be tossed like a ball into "a land wide of sides," i.e. a broad extensive land. He is addressed as a disgrace to the house of his royal master. The prophets language is that of personal invective, and one asks what had made him so indignant. Some (e.g. Dillmann, Delitzsch) suggest that Shebna was the leader of a pro-Egyptian party, while others (e.g. Cheyne) believe that the party was pro-Assyrian (compare Isa 8:5-8a). The actual date of the prophecy can only be inferred.
(2) Isa 22:19-23 contains a prophecy which states that Eliakim is to be given someones post, apparently that of Shebna, if this section be by Isaiah; 22:23, however, is held by many to be a gloss. These verses are not so vehement in tone as the previous ones. Some maintain that the section is not by Isaiah (Duhm, Marti). It can, however, be Isaianic, only later in date than 22:15 ff, being possibly meant to modify the former utterance. The palace governor is to lose his office and to be succeeded by Eliakim, who is seen to hold that post in 2 Ki 18 f.
See ELIAKIM.
(3) Isa 22:24 f are additions to the two utterances by a later hand; they predict the ruin of some such official as Eliakim owing to his own family.
4. Date of the Prophecy:
There is nothing a priori against believing that these three sections are entirely independent one of another, but there seems to be some connection between (1) and (2), and again between (2) and (3). Now the question that has to be solved is that of the relation of Isa 22:15 ff with 2 Ki 18 f = Isa 36 f, where are given the events of 701 BC. We have the following facts: (a) Shebna is scribe in 701, and Eliakim is governor of the palace; (b) Shebna is governor of the palace in Isa 22:15, and is to be deposed; (c) if Isa 22:18-22 be by Isaiah, Eliakim was to succeed Shebna in that post. Omitting for the moment everything but (a) and (b), the only solution that is to any extent satisfactory is that Isa 22:15-18 is to be dated previous to 701 BC. This is the view preferred by G.B. Gray, in the work quoted And this is the most satisfactory theory if we take (2) above into consideration. The prophecy then contained in (1) had not been as yet fulfilled in 701, but (2) had come to pass; Shebna was no longer governor of the palace, but held the position of scribe. Exile might still be in store for him.
Another explanation is put forward by K. Fullerton in AJT, IX, 621-42 (1905) and criticized by E. Konig in X, 675-86 (1906). Fullerton rejects verses 24 f as not due to Isaiah, and maintains that Isa 22:15-18 was spoken by the prophet early in the reign of Manasseh, i.e. later than 2 Ki 18 f, "not so much as a prophecy, a simple prediction, as an attempt to drive Shebna from office. .... It must be admitted that Isaiah probably did not succeed. The reactionary party seems to have remained in control during the reign of Manasseh. .... Fortunately, the moral significance of Isaiah does not depend on the fulfillment of this or that specific prediction. We are dealing not with a walking oracle, but with a great character and a noble life" (p. 639). He then infers from the massacres of Manasseh (2 Ki 21:16) "that a conspiracy had been formed against him by the prophetic party which proposed to place Eliakim on the throne" (p. 640). Isaiah he thinks would not "resort to such violent measures," and so the character of Isaiah makes it questionable whether he was the author of 22:20-23. This part would then be due to the prophetic party "who went a step farther than their great leader would approve." This view assumes too much, (a) that the terms in 22:20-23 refer to kingly power; (b) that Eliakim was of Davidic descent, unless we have a man of non-Davidic origin aiming at the throne, which is again a thing unheard of in Judah; and (c) that there was such a plot in the reign of Manasseh, of which we have no proof.
David Francis Roberts
Easton
tender youth, "treasurer" over the house in the reign of Hezekiah, i.e., comptroller or governor of the palace. On account of his pride he was ejected from his office, and Eliakim was promoted to it (Isa. 22:15-25). He appears to have been the leader of the party who favoured an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. It is conjectured that "Shebna the scribe," who was one of those whom the king sent to confer with the Assyrian ambassador (2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37; 19:2; Isa. 36:3, 11, 22; 37:2), was a different person.
HDBN
who rests himself; who is now captive
SBD
(vigor ), a person of high position in Hezekiahs court, holding at one time the office of prefect of the palace, ( Isaiah 22:15 ) but subsequently the subordinate office of secretary. ( Isaiah 36:3 ; 2 Kings 19:2 ) (B.C. 713.)
苦撒 CHUZA
代表
路8:3 路24:10
HDBN
the seer or prophet
SBD
properly Chuzas (the seer ), the house-steward of Herod Antipas. ( Luke 8:3 )
荷幔 HOMAM
代表
代上1:39 創36:22
ISBE
ho-mam (chomam, "destruction"): A Horite descendant of Esau (1 Ch 1:39). The name appears in Gen 36:22 as "Heman."
HDBN
making an uproar
SBD
(destruction ), the form under which, in ( 1 Chronicles 1:39 ) an Edomite name appears which in ( Genesis 36:22 ) is given HEMAM.
荷第雅 HODUAH
代表
尼8:7 代上4:19 尼9:5 尼8:7 尼10:10 尼10:13 尼10:18
荷蘭 HORAM
代表
書10:33
ISBE
ho-ram (horam, "height"): a king of Gezer defeated by Joshua when he came to the help of Lachish, which Joshua was besieging (Josh 10:33).
HDBN
their hill
SBD
(mountainous ), king of Gezer at the time of the conquest of the southwestern part of Palestine. ( Joshua 10:33 )
葉忒羅 JETHRO
代表
出2:15 出2:16 出2:17 出2:18 出2:19 出2:20 出2:21 出2:22 出3:1 出18:12 出18:13 出18:14 出18:15 出18:16 出18:17 出18:18 出18:19 出18:20 出18:21 出18:22 出18:23 出18:24 出18:25 民10:29 民10:30 民10:31 民10:32
ISBE
jeth-ro, je-thro (yithro, "excellence," Ex 3:1; 4:18b; 18:1-12 (in 4:18a, probably a textual error, yether, "Iether," the King James Version margin, the Revised Version margin); Septuagint always Iothor): The priest of Midian and father-in-law (chothen) of Moses.
1. His Relation to Reuel and Hobab:
It is not easy to determine the relation of Jethro to Reuel and Hobab. If we identify Jethro with Reuel as in Ex 2:18; 3:1 (and in Ant, III, iii; V, ii, 3), we must connect "Moses father-in-law" in Nu 10:29 immediately with "Reuel" (the King James Version "Raguel"), and make Hobab the brother-in-law of Moses. But while it is possible that chothen may be used in the wider sense of a wifes relative, it is nowhere translated "brother-in-law" except in Jdg 1:16; 4:11 ("father-in-law," the King James Version, the Revised Version margin). If we insert, as Ewald suggests (HI, II, 25), "Jethro son of" before "Reuel" in Ex 2:18 (compare the Septuagint, verse 16, where the name "Jethro" is given), we would then identify Jethro with Hobab, the son of Reuel, in Nu 10:29, taking "Moses father-in-law" to refer back to Hobab. Against this identification, however, it is stated that Jethro went away into his own country without any effort on the part of Moses to detain him (Ex 18:27), whereas Hobab, though at first he refused to remain with the Israelites, seems to have yielded to the pleadings of Moses to become their guide to Canaan (Nu 10:29-32; Jdg 1:16, where Kittel reads "Hobab the Kenite"; 4:11). It may be noted that while the father-in-law of Moses is spoken of as a "Midianite" in Exodus, he is called a"Kenite" in Jdg 1:16; 4:11. From this Ewald infers that the Midianites were at that time intimately blended with the Amalekites, to which tribe the Kenites belonged (HI, II, 44).
2. His Hearty Reception of Moses:
When Moses fled from Egypt he found refuge in Midian, where he received a hearty welcome into the household of Jethro on account of the courtesy and kindness he had shown to the priests 7 daughters in helping them to water their flock. This friendship resulted in Jethro giving Moses his daughter, Zipporah, to wife (Ex 2:15-21). After Moses had been for about 40 years in the service of his father-in-law, the angel of the Lord appeared to him in the burning bush as he was keeping the flock at Horeb, commanding him to return to Egypt and deliver his enslaved brethren out of the hands of Pharaoh (Ex 3:1 ff). With Jethros consent Moses left Midian to carry out the Divine commission (Ex 4:18).
3. His Visit to Moses in the Wilderness:
When tidings reached Midian of "all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel" in delivering them from Egyptian bondage, Jethro, with a natural pride in the achievements of his relative, set out on a visit to Moses, taking Zipporah and her two sons with him (Ex 18:1-12). On learning of his father-in-laws arrival at the "mount of God," Moses went out to meet him, and after a cordial exchange of courtesies they retired to Moses tent, where a pleasant interview took place between them. We are told of the interest Jethro felt in all the particulars of the great deliverance, how he "rejoiced for all the goodness which Yahweh had done to Israel," and how the conviction was wrought within him that Yahweh was "greater than all gods; yea, in the thing wherein they dealt proudly against them" (Ex 18:11). In this condition so expressed there is evidently a reference to the element by which the Egyptians thought in their high-handed pursuit they would be able to bring back Israel into bondage, but by which they were themselves overthrown.
It is worth noting that in the religious service in which Jethro and Moses afterward engaged, when Jethro, as priest, offered a burnt offering, and Aaron with all the elders of Israel partook of the sacrificial feast, prominence was given to Jethro over Aaron, and thus a priesthood was recognized beyond the limits of Israel.
4. His Wise Counsel:
This visit of Jethro to Moses had important consequences for the future government of Israel (Ex 18:13-27). The priest of Midian became concerned about his son-in-law when he saw him occupied from morning to night in deciding the disputes that had arisen among the people. The labor this entailed, Jethro said, was far too heavy a burden for one man to bear. Moses himself would soon be worn out, and the people, too, would become weary and dissatisfied, owing to the inability of one judge to overtake all the eases that were brought before him. Jethro, therefore, urged Moses to make use of the talents of others and adopt a plan of gradation of judges who would dispose of all eases of minor importance, leaving only the most difficult for him to settle by a direct appeal to the will of God. Moses, recognizing the wisdom of his father-in-laws advice, readily acted upon his suggestion and appointed "able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens." Thereafter, Jethro returned to his own country.
5. His Character and Influence:
The story of Jethro reveals him as a man of singular attractiveness and strength, in whom a kind, considerate disposition, a deeply religious spirit, and a wise judgment all met in happy combination. And this ancient priest of Midian made Israel and all nations his debtors when he taught the distinction between the legislative and the judicial function, and the importance of securing that all law be the expression of the Divine will, and that its application be entrusted only to men of ability, piety, integrity and truth (Ex 18:21).
James Crichton
Easton
his excellence, or gain, a prince or priest of Midian, who succeeded his father Reuel. Moses spent forty years after his exile from the Egyptian court as keeper of Jethro's flocks. While the Israelites were encamped at Sinai, and soon after their victory over Amalek, Jethro came to meet Moses, bringing with him Zipporah and her two sons. They met at the "mount of God," and "Moses told him all that the Lord had done unto Pharaoh" (Ex. 18:8). On the following day Jethro, observing the multiplicity of the duties devolving on Moses, advised him to appoint subordinate judges, rulers of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens, to decide smaller matters, leaving only the weightier matters to be referred to Moses, to be laid before the Lord. This advice Moses adopted (Ex. 18). He was also called Hobab (q.v.), which was probably his personal name, while Jethro was an official name. (See MOSES
HDBN
his excellence; his posterity
SBD
(his excellence ) was priest or prince of Midian. Moses married his daughter Zipporah. (B.C. 1530.) On account if his local knowledge he was entreated to remain with the Israelites throughout their journey to Canaan. ( Numbers 10:31 Numbers 10:33 ) (He is called REUEL REUEL in ( Exodus 2:18 ) and RAGUEL in ( Numbers 10:29 ), the same word int he original for both). Reuel is probably his proper name, and Jethro his official title.--ED.)
薩土 ZATTU
代表
尼10:14 拉2:8
ISBE
zat-u (zattu, meaning unknown): Head of a large family that returned with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem from Babylon (Ezr 2:8; 10:27; Neh 7:13; 10:14 (15)). According to Ezr 10:27, some of his sons had married foreign wives, and Zattu is named in Neh 10:14 as one of the chiefs who signed Nehemiahs covenant. Septuagint A also adds the name before that of Shecaniah in Ezr 8:5, and so we should read, "And of the sons of Zattu, Shecaniah .... "; so 1 Esdras 8:32 has Zathoes. the King James Version has "Zatthu" in Neb 10:14.
Easton
id., one whose descendants returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:8; Neh. 7:13); probably the same as Zatthu.
SBD
The sons of Zattu were a family of laymen of Israel who returned with Zerubbabel. ( Ezra 2:8 ; Nehemiah 7:13 )
薩拉 ZALAPH
代表
代上4:22
ISBE
za-laf (tsalaph, "caper-plant"): Father of Hanun, one of the repairers of the wall (Neh 3:30).
HDBN
shadow; ringing; shaking
SBD
(wound ) father of Hanun, who assisted in rebuilding the city wall. ( Nehemiah 3:30 )
薩拜 ZABBAI
代表
拉10:28 尼3:29
ISBE
zab-a-i, zab-i ( zabbay, meaning unknown; Zabou):
(1) One of those who had married foreign wives (Ezr 10:28) = "Jozabdus" of 1 Esdras 9:29.
(2) Father of Baruch (Neh 3:20). The Qere has zakkay = "Zaccai"of Ezr 2:9; Neh 7:14.
Easton
wanderer; pure. (1.) Ezra 10:28. (2.) The father of Baruch, who "earnestly repaired" part of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:20; marg., "Zaccai").
HDBN
flowing
薩改 ZACCAI
代表
拉2:1 尼7:14
ISBE
zak-a-i, zak-i.
See ZABBAI, (2).
Easton
pure, one whose "sons" returned with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:9; Neh. 7:14). (See ZABBAI
HDBN
pure meat; just
薩瑪 SHAIMAI
代表
代上2:51 代上2:54 代上6:20 代上6:21 代上6:42 代下29:12
薩買 SHALMAI
代表
拉2:46 尼7:48
ISBE
shal-mi, shal-ma-i: the King James Version form in Ezr 2:46 for "Shamlai"; Neh 7:48 "Salmai" (which see).
HDBN
my garment
SBD
(my thanks ). The children of Shalmai were among the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel. ( Ezra 2:46 ; Nehemiah 7:48 ) In Nehemiah SALMAI. (B.C. 536.)
薪瑪 ZIMMAH
代表
代下29:12
ISBE
zim-a (zimmah, perhaps "device," "plan"): A Gershonite Levite (1 Ch 6:20 (Hebrew, verse 5); also in 6:42 (Hebrew verse 27); 2 Ch 29:12). See Curtis, Chronicles, 130, 134 ff.
Easton
mischief. (1.) A Gershonite Levite (1 Chr. 6:20). (2.) Another Gershonite Levite (1 Chr. 6:42). (3.) The father of Joah (2 Chr. 29:12).
HDBN
thought; wickedness
SBD
(purpose ). A Gershonite Levite, son of Jahath. ( 1 Chronicles 6:20 ) (B.C. after 1706.) Another Gershonite, son of Shimei, ( 1 Chronicles 6:42 ) possibly the same as the preceding. Father of ancestor of Joab, a Gershonite in the reign of Hezekiah. ( 2 Chronicles 29:12 ) (B.C. before 726.) At a much earlier period we find the same collocation of names, Zimmah and Joah as father and son. ( 1 Chronicles 6:20 )


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary