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中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
耶洗別 JEZEBEL
代表
王上16:31 啟2:20 啟2:23
ISBE
jez-e-bel izebhel, "unexalted," "unhusbanded" (?); Iezabel; see BDB; 1 Ki 16:31; 18:4,13,19; 19:1,2; 21:5 ff; 2 Ki 9:7 ff,30 ff; Rev 2:20): Daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Zidonians, i.e. Phoenicians, and queen of Ahab, king of Northern Israel. Ahab (circa 874-853 BC) carried out a policy, which his father had perhaps started, of making alliances with other states. The alliance with the Phoenicians was cemented by his marriage with Jezebel, and he subsequently gave his daughter Athaliah in marriage to Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah. His own union with Jezebel is regarded as a sin in 1 Ki 16:31, where the Massoretic Text is difficult, being generally understood as a question. The Septuagint translations: "and it was not enough that he should walk in the sins of Jeroboam ben Nebat, he also took to wife Jezebel," etc. The Hebrew can be pointed to mean, "And it was the lightest thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam ben Nebat, he also took to wife Jezebel, and went and served Baal and worshipped him," i.e. all the other sins were light as compared with the marriage with Jezebel and the serving of Baal (compare Mic 6:16). Is this a justifiable view to take of the marriage? One answer would be that Ahab made a wise alliance; that Baal-worship was not non-Hebrew, that Ahab named his children not alter Baal but after Yahweh (compare Ahaziah, Jehoram, Athaliah), and that he consulted the prophets of Yahweh (compare 1 Ki 22:6); further, that he only did what Solomon had done on a much larger scale; it may be added too that Ahab was in favor of religious toleration, and that Elijah and not the king is the persecutor. What then can be said for the unfavorable Verdict of the Hebrew historians? That verdict is based on the results and effects of the marriage, on the life and character of Jezebel, and in that life two main incidents demand attention.
1. Persecution of Yahwehs Prophets:
This is not described; it is only referred to in 1 Ki 18:4, "when Jezebel cut off the prophets of Yahweh"; and this shows the history of the time to be incompletely related. In 1 Ki 18:19 we are further told that "450 prophets of Baal ate at her table" (commentators regard the reference to "400 prophets of the Asherah" as an addition). In 1 Ki 19:1 Ahab tells Jezebel of the slaughter of the prophets of Baal by Elijah, and then Jezebel (19:2) sends a messenger to Elijah to threaten his life. This leads to the prophets flight, an object which Jezebel had in view, perhaps, for she would hardly dare to murder Elijah himself. 2 Ki 9:7 regards the massacre of Ahabs family as a punishment for the persecution of the prophets by Jezebel
2. Jezebels Plot Against Naboth (1 Ki 21):
Ahab expresses a desire to possess the vineyard neighboring upon his palace in Jezreel, owned by Naboth, who refuses to part with the family inheritance though offered either its money value or a better vineyard in exchange. Ahab is depressed at this, and Jezebel, upon finding the cause of his melancholy feelings, asks him sarcastically if he is not king, suggesting that as king his wishes should be immediately granted by his subjects. She thereupon plots to secure him Naboths vineyard. Jezebel sends letters sealed in Ahabs name to the elders of Naboths township, and bids them arrange a public fast and make Naboth "sit at the head of the people" (Revised Version margin), a phrase taken by some to mean that he is to be arraigned, while it is explained by others as meaning that Naboth is to be given the chief place. Two witnesses--a sufficient number for that purpose--are to be brought to accuse Naboth of blasphemy and treason. This is done, and Naboth is found guilty, and stoned to death. The property is confiscated, and falls to the king (1 Ki 21:1-16). Elijah hears of this, and is sent to threaten Ahab with Divine vengeance; dogs shall lick his dead body (1 Ki 21:19). But in 1 Ki 21:20-23 this prophecy is made, not concerning Ahab but against Jezebel, and 21:25 attributes the sins of Ahab to her influence over him.
The prophecy is fulfilled in 2 Ki 9:30-37. Ahaziah and Jehoram had succeeded their father Ahab; the one reigned for 2 years (1 Ki 22:51), the other 12 years (2 Ki 3:1). Jehu heads a revolt against the house of Ahab, and one day comes to Jezreel. Jezebel had "painted her eyes, and attired her head," and sees Jehu coming. She greets him sarcastically as his masters murderer. according to Massoretic Text, Jehu asks, "Who is on my side? who?" but the text is emended by Klostermann, following Septuagint in the main, "Who art thou that thou shouldest find fault with me?" i.e. thou art but a murderess thyself. She is then thrown down and the horses tread upon her (reading "they trod" for "he trod" in 2 Ki 9:33). When search is afterward made for her remains, they are found terribly mutilated. Thus was the prophecy fulfilled. (Some commentaries hold that Naboths vineyard and Ahabs garden were in Samaria, and Naboth a Jezreelite. The words, "which was in Jezreel," of 1 Ki 21:1 are wanting in Septuagint, which has "And Naboth had a vineyard by the threshing-floor of Ahab king of Samaria." But compare 1 Ki 18:45; 21:23; 2 Ki 8:29; 9:10,15 ff,30 ff.)
See AHAB; JEHU.
3. Jezebels Character:
The character of Jezebel is seen revived in that of her daughter, Athaliah of Judah (2 Ki 11); there is no doubt that Jezebel was a powerful personality. She brought the worship of the Phoenician Baal and Astarte with her into Hebrew life, and indirectly introduced it into Judah as well as into the Northern Kingdom. In judging her connection with this propagation, we should bear in mind that she is not a queen of the 20th century; she must be judged in company with other queens famous in history. Her religious attitude and zeal might profitably be compared with that of Mary, queen of Scots. It must also be remembered that the introduction of any religious change is often resented when it comes from a foreign queen, and is apt to be misunderstood, e.g. the attitude of Greece to the proposal of Queen Olga have an authorized edition of the Bible in modern Greek.
On the other hand, although much may be said that would be favorable to Jezebel from the religious standpoint, the balance is heavy against her when we remember her successful plot against Naboth. It is not perhaps blameworthy in her that she upheld the religion of her native land, although the natural thing would have been to follow that of her adopted land (compare Ruth 1:16 f). The superiority of Yahweh-worship was not as clear then as it is to us today. It may also be held that Baal-worship was not unknown in Hebrew life (compare Jdg 6:25 f), that Baal of Canaan had become incorporated with Yahweh of Sinai, and that there were pagan elements in the worship of the latter. But against all this it must be clear that the Baal whom Jezebel attempted to introduce was the Phoenician Baal, pure and simple; he was another god, or rather in him was presented an idea of God very different from Yahweh. And further, "in Phoenicia, where wealth and luxury had been enjoyed on a scale unknown to either Israel or the Canaanites of the interior, there was a refinement, if one may so speak, and at the same time a prodigality of vicious indulgences, connected with the worship of Baal and Astarte to which Israel had hitherto been a stranger ..... It was like a cancer eating into the vitals or a head and heart sickness resulting in total decay (Isa 1:6). In Israel, moral deterioration meant political as well as spiritual death. The weal of the nation lay in fidelity to Yahweh alone, and in His pure worship" (HPM, section symbol 213).
The verdict of the Hebrew historian is thus substantiated. Jezebel is an example--an extreme one no doubt--of the bad influence of a highly developed civilization forcing itself with all its sins upon a community less highly civilized, but possessed of nobler moral and religious conceptions. She has parallels both in family and in national life. For a parallel to Elijahs attitude toward Jezebel compare the words of Carlyle about Knox in On Heroes and Hero-Worship, IV, especially the section, "We blame Knox for his intolerance," etc.
In Rev 2:20, we read of Iezabel, "the woman Jezebel, who calleth herself a prophetess"; not "thy wife" (i.e. the wife of the bishop) the Revised Version margin, but as Moffat (Expositors Greek Testament) aptly renders, "that Jezebel of a woman alleging herself a prophetess." Some members of the church at Thyatira "under the sway of an influential woman refused to separate from the local guilds where moral interests, though not ostensibly defied, were often seriously compromised ..... Her lax principles or tendencies made for a connection with foreign and compromising associations which evidently exerted a dangerous influence upon some weaker Christians in the city." Her followers "prided themselves upon their enlightened liberalism (Rev 2:24)." Moffat rejects both the view of Schurer (Theol. Abhandlungen, 39 f), that she is to be identified with the Chaldean Sibyl at Thyatira, and also that of Selwyn making her the wife of the local asiarch. "It was not the cults but the trade guilds that formed the problem at Thyatira." See also Zahn, Introduction to the New Testament, section symbol 73, note 7; AHAB; BAAL; ELIJAH.
David Francis Roberts
Easton
chaste, the daughter of Ethbaal, the king of the Zidonians, and the wife of Ahab, the king of Israel (1 Kings 16:31). This was the "first time that a king of Israel had allied himself by marriage with a heathen princess; and the alliance was in this case of a peculiarly disastrous kind. Jezebel has stamped her name on history as the representative of all that is designing, crafty, malicious, revengeful, and cruel. She is the first great instigator of persecution against the saints of God. Guided by no principle, restrained by no fear of either God or man, passionate in her attachment to her heathen worship, she spared no pains to maintain idolatry around her in all its splendour. Four hundred and fifty prophets ministered under her care to Baal, besides four hundred prophets of the groves [R.V., 'prophets of the Asherah'], which ate at her table (1 Kings 18:19). The idolatry, too, was of the most debased and sensual kind." Her conduct was in many respects very disastrous to the kingdom both of Israel and Judah (21:1-29). At length she came to an untimely end. As Jehu rode into the gates of Jezreel, she looked out at the window of the palace, and said, "Had Zimri peace, who slew his master?" He looked up and called to her chamberlains, who instantly threw her from the window, so that she was dashed in pieces on the street, and his horses trod her under their feet. She was immediately consumed by the dogs of the street (2 Kings 9:7-37), according to the word of Elijah the Tishbite (1 Kings 21:19). Her name afterwards came to be used as the synonym for a wicked woman (Rev. 2: 20). It may be noted that she is said to have been the grand-aunt of Dido, the founder of Carthage.
HDBN
chaste
SBD
(chaste ), wife of Ahab king of Israel. (B.C. 883.) She was a Phoenician princess, daughter of Ethbaal king of the Zidonians. In her hands her husband became a mere puppet. ( 1 Kings 21:25 ) The first effect of her influence was the immediate establishment of the Phoenician worship on a grand scale in the court of Ahab. At her table were supported no less than 450 prophets of Baal and 400 of Eastward. ( 1 Kings 16:31 1 Kings 16:21 ; 18:19 ) The prophets of Jehovah were attacked by her orders and put to the sword. ( 1 Kings 18:13 ; 2 Kings 9:7 ) At last the people, at the instigation of Elijah, rose against her ministers and slaughtered them at the foot of Carmel. When she found her husband east down by his disappointment at being thwarted by Naboth, ( 1 Kings 21:7 ) she wrote a warrant in Ahabs name, and sealed it with his seal. To her, and not to Ahab, was sent the announcement that the royal wishes were accomplished, ( 1 Kings 21:14 ) and on her accordingly fell the prophets curse, as well as on her husband, ( 1 Kings 21:23 ) a curse fulfilled so literally by Jehu, whose chariot-horses trampled out her life. The body was left in that open space called in modern eastern language "the mounds," where offal is thrown from the city walls. ( 2 Kings 9:30-37 )
耶烏利 JEVEL
代表
代上9:6 代下29:13 拉8:13
耶烏斯 JEUZ
代表
代上8:10
ISBE
je-uz ye`-uts "he counsels"): The eponym of a Benjamite family (1 Ch 8:10).
SBD
(counsellor ), head of a Benjamite house. ( 1 Chronicles 8:10 )
耶烏施 JEUSH
代表
創36:5 創36:18 代上7:10 代上8:39 代上23:10 代上23:11 代下11:19
ISBE
je-ush (ye`ush, probably "he protects," "he comes to help"; see HPN, 109; Kethibh is ye`ish, in Gen 36:5,14; 1 Ch 7:10):
(1) A "son" of Esau (Gen 36:5,14,18; 1 Ch 1:35). "The name is thought by some to be identical with that, of an Arabian lion-god Yagut ...., meaning `helper, whose antiquity is vouched for by inscriptions of Thamud" (Skinner, Gen, 432).
(2) A Benjamite (1 Ch 7:10), but probably a Zebulunite. See Curtis, Chronicles, 145 ff.
(3) A descendant of King Saul, the King James Version "Jehush" (1 Ch 8:39).
(4) A Gershonite Levite (1 Ch 23:10,11).
(5) A son of King Rehoboam (2 Ch 11:19).
David Francis Roberts
Easton
assembler. (1.) The oldest of Esau's three sons by Aholibamah (Gen. 36:5, 14, 18). (2.) A son of Bilhan, grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:10). (3.) A Levite, one of the sons of Shimei (1 Chr. 23:10, 11). (4.) One of the three sons of Rehoboam (2 Chr. 11:19). (5.) 1 Chr. 8:39.
HDBN
Jeuz
SBD
(assembler ). Son of Esau by Aholiabamah the daughter of Anah, the son of Zebeon the Hivite. ( Genesis 36:6 Genesis 36:14 Genesis 36:18 ; 1 Chronicles 1:35 ) (B.C. after 1797.) A Benjamite, son of Bilhah. ( 1 Chronicles 7:10 1 Chronicles 7:11 ) A Gershonite Levite, of the house of Shimei. ( 1 Chronicles 23:10 1 Chronicles 23:11 ) (B.C. 1014.) Son of Rehoboam king of Judah. ( 2 Chronicles 11:18 2 Chronicles 11:19 ) (B.C. after 97.)
耶特賴 JEATERAI
代表
代上6:61 代上6:21 代上6:41
HDBN
searching out
耶略 JERIOTH
代表
代上2:18
ISBE
jer-i-oth, jer-i-oth (yeri`oth, "(tent-) curtains"): In 1 Ch 2:18, where Massoretic Text is corrupt, Kittel in his commentary and in Biblical Hebrew reads "Caleb begat (children) of Azubah his wife, Jerioth." Wellhausen (De Gent. et Fam. Jud., 33) reads, "Caleb begat (children) of Azubah his wife, the daughter of Jerioth." According to English Versions of the Bible, Caleb had two wives, but the context does not bear this out. J. H. Michaelis regarded Jerioth as another name for Azubah. See Curtis, Commentary on Chronicles, 92.
HDBN
kettles; breaking asunder
SBD
(curtains ), one of the elder Calebs wives. ( 1 Chronicles 2:18 )
耶疊 JEDIAEL
代表
代上7:6 代上7:10 代上7:11 代上12:20 代上11:45 代上26:2
ISBE
je-di-a-el (yedhi`a-el, "God makes known" (?)):
(1) A "son" of Benjamin or probably of Zebulun (1 Ch 7:6,10,11). See Curtis, Chronicles, 145-49, who suggests emending the name to yachleel, Jahleel, in agreement with Gen 46:24.
(2) One of Davids mighty men (1 Ch 11:45), probably = the Manassite who deserted to David at Ziklag (1 Ch 12:20 (Hebrew 21)).
(3) A Korahite doorkeeper in Davids reign (1 Ch 26:2).
Easton
known by God. (1.) One of the sons of Benjamin, whose descendants numbered 17,200 warriors (1 Chr. 7:6, 10, 11). (2.) A Shimrite, one of David's bodyguard (1 Chr. 11:45). Probably same as in 12:20. (3.) A Korhite of the family of Ebiasaph, and one of the gate-keepers to the temple (1 Chr. 26:2).
HDBN
the science
耶示篩 JESHISHAI
代表
代上5:14
ISBE
je-shish-a-i (yeshishay, "aged"): A Gadite chief (and family?) (1 Ch 5:14).
HDBN
ancient; rejoicing exceedingly
耶穌 JESUS
代表
太1:21 徒7:45 來4:8 太1:21 太1:25 路1:31 路2:21 西4:11 徒7:來4
ISBE
je-zus (Iesous, for yehoshua`):
(1) Joshua, son of Nun (the King James Version Acts 7:45; Heb 4:8; compare 1 Macc 2:55; 2 Esdras 7:37).
(2) (3) High priest and Levite.
See JESHUA, 2, 5.
(4) Son of Sirach.
See SIRACH.
(5) An ancestor of Jesus (Lk 3:29, the King James Version "Jose").
(6) (7) See the next three articles.
Easton
(1.) Joshua, the son of Nun (Acts 7:45; Heb. 4:8; R.V., "Joshua"). (2.) A Jewish Christian surnamed Justus (Col. 4:11). Je'sus, the proper, as Christ is the official, name of our Lord. To distinguish him from others so called, he is spoken of as "Jesus of Nazareth" (John 18:7), and "Jesus the son of Joseph" (John 6:42). This is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua, which was originally Hoshea (Num. 13:8, 16), but changed by Moses into Jehoshua (Num. 13:16; 1 Chr. 7:27), or Joshua. After the Exile it assumed the form Jeshua, whence the Greek form Jesus. It was given to our Lord to denote the object of his mission, to save (Matt. 1:21). The life of Jesus on earth may be divided into two great periods, (1) that of his private life, till he was about thirty years of age; and (2) that of his public life, which lasted about three years. In the "fulness of time" he was born at Bethlehem, in the reign of the emperor Augustus, of Mary, who was betrothed to Joseph, a carpenter (Matt. 1:1; Luke 3:23; comp. John 7:42). His birth was announced to the shepherds (Luke 2:8-20). Wise men from the east came to Bethlehem to see him who was born "King of the Jews," bringing gifts with them (Matt. 2:1-12). Herod's cruel jealousy led to Joseph's flight into Egypt with Mary and the infant Jesus, where they tarried till the death of this king (Matt. 2:13-23), when they returned and settled in Nazareth, in Lower Galilee (2:23; comp. Luke 4:16; John 1:46, etc.). At the age of twelve years he went up to Jerusalem to the Passover with his parents. There, in the temple, "in the midst of the doctors," all that heard him were "astonished at his understanding and answers" (Luke 2:41, etc.). Eighteen years pass, of which we have no record beyond this, that he returned to Nazareth and "increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man" (Luke 2:52). He entered on his public ministry when he was about thirty years of age. It is generally reckoned to have extended to about three years. "Each of these years had peculiar features of its own. (1.) The first year may be called the year of obscurity, both because the records of it which we possess are very scanty, and because he seems during it to have been only slowly emerging into public notice. It was spent for the most part in Judea. (2.) The second year was the year of public favour, during which the country had become thoroughly aware of him; his activity was incessant, and his frame rang through the length and breadth of the land. It was almost wholly passed in Galilee. (3.) The third was the year of opposition, when the public favour ebbed away. His enemies multiplied and assailed him with more and more pertinacity, and at last he fell a victim to their hatred. The first six months of this final year were passed in Galilee, and the last six in other parts of the land.", Stalker's Life of Jesus Christ, p. 45. The only reliable sources of information regarding the life of Christ on earth are the Gospels, which present in historical detail the words and the work of Christ in so many different aspects. (See CHIRST
HDBN
savior; deliverer
SBD
(saviour ). The Greek form of the name Joshua or Jeshua, a contraction of Jehoshua, that is, "help of Jehovah" or "saviour." ( Numbers 13:16 ) Joshua the son of Nun. ( Numbers 27:18 ; Hebrews 4:8 ) [JEHOSHUA]
耶篩亞 JESAIAH
代表
代上3:21 代上25:3 代上26:25 拉8:7 拉8:19 尼11:7
HDBN
health
SBD
(salvation of Jehovah ). Son of Hananiah, brother of Pelatiah and grandson of Zerubbabel. ( 1 Chronicles 3:21 ) (B.C. after 536.)
耶米瑪 JEMIMA
代表
伯42:14 伯42:15
Easton
dove, the eldest of Job's three daughters born after his time of trial (Job 42:14).
HDBN
handsome as the day
SBD
(dove ), the eldest of the three daughters born to Job after the restoration of his prosperity. ( Job 42:14 )
耶羅亞 JAROAH
代表
代上5:14
ISBE
ja-ro-a (yaroach, meaning unknown): A Gadite chief (1 Ch 5:14). But the text is doubtful; see Curtis, Chronicles, 124.
SBD
(moon ), a chief man of the tribe of Gad ( 1 Chronicles 5:14 )
耶羅波安 JEROBOAM
代表
王上11:26 王下14:23 王下14:24 王下14:25 王下14:26 王下14:27 王下14:28 王下14:29
ISBE
jer-o-bo-am (yarobh`am; Septuagint Hieroboam, usually assumed to have been derived from riyb and `am, and signifying "the people contend," or, "he pleads the peoples cause"): The name was borne by two kings of Israel.
(1) Jeroboam I, son of Nebat, an Ephraimite, and of Zeruah, a widow (1 Ki 11:26-40; 12 through 14:20). He was the first king of Israel after the disruption of the kingdom, and he reigned 22 years (937-915 BC).
I. Jeroboam I
1. Sources:
The history of Jeroboam is contained in 1 Ki 11:26-40; 12:1 through 14:20; 2 Ch 10:1 through 11:4; 11:14-16; 12:15; 13:3-20, and in an insertion in the Septuagint after 1 Ki 12:24 (a-z). This insertion covers about the same ground as the Massoretic Text, and the Septuagint elsewhere, with some additions and variations. The fact that it calls Jeroboams mother a porne (harlot), and his wife the Egyptian princess Ano (compare 1 Ki 11); that Jeroboam is punished by the death of his son before he has done any wrong; that the episode with the prophets mantle does not occur until the meeting at Shechem; that Jeroboam is not proclaimed king at all--all this proves the passage inferior to the Massoretic Text. No doubt it is a fragment of some historical work, which, after the manner of the later Midrash, has combined history and tradition, making rather free use of the historical kernel.
2. His Rise and Revolt:
Jeroboam, as a highly gifted and valorous young Ephraimite, comes to the notice of Solomon early in his reign (1 Ki 11:28; compare 9:15,24). Having noticed his ability, the king made him overseer of the fortifications and public work at Jerusalem, and placed him over the levy from the house of Joseph. The fact that the latter term may stand for the whole of the ten tribes (compare Am 5:6; 6:6; Ob 1:18) indicates the importance of the position, which, however, he used to plot against the king. No doubt he had the support of the people in his designs. Prejudices of long standing (2 Sam 19:40 f; 20 f) were augmented when Israelite interests were made subservient to Judah and to the king, while enforced labor and burdensome taxation filled the peoples hearts h bitterness and jealousy. Jeroboam, the son of a widow, would be the first to feel the gall of oppression and to give voice to the suffering of the people. In addition, he had the approval of the prophet Ahijah of the old sanctuary of Shiloh, who, by tearing his new mantle into twelve pieces and giving ten of them to Jeroboam, informed him that he was to become king of the ten tribes. Josephus says (Ant., VIII, vii, 8) that Jeroboam was elevated by the words of the prophet, "and being a young man of warm temper, and ambitious of greatness, he could not be quiet," but tried to get the government into his hands at once. For the time, the plot failed, and Jeroboam fled to Egypt where he was received and kindly treated by Shishak, the successor to the father-in-law of Solomon.
3. The Revolt of the Ten Tribes:
The genial and imposing personality of Solomon had been able to stem the tide of discontent excited by his oppressive regime, which at his death burst all restraints. Nevertheless, the northern tribes, at a popular assembly held at Shechem, solemnly promised to serve Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, who had already been proclaimed king at Jerusalem, on condition that he would lighten the burdens that so unjustly rested upon them. Instead of receiving the magna charta which they expected, the king, in a spirit of despotism, gave them a rough answer, and Josephus says "the people were struck by his words, as it were, by an iron hammer" (Ant., VIII, viii, 3). But despotism lost the day. The rough answer of the king was met by the Marseillaise of the people:
"What portion have we in David?
Neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse:
To your tents. O Israel:
Now see to thine own house, David" (1 Ki 12:16).
Seeing the turn affairs had taken, but still unwilling to make any concessions, Rehoboam sent Adoram, who had been over the levy for many years (1 Ki 5:14; 12:18), and who no doubt had quelled dissatisfaction before, to force the people to submission, possibly by the very methods he had threatened to employ (1 Ki 12:14). However, the attempt failed. The aged Adoram was stoned to death, while Rehoboam was obliged to flee ignominiously back to Jerusalem, king only of Judah (1 Ki 12:20). Thus, the great work of David for a united kingdom was shattered by inferiors, who put personal ambitions above great ideals.
4. The Election:
As soon as Jeroboam heard that Solomon was dead, he returned from his forced exile in Egypt and took up his residence in his native town, Zeredah, in the hill country of Ephraim Septuagint 1 Ki 12:20 ff). The northern tribes, having rejected the house of David, now turned to the leader, and perhaps instigator of the revolution. Jeroboam was sent for and raised to the throne by the choice and approval of the popular assembly. Divinely set apart for his task, and having the approval of the people, Jeroboam nevertheless failed to rise to the greatness of his opportunities, and his kingdom degenerated into a mere military monarchy, never stronger than the ruler who chanced to occupy the throne. In trying to avoid the Scylla that threatened its freedom and faith (1 Ki 11:33), the nation steered into the Charybdis of revolution and anarchy in which it finally perished.
5. Political Events:
Immediately upon his accession, Jeroboam fortified Shechem, the largest city in Central Israel, and made it his capital. Later he fortified Penuel in the East Jordan country. According to 1 Ki 14:17, Tirzah was the capital during the latter part of his reign. About Jeroboams external relations very little is known beyond the fact that there was war between him and Rehoboam constantly (1 Ki 14:30). In 2 Ch 13:2-20 we read of an inglorious war with Abijah of Judah. When Shishak invaded Judah (1 Ki 14:25 f), he did not spare Israel, as appears from his inscription on the temple at Karnak, where a list of the towns captured by him is given. These belong to Northern Israel as well as to Judah, showing that Shishak exacted tribute there, even if he used violence only in Judah. The fact that Jeroboam successfully managed a revolution but failed to establish a dynasty shows that his strength lay in the power of his personality more than in the soundness of his principles.
6. His Religious Policy:
Despite the success of the revolution politically, Jeroboam descried in the halo surrounding the temple and its ritual a danger which threatened the permanency of his kingdom. He justifiably dreaded a reaction in favor of the house of David, should the people make repeated religious pilgrimages to Jerusalem after the first passion of the rebellion had spent itself. He therefore resolved to establish national sanctuaries in Israel. Accordingly, he fixed on Bethel, which from time immemorial was one of the chief sanctuaries of the land (Gen 28:19; 35:1; Hos 12:4), and Dan, also a holy place since the conquest, as the chief centers of worship for Israel. Jeroboam now made "two calves of gold" as symbols of the strength and creative power of Yahweh, and set them up in the sanctuaries at Bethel and Dan, where altars and other sacred objects already existed. It appears that many of the priests still in the land were opposed to his image-worship (2 Ch 11:13 ff). Accordingly, he found it necessary to institute a new, non-Levitical priesthood (1 Ki 13:33). A new and popular festival on the model of the feasts at Jerusalem was also established. Jeroboams policy might have been considered as a clever political move, had it not contained the dangerous ppeal to the lower instincts of the masses, that led them into the immoralities of heathenism and hastened the destruction of the nation. Jeroboam sacrificed the higher interests of religion to politics. This was the "sin of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, wherewith he made Israel to sin" (1 Ki 12:30; 16:26).
7. Hostility of the Prophets:
It may be that many of the prophets sanctioned Jeroboams religious policy. Whatever the attitude of the majority may have been, there was no doubt a party who strenuously opposed the image-worship.
(1) The Anonymous Prophet.
On the very day on which Jeroboam inaugurated the worship at the sanctuary at Bethel "a man of God out of Judah" appeared at Bethel and publicly denounced the service. The import of his message was that the royal altar should some day be desecrated by a ruler from the house of David. The prophet was saved from the wrath of the king only by a miracle. "The altar also was rent, and the ashes poured out from the altar." This narrative of 1 Ki 13 is usually assumed to belong to a later time, but whatever the date of compilation, the general historicity of the account is little affected by it.
(2) The Prophet Ahijah.
At a later date, when Jeroboam had realized his ambition, but not the ideal which the prophet had set before him, Ahijah predicted the consequences of his evil policy. Jeroboams eldest son had fallen sick. He thought of Ahijah, now old and blind, and sent the queen in disguise to learn the issue of the sickness. The prophet bade her to announce to Jeroboam that the house of Jeroboam should be extirpated root and branch; that the people whom he had seduced to idolatry should be uprooted from the land and transported beyond the river; and, severest of all, that her son should die.
8. His Death:
Jeroboam died, in the 22nd year of his reign, having "bequeathed to posterity the reputation of an apostate and a succession of endless revolutions."
S. K. Mosiman
(2) Jeroboam II (2 Ki 14:23-29), son of Joash and 13th king of Israel; 4th sovereign of the dynasty of Jehu. He reigned 41 years. His accession may be placed circa 798 BC (some date lower).
II. Jeroboam II
1. His Warlike Policy:
Jeroboam came into power on the crest of the wave of prosperity that followed the crushing of the supremacy of Damascus by his father. By his great victory at Aphek, followed by others, Joash had regained the territory lost to Israel in the reigns of Jehu and Jehoahaz (2 Ki 13:17,25). This satisfied Joash, or his death prevented further hostilities. Jeroboam, however, then a young man, resolved on a war of retaliation against Damascus, and on further conquests. The condition of the eastern world favored his projects, for Assyria was at the time engaged, under Shalmaneser III and Assurdan III, in a life-and-death struggle with Armenia. Syria being weakened, Jeroboam determined on a bold attempt to conquer and annex the whole kingdom of which Damascus was the capital. The steps of the campaign by which this was accomplished are unknown to us. The result only is recorded, that not only the intermediate territory fell into Jeroboams hands, but that Damascus itself was captured (2 Ki 14:28). Hamath was taken, and thus were restored the eastern boundaries of the kingdom, as they were in the time of David (1 Ch 13:5). From the time of Joshua "the entrance of Hamath" (Josh 13:5), a narrow pass leading into the valley of the Lebanons, had been the accepted northern boundary of the promised land. This involved the subjection of Moab and Ammon, probably already tributaries of Damascus.
2. New Social Conditions:
Jeroboams long reign of over 40 years gave time for the collected tribute of this greatly increased territory to flow into the coffers of Samaria, and the exactions would be ruthlessly enforced. The prophet Amos, a contemporary of Jeroboam in his later years, dwells on the cruelties inflicted on the trans-Jordanic tribes by Hazael, who "threshed Gilead with threshing instruments of iron" (Am 1:3). All this would be remembered now, and wealth to which the Northern Kingdom had been unaccustomed flowed in to its treasuries. The hovels of unburned brick in which the citizens had lived were replaced by "houses of hewn stone" (Am 5:11). The ivory house which Ahab built in Samaria (1 Ki 22:39; decorations only are meant) was imitated, and there were many "great houses" (Am 3:15). The sovereign had both a winter and a summer palace. The description of a banqueting scene within one of these palatial abodes is lifelike in its portraiture. The guests stretched themselves upon the silken cushions of the couches, eating the flesh of lambs and stall-fed calves, drinking wine from huge bowls, singing idle songs to the sound of viols, themselves perfumed and anointed with oil (Am 6:4-6). Meanwhile, they were not grieved for the affliction of Joseph, and cared nothing for the wrongdoing of which the country was full. Side by side with this luxury, the poor of the land were in the utmost distress. A case in which a man was sold into slavery for the price of a pair of shoes seems to have come to the prophets knowledge, and is twice referred to by him (Am 2:6; 8:6).
3. Growth of Ceremonial Worship:
With all this, and as part of the social organization, religion of a kind flourished. Ritual took the place of righteousness; and in a memorable passage, Amos denounces the substitution of the one for the other (Am 5:21 ff). The worship took place in the sanctuaries of the golden calves, where the votaries prostrated themselves before the altar clothed in garments taken in cruel pledge, and drank sacrificial wine bought with the money of those who were fined for non-attendance there (Am 2:8). There we are subsidiary temples and altars at Gilgal and Beersheba (Am 4:4; 5:5; 8:14). Both of these places had associations with the early history of the nation, and would be attended by worshippers from Judah as well as from Israel.
4. Mission to Amos:
Toward the close of his reign, it would appear that Jeroboam had determined upon adding greater splendor and dignity to the central shrine, in correspondence with the increased wealth of the nation. Amos, about the same time, received a commission to go to Bethel and testify against the whole proceedings there. He was to pronounce that these sanctuaries should be laid waste, and that Yahweh would raise the sword against the house of Jeroboam. (Am 7:9). On hearing his denunciation, made probably as he stood beside the altar, Amaziah, the priest of Bethel, sent a messenger to the king at Samaria, to tell him of the "conspiracy" of Amos, and that the land was not able to bear all his words. The messenger bore the report that Amos had declared "Jeroboam shall die by the sword," which Amos had not done. When the messenger had gone, priest and prophet had a heated controversy, and new threatenings were uttered (Am 7:10-17).
5. Prophecy of Jonah:
The large extension of territory acquired for Israel by Jeroboam is declared to have been the realization of a prophecy uttered earlier by Jonah, the son of Amittai (2 Ki 14:25)--the same whose mission to Nineveh forms the subject of the Book of Jonah (1:1). It is also indicated that the relief which had now come was the only alternative to the utter extinction of Israel. But Yahweh sent Israel a "saviour" (2 Ki 13:5), associated by some with the Assyrian king Ramman-nirari III, who crushed Damascus, an left Syria an easy prey, first to Jehoash, then to Jeroboam. (see JEHOASH), but whom the historian seems to connect with Jeroboam himself (2 Ki 14:26,27).
Jeroboam was succeeded on his death by his weak son Zechariah (2 Ki 14:29).
W. Shaw Caldecott
Easton
increase of the people. (1.) The son of Nebat (1 Kings 11:26-39), "an Ephrathite," the first king of the ten tribes, over whom he reigned twenty-two years (B.C. 976-945). He was the son of a widow of Zereda, and while still young was promoted by Solomon to be chief superintendent of the "burnden", i.e., of the bands of forced labourers. Influenced by the words of the prophet Ahijah, he began to form conspiracies with the view of becoming king of the ten tribes; but these having been discovered, he fled to Egypt (1 Kings 11:29-40), where he remained for a length of time under the protection of Shishak I. On the death of Solomon, the ten tribes, having revolted, sent to invite him to become their king. The conduct of Rehoboam favoured the designs of Jeroboam, and he was accordingly proclaimed "king of Israel" (1 Kings 12: 1-20). He rebuilt and fortified Shechem as the capital of his kingdom. He at once adopted means to perpetuate the division thus made between the two parts of the kingdom, and erected at Dan and Bethel, the two extremities of his kingdom, "golden calves," which he set up as symbols of Jehovah, enjoining the people not any more to go up to worship at Jerusalem, but to bring their offerings to the shrines he had erected. Thus he became distinguished as the man "who made Israel to sin." This policy was followed by all the succeeding kings of Israel. While he was engaged in offering incense at Bethel, a prophet from Judah appeared before him with a warning message from the Lord. Attempting to arrest the prophet for his bold words of defiance, his hand was "dried up," and the altar before which he stood was rent asunder. At his urgent entreaty his "hand was restored him again" (1 Kings 13:1-6, 9; comp. 2 Kings 23:15); but the miracle made no abiding impression on him. His reign was one of constant war with the house of Judah. He died soon after his son Abijah (1 Kings 14:1-18). (2.) Jeroboam II., the son and successor of Jehoash, and the fourteenth king of Israel, over which he ruled for forty-one years, B.C. 825-784 (2 Kings 14:23). He followed the example of the first Jeroboam in keeping up the worship of the golden calves (2 Kings 14:24). His reign was contemporary with those of Amaziah (2 Kings 14:23) and Uzziah (15:1), kings of Judah. He was victorious over the Syrians (13:4; 14:26, 27), and extended Israel to its former limits, from "the entering of Hamath to the sea of the plain" (14:25; Amos 6:14). His reign of forty-one years was the most prosperous that Israel had ever known as yet. With all this outward prosperity, however, iniquity widely prevailed in the land (Amos 2:6-8; 4:1; 6:6; Hos. 4:12-14). The prophets Hosea (1:1), Joel (3:16; Amos 1:1, 2), Amos (1:1), and Jonah (2 Kings 14:25) lived during his reign. He died, and was buried with his ancestors (14:29). He was succeeded by his son Zachariah (q.v.). His name occurs in Scripture only in 2 Kings 13:13; 14:16, 23, 27, 28, 29; 15:1, 8; 1 Chr. 5:17; Hos. 1:1; Amos 1:1; 7:9, 10, 11. In all other passages it is Jeroboam the son of Nebat that is meant.
HDBN
he that opposes the people
SBD
(whose people are many ). The first king of the divided kingdom of Israel, B.C. 975-954, was the son of an Ephraimite of the name of Nebat. He was raised by Solomon to the rank of superintendent over the taxes and labors exacted from the tribe of Ephraim. ( 1 Kings 11:28 ) he made the most of his position, and at last was perceived by Solomon to be aiming at the monarchy. He was leaving Jerusalem, when he was met by Ahijah the prophet, who gave him the assurance that, on condition of obedience to his laws, God would establish for him a kingdom and dynasty equal to that of David. ( 1 Kings 11:29-40 ) The attempts of Solomon to cut short Jeroboams designs occasioned his flight into Egypt. There he remained until Solomons death. After a years longer stay in Egypt, during which Jeroboam married Ano, the elder sister of the Egyptian queen Tahpenes, he returned to Shechem, where took place the conference with Rehoboam [REHOBOAM], and the final revolt which ended in the elevation of Jeroboam to the throne of the northern kingdom. Now occurred the fatal error of his policy. Fearing that the yearly pilgrimages to Jerusalem would undo all the work which he effected, he took the bold step of rending the religious unity of the nation, which was as yet unimpaired, asunder. He caused two golden figures of Mnevis, the sacred calf, to be made and set up at the two extremities of his kingdom, one at Dan and the other at Bethel. It was while dedicating the altar at Bethel that a prophet from Judah suddenly appeared, who denounced the altar, and foretold its desecration by Josiah, and violent overthrow. The king, stretching out his hand to arrest the prophet, felt it withered and paralyzed, and only at the prophets prayer saw it restored, and acknowledged his divine mission. Jeroboam was at constant war with the house of Judah, but the only act distinctly recorded is a battle with Abijah, son of Rehoboam, in which he was defeated. The calamity was severely felt; he never recovered the blow, and soon after died, in the 22d year of his reign, ( 2 Chronicles 13:20 ) and was buried in his ancestral sepulchre. ( 1 Kings 14:20 ) Jeroboam II., the son of Joash, the fourth of the dynasty of Jehu. (B.C. 825-784.) The most prosperous of the kings of Israel. He repelled the Syrian invaders, took their capital city Damascus, ( 2 Kings 14:28 ) and recovered the whole of the ancient dominion from Hamah to the Dead Sea. ch ( 2 Kings 14:25 ) Ammon and Moab were reconquered, and the transjordanic tribes were restored to their territory, ( 2 Kings 13:5 ; 1 Chronicles 5:17-22 ) but it was merely an outward restoration.
耶羅罕 JEROHAM
代表
撒上1:1 代上6:27 代上6:34 代上8:27 代上9:8 代上9:12 尼11:12 代上12:7 代上27:22 代上23:1
ISBE
je-ro-ham (yerocham, "may he be compassionate!"):
(1) An Ephraimite, the father of Elkanah, and grandfather of Samuel (1 Sam 1:1; 1 Ch 6:27,34 (Hebrew 12,19)): Jerahmeel is the name in Septuagint, Codex Vaticanus, in 1 Samuel and in Septuagint, L and manuscripts, in 1 Chronicles.
(2) A Benjamite (1 Ch 8:27), apparently = JEREMOTH, (2) (compare 8:14), and probably the same as he of 1 Ch 9:8.
(3) Ancestor of a priest in Jerusalem (1 Ch 9:12 = Neh 11:12).
(4) A man of Gedor, father of two of Davids Benjamite recruits at Ziklag, though Gedor might be a town in Southern Judah (1 Ch 12:7 (Hebrew 8)).
(5) Father of Azarel, Davids tribal chief over Dan (1 Ch 27:22).
(6) Father of Azariah, one of the captains who supported Jehoiada in overthrowing Queen Athaliah (2 Ch 23:1).
David Francis Roberts
Easton
cherished; who finds mercy. (1.) Father of Elkanah, and grandfather of the prophet Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1). (2.) The father of Azareel, the "captain" of the tribe of Dan (1 Chr. 27:22). (3.) 1 Chr. 12:7; a Benjamite. (4.) 2 Chr. 23:1; one whose son assisted in placing Joash on the throne. (5.) 1 Chr. 9:8; a Benjamite. (6.) 1 Chr. 9:12; a priest, perhaps the same as in Neh. 11:12.
HDBN
high; merciful; beloved
SBD
(cherished ). Father of Elkanah, the father of Samuel, of the house of Kohath. ( 1 Samuel 1:1 ; 1 Chronicles 6:27 1 Chronicles 6:34 ) (B.C. before 1142.) A Benjamite, the founder of a family of Bene-Jeroham. ( 1 Chronicles 8:27 ) Probably the same as Father (or progenitor) of Ibneiah. ( 1 Chronicles 9:8 ) comp. 1Chr 9:3 and 1Chr 9:9. (B.C. before 588.) A descendant of Aaron, of the house of Immer, the leader of the sixteenth course of priests; son of Pashur, and father of Adaiah. ( 1 Chronicles 9:12 ) He appears to be mentioned again in ( Nehemiah 11:12 ) (B.C. before 586.) Jeroham of Gedor, some of whose sons joined David at Ziglag. ( 1 Chronicles 12:7 ) (B.C. before 1055.) A Danite, whose son or descendant Azareel was head of his tribe in the time of David. ( 1 Chronicles 27:22 ) Father of Azariah, one of the "captains of hundreds" in the time of Athaliah. ( 2 Chronicles 23:1 ) (B.C. before 876.)
耶色 JEZER
代表
創46:24 民26:49 代上7:13
ISBE
je-zer (yecher, "form" or "purpose"): A "son" of Naphtali (Gen 46:24; Nu 26:49; 1 Ch 7:13).
HDBN
island of help
SBD
(power ), the third son of Naphtali, ( Genesis 46:24 ; Numbers 26:49 ; 1 Chronicles 7:13 ) and father of the family of Jezerites.
耶薛 JEZIEL
代表
代上12:3
ISBE
je-zi-el, je-zi-el (Kethibh is yezuel, or yezoel; Qere yeziel = "God gathers," perhaps): One of Davids Benjamite recruits at Ziklag (1 Ch 12:3).
Easton
assembled by God, a son of Azmaveth. He was one of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:3).
耶薩利拉 JESHARELAH
代表
代上25:2 代上25:14
ISBE
jesh-a-re-la (yesarelah, meaning doubtful): One of the (or probably a family of) Levitical musicians (1 Ch 25:14), called "Asharelah" in verse 2. The names should be written "Asarelah" and "Jesarelah."
Easton
upright towards God, the head of the seventh division of Levitical musicians (1 Chr. 25:14).
SBD
(right before God ), son of Asaph, and head of the seventh of the twenty-four wards into which the musicians of the Levites were divided. ( 1 Chronicles 25:14 ) [ASARELAH] (B.C. 1014).
耶西 JESSE
代表
得4:22 撒上17:12 撒上17:13 撒上17:14 代上2:15 代上2:16 撒下17:25
ISBE
jes-e (yishay, meaning doubtful; according to Gesenius it = "wealthy"; Olshausen, Gram., sections 277 f, conjectures yesh yah, "Yahweh exists"; Wellhausen (1 Sam 14:49) explains it as abhishay (see ABISHAI); Iessai; Ruth 4:17,22; 1 Sam 16; 17; 20; 22; 25:10; 2 Sam 20:1; 23:1; 1 Ki 12:16; 1 Ch 10:14; 12:18; Ps 72:20; Isa 11:1,10 ( = Rom 15:12)); Mt 1:5,6; Acts 13:22): Son of Obed, grandson of Boaz, and father of King David. The grouping of the references to Jesse in 1 Sam is bound up with that of the grouping of the whole narrative of David and Saul. See SAMUEL, BOOKS OF. There seem to be three main veins in the narrative, so far as Jesse is concerned.
(1) In 1 Sam 16:1-13, where Jesse is called the Bethlehemite. Samuel is sent to seek among Jesses sons successor to Saul.
Both Samuel and Jesse fail to discern at first Yahwehs choice, Samuel thinking that it would be the eldest son (1 Sam 16:6), while Jesse had not thought it worth while to call the youngest to the feast (1 Sam 16:11).
(2) (a) In 1 Sam 16:14-23, Saul is mentally disturbed, and is advised to get a harpist. David "the son of Jesse the Bethlehemite" is recommended by a courtier, and Saul sends to Jesse for David.
"And Jesse took ten loaves (so emend and translate, and not as the Revised Version (British and American), "an ass laden with bread"), and a (skin) bottle of wine, and a kid, and sent them" to Saul as a present with David, who becomes a courtier of Sauls with his fathers consent.
(b) The next mention of Jesse is in three contemptuous references by Saul to David as "the son of Jesse" in 1 Sam 20:27,30,31, part of the quarrel-scene between Saul and Jonathan. (But it is not quite certain if 1 Sam 20 belongs to the same source as 16:14-23.) In answer to the first reference, Jonathan calls his friend "David," and Saul repeats the phrase "the son of Jesse," abusing Jonathan personally (1 Sam 20:30, where the meaning is uncertain). The reference to David as "the son of Jesse" here and in the following verse is contemptuous, not because of any reproach that might attach itself to Jesse, but, as Budde remarks, because "an upstart is always contemptuously referred to under his fathers name" in courts and society. History repeats itself!
(c) Further references of a like kind are in the passage, 1 Sam 22:6-23, namely, in 22:7,8,13 by Saul, and repeated by Doeg in 22:9.
(d) The final one of this group is in 1 Sam 25:10, where Nabal sarcastically asks "Who is David ? and who is the son of Jesse?"
(3) The parts of 1 Sam 17 through 18:5 which are omitted by Septuagint B, i.e. 17:12-31,41,48b,50,55 through 18:6a. Here Jesse is mentioned as "an Ephrathite of Beth-lehem-judah" (17:12, not "that" Ephrathite, which is a grammatically impossible translation of the Massoretic Text), Ephrath or Ephrathah being another name for Bethlehem, or rather for the district. He is further said to have eight sons (17:12), of whom the three eldest had followed Saul to the war (17:13).
Jesse sends David, the shepherd, to his brothers with provisions (1 Sam 17:17). Afterward David, on being brought to Saul and asked who he is, answers, "I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite" (1 Sam 17:58). Jesse is also described (1 Sam 17:12) as being "in the days of Saul an old man, advanced in years" (so emend and translate, not as the Revised Version (British and American), "stricken in years among men"). The mention of his having 8 sons in 1 Sam 17:12 is not in agreement with 1 Ch 2:13-15, which gives only 7 sons with two sisters, but where Syriac gives 8, adding, from 27:18, Elihu which Massoretic Text has there probably by corruption (Curtis, Chronicles, 88). 1 Sam 16:10 should be translated" and Jesse made his 7 sons to pass before Samuel" (not as the Revised Version (British and American), the King James Version, "seven of his sons"). Budde (Kurz. Hand-Komm., "Samuel," 114) holds 1 Sam 16:1-13 to be a late Midrash, and (ibid., 123 f) omits (a) "that" in 17:12; (b) also "and he had 8 sons" as due to a wrong inference from 16:10; (c) the names of the 3 eldest in 17:13; (d) 17:14b; he then changes 17:15a, and reads thus: (12) "Now David was the son of an Ephrathite of Bethlehem-Judah, whose name was Jesse who was .... (years) old at the time of Saul. (13) And the 3 eldest sons of Jesse had marched with Saul to the war, (14) and David was the youngest, (15) and David had remained to feed his fathers sheep at Bethlehem. (16) Now the Philistines came," etc.
According to all these narratives in 1 Samuel, whether all 3 be entirely independent of one another or not, Jesse had land in Bethlehem, probably outside the town wall, like Boaz (see BOAZ) his grandfather (Ruth 4:17). In 1 Sam 22:3,1 David entrusts his father and mother to the care of the king of Moab, but from 20:29 some have inferred that Jesse was dead (although most critics assign 22:3 at any rate to the same stratum as chapter 20).
Jonathan tells Saul that David wanted to attend a family sacrificial feast at Bethlehem (1 Sam 20:29). Massoretic Text reads, "And he, my brother, has commanded me," whereas we should probably read with Septuagint, "and my brethren have commanded me," i.e. the members of the clan, as we have farther on in the verse, "Let me get away, I pray thee, and see my brethren." As to Jesses daughters, see ABIGAIL; NAHASH.
(4) Of the other references to Jesse, the most noteworthy is that in Isa 11:1: "There shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, and a branch out of his roots shall bear fruit," i.e. out of Jesses roots (compare Rev 5:5). "Why Jesse and not David?" asks Duhm; and he answers, "Because the Messiah will be a second David, rather than a descendant of David." Marti explains it to mean that he will be, not from David, but from a collateral line of descent. Duhms explanation suggests a parallelism between David and Christ, of whom the former may be treated as a type similar to Aaron and Melchizedek in He. Saul might pour contempt upon "the son of Jesse," but Isaiah has given Jesse here a name above all Hebrew names, and thus does Providence mock "society."
See also ROOT OF JESSE.
David Francis Roberts
Easton
firm, or a gift, a son of Obed, the son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:17, 22; Matt. 1:5, 6; Luke 3:32). He was the father of eight sons, the youngest of whom was David (1 Sam. 17:12). The phrase "stem of Jesse" is used for the family of David (Isa. 11:1), and "root of Jesse" for the Messiah (Isa. 11:10; Rev. 5:5). Jesse was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem (1 Sam. 17:17, 18, 20; Ps. 78:71). The last reference to him is of David's procuring for him an asylum with the king of Moab (1 Sam. 22:3).
HDBN
gift; oblation; one who is
SBD
(wealthy ), the father of David, was the son of Obed, who again was the fruit of the union of Boaz and the Moabitess Ruth. His great-grandmother was Rahab the Canaanite, of Jericho. ( Matthew 1:5 ) Jesses genealogy is twice given in full in the Old Testament, viz., ( Ruth 4:18-22 ) and 1Chr 2:5-12 He is commonly designated as "Jesse the Bethlehemite," ( 1 Samuel 16:1 1 Samuel 16:18 ; 17:58 ) but his full title is "the Ephrathite of Bethlehem Judah." ch. ( 1 Samuel 17:12 ) He is an "old man" when we first meet with him, ( 1 Samuel 17:12 ) with eight sons, ch. ( 1 Samuel 16:10 ; 17:12 ) residing at Bethlehem. ch ( 1 Samuel 16:4 1 Samuel 16:5 ) Jesses wealth seems to have consisted of a flock of sheep and goats, which were under the care of David. ch. ( 1 Samuel 16:11 ; 1 Samuel 17:34 1 Samuel 17:35 ) After Davids rupture with Saul he took his father and his mother into the country of Moab and deposited them with the king, and there they disappear from our view in the records of Scripture. (B.C. 1068-61.) Who the wife of Jesse was we are not told.
耶西篾 JESIMIEL
代表
代上4:36
ISBE
je-sim-i-el (yesimiel, "God establishes"): A prince of Simeon (1 Ch 4:36).
HDBN
naming
SBD
(whom God makes ), a Simeonite chief of the family of Shimei. ( 1 Chronicles 4:36 ) (B.C. about 711.)
耶西雅 JESIAH
代表
代上23:20 拉10:25
ISBE
je-si-a (1 Ch 23:20 the King James Version).
See ISSHIAH.
HDBN
sprinkling of the Lord
SBD
(whom Jehovah lends ). A Korhite, one of the mighty men who joined Davids standard at Ziklag. ( 1 Chronicles 12:6 ) (B.C. 1055.) The second son of Uzziel, the son of Kohath. ( 1 Chronicles 23:20 )
耶西雅 JEZIAH
代表
拉10:25
ISBE
je-zi-a.
See IZZIAH.
HDBN
Jeziel
SBD
(whom Jehovah expiates ), a descendant of Parosh, who had married a foreign wife. ( Ezra 10:25 )
耶設 JESHER
代表
代上2:18
ISBE
je-sher (yesher, or yesher, "uprightness"): A son of Caleb (1 Ch 2:18).
Easton
uprightness, the first of the three sons of Caleb by Azubah (1 Chr. 2:18).
HDBN
right; singing
SBD
(uprightness ), one of the sons of Caleb the son of Hezron by his wife Azubah. ( 1 Chronicles 2:18 ) (B.C. before 1491).
耶賓 JABIN
代表
書11:1 書11:2 書11:3 書11:4 書11:5 書11:6 書11:7 書11:8 書11:9 書11:10 書11:11 書11:12 書11:13 書11:14 書11:15 士4:2 士4:3 士4:4 士4:5 士4:6 士4:7 士4:8 士4:9 士4:10 士4:11 士4:12 士4:13 士4:14 士4:15 士4:16 士4:17 士4:18 士4:19 士4:20 士4:21 士4:22 士4:23 士4:24
ISBE
ja-bin (yabhin, "one who is intelligent," "discerning." The word may have been a hereditary royal title among the northern Canaanites. Compare the familiar usage of par`oh melekh mitsrayim):
(1) "The king of Hazor," the leading city in Northern Israel, who led an alliance against Joshua. He was defeated at the waters of Merom, his city was taken and he was slain (Josh 11:1-9).
(2) "The king of Canaan, that reigned (or had reigned) in Hazor." It is not clear whether he dwelt in Hazor or Harosheth, the home of Sisera, the captain of his host at the time of the story narrated in Jgs. He oppressed Israel in the days preceding the victory of Deborah and Barak. To the Israelites he must have been but a shadowy figure as compared with his powerful captain, Sisera, for the song makes no mention of him and there is nothing to indicate that he even took part in the battle that freed Israel (Jdg 4:2,7,17,23,24 bis; Ps 83:9,10).
Ella Davis Isaacs
Easton
discerner; the wise. (1.) A king of Hazor, at the time of the entrance of Israel into Canaan (Josh. 11:1-14), whose overthrow and that of the northern chief with whom he had entered into a confederacy against Joshua was the crowning act in the conquest of the land (11:21-23; comp. 14:6-15). This great battle, fought at Lake Merom, was the last of Joshua's battles of which we have any record. Here for the first time the Israelites encountered the iron chariots and horses of the Canaanites. (2.) Another king of Hazor, called "the king of Canaan," who overpowered the Israelites of the north one hundred and sixty years after Joshua's death, and for twenty years held them in painful subjection. The whole population were paralyzed with fear, and gave way to hopeless despondency (Judg. 5:6-11), till Deborah and Barak aroused the national spirit, and gathering together ten thousand men, gained a great and decisive victory over Jabin in the plain of Esdraelon (Judg. 4:10-16; comp. Ps. 83:9). This was the first great victory Israel had gained since the days of Joshua. They never needed to fight another battle with the Canaanites (Judg. 5:31).
HDBN
Jabneh
SBD
(whom God observes ). King of Hazor, who organized a confederacy of the northern princes against the Israelites. ( Joshua 11:1-3 ) Joshua surprised the allied forces by the waters of Merom, ver. 7, and utterly routed them. (B.C. 1448.) During the ensuing wars Joshua again attacked Jabin, and burnt his city. ( Joshua 11:1-14 ) A king of Hazor, whose general, Sisera, was defeated by Barak. ( Judges 4:2 Judges 4:13 ) (B.C. 1316.)
耶路巴力 JERUBBAAL
代表
士6:32 撒下11:21
ISBE
jer-u-ba-al, je-rub-a-al (yerubba`al, "let Baal contend"): The name given to Gideon by his father, Joash, and the people in recognition of his destruction of the altar of Baal at Ophrah (Jdg 6:32). For this name the form "Jerubbesheth" (2 Sam 1:21) was substituted after the analogy of "Ishbosheth" and "Mephibosheth," in which bosheth, the Hebrew word for "shame," displaced the word ba`al, no doubt because the name resembled one given in honor of Baal.
See GIDEON.
Easton
contender with Baal; or, let Baal plead, a surname of Gideon; a name given to him because he destroyed the altar of Baal (Judg. 6:32; 7:1; 8:29; 1 Sam. 12:11).
HDBN
he that defends Baal
SBD
or Jerubba-al (contender with Baal ), the surname of Gideon, which he acquired in consequence of destroying the altar of Baal, when his father defended him from the vengeance of the Abiezrites. ( Judges 6:32 )
耶路比設 JERUBBESHETH
代表
撒下11:21
ISBE
jer-ub-be-sheth, je-rub-e-sheth (yerubbesheth, see JERUBBAAL, for meaning): It is found once (2 Sam 11:21) for JERUBBAAL.
The word bosheth, "shameful thing," was substituted by later editors of the text for ba`al, "lord," in the text of Jer 3:24; Hos 9:10; in 2 Sam 2:8, etc., we find Ish-bosheth = Eshbaal (Ishbaal) in 1 Ch 8:33; 9:39. The reason for this was reluctant to pronounce the word Ba`al, which had by their time been associated with Canaanitic forms of worship. In 2 Sam 11:21 Septuagint, Lucian, has "Jeroboal," which Septuagint, Codex Vaticanus, has corrupted to "Jeroboam." Compare MERIB-BAAL; MEPHIBOSHETH; and see Ginsburg, New Massoretico-Critical Text of the Hebrew Bible, Intro, 400 ff. For a New Testament case compare Rom 11:4 and see Sanday and Headlam at the place.
See JERUBBAAL.
David Francis Roberts
Easton
contender with the shame; i.e., idol, a surname also of Gideon (2 Sam. 11:21).
HDBN
let the idol of confusion defend itself
SBD
(contender with the shame ), a name of Gideon. ( 2 Samuel 11:21 )


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary