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中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
拿坦業 NETHANEEL
代表
民1:6 民1:8 民2:5 民7:18 民10:15 代上2:14 代上15:24 代上24:6 代上26:4 代下17:7 代下35:9 尼12:21 拉10:22 尼12:36
Easton
given of God. (1.) The son of Zuar, chief of the tribe of Issachar at the Exodus (Num. 1:8; 2:5). (2.) One of David's brothers (1 Chr. 2:14). (3.) A priest who blew the trumpet before the ark when it was brought up to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:24). (4.) A Levite (1 Chr. 24:6). (5.) A temple porter, of the family of the Korhites (1 Chr. 26:4). (6.) One of the "princes" appointed by Jehoshaphat to teach the law through the cities of Judah (2 Chr. 17:7). (7.) A chief Levite in the time of Josiah (2 Chr. 35:9). (8.) Ezra 10:22. (9.) Neh. 12:21. (10.) A priest's son who bore a trumpet at the dedication of the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:36).
HDBN
same as Nathanael
拿孫 MNASON
代表
徒21:16
ISBE
na-son, m-na-son (Mnason): All that we know of Mnason is found in Acts 21:16. (1) He accompanied Paul and his party from Caesarea on Pauls last visit to Jerusalem; (2) he was a Cyprian; (3) "an early disciple," an early convert to Christianity, and (4) the one with whom Pauls company was to lodge. The "Western" text of this passage is very interesting. Blass, following Codex Bezae (D), the Syriac, reads, for "bringing," etc., "And they brought us to those with whom one should lodge, and when we had come into a certain village we stayed with Mnason a Cyprian, an early disciple, and having departed thence we came to Jerusalem and the brethren," etc. Meyer-Wendt, Page and Rendell render the accepted text, "bringing us to the house of Mnason," etc. However, giving the imperfect transitive of anebainomen, "we were going up" to Jerusalem (21:15), we might understand that the company lodged with Mnason on the 1st night of their journey to Jerusalem, and not at the city itself. "Acts 21:15, they set about the journey; 21:16, they lodged with Mnason on the introduction of the Cesarean disciples; 21:17, they came to Jerus" (Expositors Greek Testament, in the place cited.).
S. F. Hunter
Easton
reminding, or remembrancer, a Christian of Jerusalem with whom Paul lodged (Acts 21:16). He was apparently a native of Cyprus, like Barnabas (11:19, 20), and was well known to the Christians of Caesarea (4:36). He was an "old disciple" (R.V., "early disciple"), i.e., he had become a Christian in the beginning of the formation of the Church in Jerusalem.
HDBN
a diligent seeker; an exhorter
SBD
(remembering ) is honorably mentioned in Scripture. ( Acts 21:16 ) It is most likely that his residence at this time was not Caesarea, but Jerusalem. He was a Cyprian by birth, and may have been a friend of Barnabas. ( Acts 4:36 )
拿安 NAAM
代表
代上4:15
ISBE
na-am (na`am): A son of Caleb (1 Ch 4:15)
Easton
pleasantness, one of the three sons of Caleb, the son of Jephunneh (1 Chr. 4:15).
HDBN
fair; pleasant
SBD
(pleasantness ), one of the sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh. ( 1 Chronicles 4:15 ) (B.C. about 1451-1420.)
拿弗他利 NAPHTALI
代表
創30:8
ISBE
naf-ta-li (naphtali; Nephthaleim):
I. THE PATRIARCH
1. Name
2. Circumstances of His Birth
3. Historical and Traditional Details
II. TRIBE OF NAPHTALI
1. Its Relative Position
2. Its Location in Israel
3. Physical Features
4. Distinction of the Tribe
5. Sites and Inhabitants
6. Labors of Jesus in This District
I. The Patriarch.
1. Name:
The 5th son of Jacob, and the 2nd born to him by Rachels handmaid, Bilhah. He was full brother of Dan (Gen 30:7 ff).
At his birth Rachel is said to have exclaimed, naphtule Elohim niphtalti, "wrestlings of God"--i.e. "mighty wrestlings"--"have I wrestled."
2. Circumstances of His Birth:
Her sisters fruitfulness was a sore trial to the barren Rachel. By her artifice she had obtained children, the offspring of her maid ranking as her own; and thus her reproach of childlessness was removed. The name Naphtali given to this son was a monument of her victory. She had won the favor and blessing of God as made manifest in the way yearned for by the oriental heart, the birth of sons.
3. Historical and Traditional Details:
Personal details regarding the patriarch North are entirely wanting in Scripture; and the traditions have not much to say about him. According to Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, he was a swift runner. It also tells us that he was one of the 5 brethren whom Joseph chose to represent the family of Jacob in the presence of Pharaoh. He is said to have been 132 years old at his death (Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, viii, 1, 1). When Jacob and his family moved to Egypt, Naphtali had 4 sons (Gen 46:24). In Egypt, he died and was buried.
II. Tribe of Naphtali.
1. Its Relative Position:
When the first census was taken in the wilderness, the tribe numbered 53,400 fighting men (Nu 1:43; 2:30). At the second census, the numbers had shrunk to 45,400 (Nu 26:48 ff); but see NUMBERS. The position of Naphtali in the desert was on the North of the tabernacle with the standard of the camp of Dan, along with the tribe of Asher (Nu 2:25 ff). The standard, according to Jewish tradition, was a serpent, or basilisk, with the legend, "Return of Yahweh to the many thousands of Israel" (Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on Nu 2:25). When the host was on the march, this camp came in the rear (Nu 2:31). The prince of the tribe at Sinai was Ahira ben Enan (Nu 2:29). Among the spies the tribe was represented by Nahbi ben Vophsi (Nu 13:14). Prince Pedahel ben Ammihud was chosen from Naphtali to assist in the division of the land (Nu 34:28). Toward the end of Davids reign the ruler of the tribe was Jeremoth ben Azriel (1 Ch 27:19). Hiram the Tyrian artificer is described as "the son of a widow of the tribe of Naphtali" (1 Ki 7:14). But in 2 Ch 2:14 he is called "the son of a woman of the daughters of Dan." Jdg 5:15 does not definitely associate Barak with the tribe of Issachar; his residence was at Kedesh (Jdg 4:6); it is therefore possible that he belonged to the tribe of Naphtali.
2. Its Location in Israel:
In the allocation of the land, the lot of Naphtali was the last but one to be drawn (Josh 19:32-39). The boundaries are stated with great fullness. While it is yet impossible to trace them with certainty, the identification of sites in recent years, for which we are mainly indebted to the late Col. Conder, makes possible an approximation. The territory was bounded on the East by the Sea of Galilee and the upper reaches of the Jordan. Josephus makes it extend to Damascus (Ant., V, i, 22); but there is nothing to support this. The southern boundary probably ran from the point where Wady el-Bireh enters the Jordan, westward along the northern side of the valley to Mt. Tabor. The western border may have gone up by way of Chattin (Ziddim) and Yaquq (Hukkok) to Kerr `Anan (Hannathon), bending there to the West, including the land of er-Rameh (Ramah) until it reached the territory of Asher. Running northward again until nearly opposite Tyre, it bent eastward, and once more northward to the LiTany (Leontes), taking in the larger part of what is called by the Arabs Belad Beshdrah and Belad es-Shukif. Nineteen cities in Naphtali are named in Josh 19:32 ff. Among them was the famous city of refuge, KEDESH-NAPHTALI (which see), on the heights to the West of the Waters of Merom, where extensive ruins are still to be seen (20:7). It, along with Hammoth-dor and Kartan, was assigned to the Gershonite Levites (21:23; 1 Ch 6:76).
The land lying around the springs of the Jordan was included in the lot of Naphtali. It is clear that from this part, as well as from the cities named in Jdg 1:33, Naphtali did not drive out the Canaanites. These the Danites found in possession at the time of their raid. There is no indication that Naphtali resented in any way this incursion of their kindred tribe into their territory (Jdg 18).
3. Physical Features:
The district thus indicated includes much excellent land, both pastoral and arable. There are the broad, rich terraces that rise away to the North and Northwest of the Sea of Galilee, with the fertile plain of Gennesaret on the seashore. The mountains immediately North of the sea are rocky and barren; but when this tract is passed, we enter the lofty and spacious lands of upper Galilee, which from time immemorial have been the joy of the peasant farmer. Great breadths there are which in season yield golden harvests. The richly diversified scenery, mountain, hill and valley, is marked by a finer growth of trees than is common in Israel. The terebinth and pine, the olive, mulberry, apricot, fig, pomegranate, orange, lemon and vine are cultivated to good purpose. Water is comparatively plentiful, supplied by many copious springs. It was one of the districts from which Solomon drew provisions, the officer in charge being the kings son-in-law, Ahimaaz (1 Ki 4:15).
4. Distinction of the Tribe:
The free life of these spacious uplands, which yielded so liberally to the touch of the hand of industry, developed a robust manhood and a wholesome spirit of independence among its inhabitants. According to Josephus, who knew them well (BJ, III, iii, 2), the country never lacked multitudes of men of courage ready to give a good account of themselves on all occasions of war. Its history, as far as we know it, afforded ample opportunity for the development of warlike qualities. In the struggle with Sisera, Naphtali was found on the high places of the field (Jdg 5:18). To Davids forces at Hebron, Naphtali contributed a thousand captains "and with them with shield and spear thirty and seven thousand" (1 Ch 12:34). Their position exposed them to the first brunt of attack by enemies from the North; and in the wars of the kings they bore an important part (1 Ki 15:20; 2 Ki 12:18; 13:22); and they were the first on the West of the Jordan to be carried away captive (2 Ki 15:29).
See GALILEE.
5. Sites and Inhabitants:
The largest town in Mt. Naphtali today (in 1915) is Safed, on the heights due North of the Sea of Galilee, often spoken of as the "city set on a hill." It is built in the form of a horseshoe, open to the North, round the Castle Hill, on which are the ruins of the old fortress of the Templars. This is a position of great strength, which could hardly fail to be occupied in ancient times, although, so far, it cannot be identified with any ancient city. It contains between 20,000 and 30,000 inhabitants. Over against it to the Northwest, beyond the deep gorge of Wady Leimun, rises Jebel Jermuk, the highest mountain in Israel proper (circa 4,000 feet) which may be the scene of the TRANSFIGURATION (which see). The inhabitants of Safed were massacred by Sultan Bibars in 1266. The city suffered severely from earthquake in 1759; and it shared with Tibefias, also a city of Naphtali., the disaster wrought by the earthquake of 1837. It is one of the holy cities of the Jews.
6. Labors of Jesus in This District:
In the land of Naphtali Jesus spent a great part of his public life, the land of Gennesaret, Bethsaida, Capernaum and Chorazin all lying within its boundaries (compare Mt 4:15).
W. Ewing
Easton
my wrestling, the fifth son of Jacob. His mother was Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid (Gen. 30:8). When Jacob went down into Egypt, Naphtali had four sons (Gen. 46:24). Little is known of him as an individual.
HDBN
that struggles or fights
SBD
(wrestling ), the fifth son of Jacob; the second child name to him by Bilhah, Rachels slave. His birth and the bestowal of his name are recorded in ( Genesis 30:8 ) When the census was taken at Mount Sinai the tribe of Naphtali numbered no less than 53,400 fighting men, ( Numbers 1:43 ; 2:50 ) but when the borders of the promised land were reached, its numbers were reduced to, 45,400. ( Numbers 26:48-50 ) During the march through the wilderness Naphtali occupied a position on the north of the sacred tent with Dan and Asher. ( Numbers 2:25-31 ) In the apportionment of the land, the lot of Naphtali was enclosed on three sides by those of other tribes. On the west lay Asher, on the south Zebulun, and on the east the transjordanic Manasseh. (In the division of the kingdom Naphtali belonged to the kingdom of Israel, and later was a part of Galilee, bordering on the northwestern pert of the Sea of Galilee, and including Capernaum and Bethsaida. --Ed.)
拿拉 NAARAH
代表
代上4:5 代上4:6 代上4:7
Easton
a girl, the second of Ashur's two wives, of the tribe of Judah (1 Chr. 4:5, 6).
HDBN
Naarai
SBD
(a maiden ), the second wife of Ashur; a descendant of Judah. ( 1 Chronicles 4:5 1 Chronicles 4:6 )
拿比 NAHBI
代表
民12:14
ISBE
na-bi (nachbi): The representative of Naphtali among the 12 spies (Nu 13:14).
Easton
hidden, one of the twelve spies sent out to explore the land of Canaan (Num. 13:14).
HDBN
very secret
SBD
(hidden ), the son of Vophsi, a Naphtalite, and one of the twelve spies. ( Numbers 13:14 )
拿瑪 NAAMAH
代表
創4:22 王上14:31 代下12:13
Easton
the beautiful. (1.) The daughter of Lamech and Zillah (Gen. 4: 22). (2.) The daughter of the king of Ammon, one of the wives of Solomon, the only one who appears to have borne him a son, viz., Rehoboam (1 Kings 14:21, 31). (3.) A city in the plain of Judah (Josh. 15:41), supposed by some to be identified with Na'aneh, some 5 miles south-east of Makkedah.
HDBN
Naaman
SBD
(loveliness ). One of the four women whose names are preserved in the records of the world before the flood; all except Eve being Cainites. Site was daughter of Lamech by his wife Zillah, and sister, as is expressly mentioned to Tubal-cain ( Genesis 4:22 ) only. (B.C. about 3550.) Mother of King Rehoboam. ( 1 Kings 14:21 1 Kings 14:31 ; 2 Chronicles 12:13 ) In each of these passages she is distinguished by the title "the (not an, as in Authorized Version) Ammonite." She was therefore one of the foreign women whom Solomon took into his establishment. ( 1 Kings 11:1 ) (B.C. 1015-975.)
拿答 NADAB
代表
出6:23 利1:1 利10:2 王上14:20 王上15:25 王上15:26 王上15:27 王上15:28 代上2:28 代上8:30 代上9:36
ISBE
na-dab (nadhabh, "noble"; Nadab):
(1) Aarons first-born son (Ex 6:23; Nu 3:2; 26:60; 1 Ch 6:3 (Hebrew 5:29); 24:1). He was permitted with Moses, Aaron, the 70 elders, and his brother Abihu to ascend Mt. Sinai and behold the God of Israel (Ex 24:1,9). He was associated with his father and brothers in the priestly office (Ex 28:1). Along with Abihu he was guilty of offering "strange fire," and both "died before Yahweh" (Lev 10:1,2; Nu 3:4; 26:61). The nature of their offense is far from clear. The word rendered "strange" seems in this connection to mean no more than "unauthorized by the Law" (see zur, in BDB, and compare Ex 30:9). The proximity of the prohibition of wine to officiating priests (Lev 10:8,9) has given rise to the erroneous suggestion of the Midrash that the offense of the brothers was drunkenness.
(2) A descendant of Jerahmeel (1 Ch 2:28,30).
(3) A Gibeonite (1 Ch 8:30).
(4) Son of Jeroboam I and after him for two years king of Israel (1 Ki 14:20; 15:25). While Nadab was investing Gibbethon, a Philistine stronghold, Baasha, who probably was an officer in the army, as throne-robbers usually were, conspired against him, slew him and seized the throne (1 Ki 15:27-31). With the assassination of Nadab the dynasty of Jeroboam was extirpated, as foretold by the prophet Ahijah (1 Ki 14). This event is typical of the entire history of the Northern Kingdom, characterized by revolutions and counter-revolutions.
John A. Lees
Easton
liberal, generous. (1.) The eldest of Aaron's four sons (Ex. 6:23; Num. 3:2). He with his brothers and their father were consecrated as priests of Jehovah (Ex. 28:1). He afterwards perished with Abihu for the sin of offering strange fire on the altar of burnt-offering (Lev. 10:1,2; Num. 3:4; 26:60). (2.) The son and successor of Jeroboam, the king of Israel (1 Kings 14:20). While engaged with all Israel in laying siege to Gibbethon, a town of southern Dan (Josh. 19:44), a conspiracy broke out in his army, and he was slain by Baasha (1 Kings 15:25-28), after a reign of two years (B.C. 955-953). The assassination of Nadab was followed by that of his whole house, and thus this great Ephraimite family became extinct (1 Kings 15:29). (3.) One of the sons of Shammai in the tribe of Judah (1 Chr. 2:28, 30).
HDBN
free and voluntary gift; prince
SBD
(liberal ). The eldest son of Aaron and Elisheba. Exod 8 13 Numb 3:2. (B.C. 1490.) He, his father and brother, and seventy old men of Israel were led out from the midst of the assembled people, ( Exodus 24:1 ) and were commended to stay and worship God "afar off," below the lofty summit of Sinai, where Moses alone was to come near to the Lord. Subsequently, ( Leviticus 10:1 ) Nadab and his brother were struck dead before the sanctuary by fire from the Lord. Their offence was kindling the incense in their censers with "strange" fire, i.e. not taken from that which burned perpetually, ( Leviticus 6:13 ) on the altar. King Jeroboams son, who succeeded to the throne of Israel B.C. 954, and reigned two years. ( 1 Kings 15:25-31 ) At the siege of Gibbethon a conspiracy broke out in the midst of the army, and the king was slain by Baasha, a man of Issachar. A son of Shammai ( 1 Chronicles 2:28 ) of the tribe of Judah. A son of Gibeon, ( 1 Chronicles 8:30 ; 9:36 ) of the tribe of Benjamin.
拿萊 NAARAI
代表
代上11:37 撒下23:35
ISBE
na-a-ri (na`aray): Son of Ezbai, one of Davids heroes (1 Ch 11:37). In the parallel passage (2 Sam 23:35), he is called "Paarai the Arbite." The true forms of the name and description are uncertain (see Budde, Richter u. Samuel, and Curtis, Chronicles).
Easton
youthful, a military chief in David's army (1 Chr. 11:37), called also Paarai (2 Sam. 23:35).
拿該 NAGGE
代表
路3:25
Easton
illuminating, one of the ancestors of Christ in the maternal line (Luke 3:25).
HDBN
clearness; brightness; light
SBD
one of the ancestors of Christ. ( Luke 3:25 ) See [NAGGAI]
拿轄 NAHASH
代表
撒下17:25 撒上11:1 撒上11:2 撒上11:3 撒上11:4 撒上11:5 撒上11:6 撒上11:7 撒上11:8 撒上11:9 撒上11:10 撒上11:11 撒下10:2
ISBE
na-hash (nachash, "serpent"; Naas):
(1) The father of Abigail and Zeruiah, the sisters of David (2 Sam 17:25; compare 1 Ch 2:16). The text in 2 S, where this reference is made, is hopelessly corrupt; for that reason there are various explanations. The rabbis maintain that Nahash is another name for Jesse, Davids father. Others think that Nahash was the name of Jesses wife; but it is not probable that Nahash could have been the name of a woman. Others explain the passage by making Nahash the first husband of Jesses wife, so that Abigail and Zeruiah were half-sisters to King David.
(2) A king of Ammon, who, at the very beginning of Sauls reign, attacked Jabesh-gilead so successfully, that the inhabitants sued for peace at almost any cost, for they were willing to pay tribute and serve the Ammonites (1 Sam 11:1 ff). The harsh king, not satisfied with tribute and slavery, demanded in addition that the right eye of every man should be put out, as "a reproach upon Israel." They were given seven days to comply with these cruel terms. Before the expiration of this time, Saul, the newly anointed king, appeared on the scene with an army which utterly routed the Ammonites (1 Sam 11:1 ff), and, according to Josephus, killed King Nahash (Ant., VI, v, 3).
If the Nahash of 2 Sam 10:2 be the same as the king mentioned in 1 Sam 11, this statement of Josephus cannot be true, for he lived till the early part of Davids reign, 40 or more years later. It is, of course, possible that Nahash, the father of Hanun, was a son or grandson of the king defeated at Jabesh-gilead by Saul. There is but little agreement among commentators in regard to this matter. Some writers go so far as to claim that "all passages in which this name (Nahash) is found refer to the same individual."
(3) A resident of Rabbath-ammon, the capital of Ammon (2 Sam 17:27). Perhaps the same as Nahash (2), which see. His son Shobi, with other trans-Jordanic chieftains, welcomed David at Mahanaim with sympathy and substantial gifts when the old king was fleeing before his rebel son Absalom. Some believe that Shobi was a brother of Hanun, king of Ammon (2 Sam 10:1).
W. W. Davies
Easton
serpent. (1.) King of the Ammonites in the time of Saul. The inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead having been exposed to great danger from Nahash, sent messengers to Gibeah to inform Saul of their extremity. He promptly responded to the call, and gathering together an army he marched against Nahash. "And it came to pass that they which remained were scattered, so that two of them [the Ammonites] were not left together" (1 Sam. 11:1-11). (2.) Another king of the Ammonites of the same name is mentioned, who showed kindness to David during his wanderings (2 Sam. 10:2). On his death David sent an embassy of sympathy to Hanun, his son and successor, at Rabbah Ammon, his capital. The grievous insult which was put upon these ambassadors led to a war against the Ammonites, who, with their allies the Syrians, were completely routed in a battle fought at "the entering in of the gate," probably of Medeba (2 Sam. 10:6-14). Again Hadarezer rallied the Syrian host, which was totally destroyed by the Israelite army under Joab in a decisive battle fought at Helam (2 Sam. 10:17), near to Hamath (1 Chr. 18:3). "So the Syrians feared to help the children of Ammon any more" (2 Sam. 10:19). (3.) The father of Amasa, who was commander-in-chief of Abasolom's army (2 Sam. 17:25). Jesse's wife had apparently been first married to this man, to whom she bore Abigail and Zeruiah, who were thus David's sisters, but only on the mother's side (1 Chr. 2:16).
HDBN
snake; serpent
SBD
(serpent ). King of the Ammonites who dictated to the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead that cruel alternative of the loss of their right eyes or slavery which roused the swift wrath of Saul, and caused the destruction of the Ammonite force. ( 1 Samuel 11:2-11 ) (B.C. 1092.) "Nahaph" would seem to have been the title of the king of the Ammonites rather than the name of an individual. Nahash the father of Hanun had rendered David some special and valuable service, which David was anxious for an opportunity of requiting. ( 2 Samuel 10:2 ) A person mentioned once only-- ( 2 Samuel 17:25 ) --in stating the parentage of Amasa, the commander-in-chief of Absaloms army. Amasa is there said to have been the son of a certain Ithra by Abigail, "daughter of Nahash and sister to Zeruiah." (B.C. before 1023.)
拿非施 NEPHUSIM
代表
創25:15 代上1:31 代上5:19
HDBN
same as Nephishesim
SBD
(expansions ), the same as Nephishesim, of which name according to Gesenius it is the proper form. ( Ezra 2:50 )
拿順 NAHSHON
代表
民1:7 出6:23
ISBE
na-shon (nachshon; Septuagint and New Testament, Naasson): A descendant of Judah; brother-in-law of Aaron and ancestor of David and of Jesus Christ (Ex 6:23; Nu 1:7; 1 Ch 2:10,11; Ruth 4:20; Mt 1:4; Lk 3:32).
Easton
sorcerer, the son of Aminadab, and prince of the children of Judah at the time of the first numbering of the tribes in the wilderness (Ex. 6:23). His sister Elisheba was the wife of Aaron. He died in the wilderness (Num. 26:64, 65). His name occurs in the Greek form Naasson in the genealogy of Christ (Matt, 1:4; Luke 3:32).
HDBN
same as Naashon
SBD
or Na-ashon (enchanter ) son of Amminadab, and prince of the children of Judah (as he is styled in the genealogy of Judah,) ( 1 Chronicles 2:10 ) at the time of the first numbering in the wilderness. ( Exodus 6:23 ; Numbers 1:7 ) etc. His sister, Elisheba, was wife to Aaron, and his son, Salmon, was husband to Rahab after the taking of Jericho. He died in the wilderness, according to ( Numbers 26:64 Numbers 26:65 ) (B.C. before 1451.)
拿鴻 NAHUM
代表
路3:25 鴻1:1
ISBE
na-hum (Naoum; the King James Version Naum): An ancestor of Jesus in Lukes genealogy, the 9th before Joseph, the husband of Mary (Lk 3:25).
Easton
consolation, the seventh of the so-called minor prophets, an Elkoshite. All we know of him is recorded in the book of his prophecies. He was probably a native of Galilee, and after the deportation of the ten tribes took up his residence in Jerusalem. Others think that Elkosh was the name of a place on the east bank of the Tigris, and that Nahum dwelt there.
HDBN
comforter; penitent
SBD
(consolation ). Nahum, called "the Elkoshite," is the seventh in order of the minor prophets. His personal history is quite unknown. The site of Elkosh, his native place, is disputed, some placing it in Galilee, others in Assyria. Those who maintain the latter view assume that the prophets parents were carried into captivity by Tiglath-pileser and that the prophet was born at the village of Alkush, on the east bank of the Tigris, two miles north of Mosul. On the other hand, the imagery of his prophecy is such lie would be natural to an inhabitant of Palestine, ( Nahum 1:4 ) to whom the rich pastures of Bashan the vineyards of Carmel and the blossoms of Lebanon were emblems of all that was luxuriant and fertile. The language employed in ch. ( Nahum 1:15 ; 2:2 ) is appropriate to one who wrote for his countrymen in their native land. (McClintock and Strong come to the conclusion that Nahum was a native of Galilee that at the captivity of the ten tribes he escaped into Judah, and prophesied in the reign of Hezekiah, 726-698.--ED.) Prophecy of Nahum . --The date of Nahum a prophecy can be determined with as little precision as his birthplace. It is, however, certain that the prophecy was written before the final downfall of Nineveh and its capture by the Medes and Chaldeans, cir. B.C. 625. The allusions to the Assyrian power imply that it was still unbroken. ch. ( Nahum 1:12 ; Nahum 2:8 Nahum 2:13 ; 3:16-17 ) It is most probable that Nahum flourished in the latter half of the return of Hezekiah, and wrote his prophecy either in Jerusalem or its neighborhood. The subject of the prophecy is, in accordance with the superscription, "the burden of Nineveh," the destruction of which he predicts. As a poet Nahum occupies a high place in the first rank of Hebrew literature. His style is clear and uninvolved, though pregnant and forcible; his diction sonorous and rhythmical, the words re-echoing to the sense. Comp. ( Nahum 2:4 ; 3:3 )
拿鶴 NAHOR
代表
創11:24 路3:34 創1126
ISBE
na-hor (nachor; in the New Testament Nachor):e representative of Naphtali among the 12 spies (Nu 13:14).
(1) Son of Serug and grandfather of Abraham (Gen 11:22-25; 1 Ch 1:26).
(2) Son of Terah and brother of Abraham (Gen 11:26,27,29; 22:20,23; 24:15,24,47; 29:5; Josh 24:2).
A city of Nahor is mentioned in Gen 24:10; the God of Nahor in Gen 31:53. In the King James Version Josh 24:2; Lk 3:34, the name is spelled "Nachor."
Easton
snorting. (1.) The father of Terah, who was the father of Abraham (Gen. 11:22-25; Luke 3:34). (2.) A son of Terah, and elder brother of Abraham (Gen. 11:26, 27; Josh. 24:2, R.V.). He married Milcah, the daughter of his brother Haran, and remained in the land of his nativity on the east of the river Euphrates at Haran (Gen. 11:27-32). A correspondence was maintained between the family of Abraham in Canaan and the relatives in the old ancestral home at Haran till the time of Jacob. When Jacob fled from Haran all intercourse between the two branches of the family came to an end (Gen. 31:55). His grand-daughter Rebekah became Isaac's wife (24:67).
HDBN
hoarse; dry; hot
SBD
(snorting ), the name of two persons in the family of Abraham. His grandfather; the son of Serug and father of Terah. ( Genesis 11:22-25 ) (B.C. 2174.) Grandson of the preceding son of Terah and brother of Abraham and Haran. ( Genesis 11:26 Genesis 11:27 ) (B.C. 2000.) The order of the ages of the family of Terah is not improbably inverted in the narrative; in which case Nahor instead of being younger than Abraham, was really older. He married Milcah, the daughter of his brother Haran; and when Abraham and Lot migrated to Canaan, Nahor remained behind in the land of his birth, on the eastern side of the Euphrates.
掃羅 SAUL
代表
創36:37 撒上8:4 撒上8:5 撒上8:16 撒上8:20 撒上9:1 撒上9:2 撒上11:14 撒上11:15 創36:38 代上1:48 創46:10 出6:15 代上6:24 民7:58 民9:4 民13:9
ISBE
sol (shaul; Saoul):
(1) The first king of Israel.
I. EARLY HISTORY
1. Name and Meaning
2. Genealogy
3. Home and Station
4. Sources for Life
5. Election as King
6. Reasons for It
II. REIGN AND FALL
1. His First Action
2. Army Reorganized
3. Battle of Michmash
4. Defeats the Amalekites
5. Deposition Pronounced
6. David Introduced to Saul
7. Two Accounts
8. Sauls Envy of David
9. Attempts to Get Rid of David
10. David Spares Saul
11. Sauls Divided Energies
12. Consults a Necromancer
13. Battle of Gilboa
14. Double Accounts
15. Sauls Posterity
III. CHARACTER
1. Book of Chronicles
2. Sauls Failings
3. His Virtue
4. Davids Elegy
I. Early History.
1. Name and Meaning:
The name Saul is usually regarded as simply the passive participle of the verb "to ask," and so meaning "asked" (compare 1 Sam 8:4 ff), but the gentilic adjective shauli (Nu 26:13) would point to its having also an intensive connotation, "the one asked importunately," or perhaps, "the one asking insistently," "the beggar."
2. Genealogy:
Saul was the son of Kish, a Benjamite. His genealogical tree is given in 1 Sam 9:1 (compare Septuagint 10:21). In 1 Sam 9:1 his grandfather is Abiel, but in 1 Ch 8:33; 9:39, Ner, who appears as his paternal uncle in 1 Sam 14:50,51.
The last verse contains a very curious scribal error, a yodh having slipped out of one word in it into another. It states that both Abner and Ner were sons of Abiel. These apparent inconsistencies are to be explained by the fact that in Hebrew, as in Arabic, "son" is often used in the sense of grandson. Also, with the facility of divorce then prevalent, by "brother" and "sister" we must in most cases understand half-brother and half-sister. Moreover, Sauls mother might have been the wife at different times of Kish and of his brother Ner (compare 1 Sam 20:30). This was quite common, and in some cases compulsory (Dt 25:5-9).
3. Home and Station:
Sauls home was at GIBEAH (which see), which is also called Gibeah of Saul, i.e. Sauls Hill (1 Sam 11:4; compare also 10:5, Gods Hill, or simply The Hill, 10:10; Hos 5:8, etc.), or the Hill of Benjamin or of the Benjamites (1 Sam 13:15; 2 Sam 23:29). It is usually identified with Tell el-Ful, but perhaps its site is marked rather by some ruins near but beneath that eminence. The tribe of Benjamin was the fighting tribe of Israel, and Kish seems to have been one of its most important members. Sauls remarks in depreciation (1 Sam 9:21) are not to be taken literally.
4. Sources for Life:
The circumstances of Sauls career are too well known to require recapitulation. It will be sufficient to refer to some of the recognized difficulties of the narrative. These difficulties arise from the fact that we appear to have two distinct biographies of Saul in the present Books of Samuel. This may well be the case as it is the practice of the Semitic historian to set down more than one tradition of each event, without attempting to work these up into one consistent account. We shall call the duplicated narratives A and B, without postulating that either is a continuous whole.
See SAMUEL, BOOKS OF.
5. Election as King:
According to A, Saul was anointed king of Israel at Ramah by the prophet Samuel acting upon an inspiration from Yahweh, not only without consulting anyone, but in the strictest secrecy (1 Sam 9:1 through 10:16). According to B, the sheiks of the tribes demanded a king. Samuel in vain tried to dissuade them. They would not listen, and a king was chosen by lot at Mizpah. The lot fell upon Saul, and Samuel immediately demitted office (1 Sam 8; 10:17-27, omitting the last clause; and chapter 12).
6. Reasons for It:
There are three distinct reasons given in the text for the abolition of theocracy and institution of an elective or hereditary monarchy: first, the incapacity of Samuels sons (1 Sam 8:1 ff); second, an invasion of the Ammonites (1 Sam 12:12); and third, the Philistines (1 Sam 9:16). These three motives are not mutually exclusive. The Philistines formed the standing menace to the national existence, which would have necessitated the creation of a monarchy sooner or later. The other two were temporary circumstances, one of which aggravated the situation, while the other showed the hopelessness of expecting any improvement in it in the near future.
II. Reign and Fall.
1. His First Action:
The election of Saul at Mizpah was conducted in the presence of the chieftains of the clans; it is not to be supposed that the whole nation was present. As soon as it was over, the electors went home, and Saul also returned to his fathers farm and, like Cincinnatus, once more followed the plow. "Within about a month," however (1 Sam 10:27 the Septuagint, for Massoretic Text "But he held his peace"), the summons came. A message from the citizens of JABESH-GILEAD (which see) was sent round the tribes appealing for help against the Ammonites under Nahash. They, of course, knew nothing about what had taken place at Mizpah, and it was only by chance that their messengers arrived at Gibeah when they did. Saul rose to the occasion, and immediately after he was acclaimed king by the whole body of the people (1 Sam 11). This double election, first by the chiefs and then by the people, is quite a regular proceeding.
2. Army Reorganized:
This first success encouraged Saul to enter upon what was to be the mission of his life, namely, the throwing off of the Philistine suzerainty. From the first he had had the boldest spirits upon his side (1 Sam 10:26, the Septuagint, the Revised Version margin); he was now able to form a standing army of 3,000 men, under the command of himself and his son JONATHAN (which see). The Philistines, the last remnant of the Minoan race, had the advantage of the possession of iron weapons. It was, in fact, they who introduced iron into Israel from Crete--the Israelites knowing only bronze, and having even been deprived of weapons of the softer metals. They seem to have armed themselves--with the exception of the king and his son--with mattocks and plowshares (1 Sam 13:19 ff).
3. Battle of Michmash:
The first encounter was the attack upon the Philistine post at Michmash (1 Sam 13; 14). The text of the narrative is uncertain, but the following outline is clear. On hearing that the Hebrews had revolted (1 Sam 13:3, the Septuagint), the Philistines gathered in great force, including 3,000 chariots (1 Sam 13:5, the Septuagint; the Massoretic Text has 30,000) at Michmash. In dismay, Sauls troops deserted (1 Sam 13:6 f), until he was left with only 600 (1 Sam 14:2). In spite of this, Jonathan precipitated hostilities by a reckless attack upon one of the outposts. This was so successful that the whole Philistine army was seized with panic, and the onset of Saul and the desertion of their Hebrew slaves completed their discomfiture. Saul followed up his victory by making predatory excursions on every side (1 Sam 14:47).
4. Defeats the Amalekites:
Sauls next expedition was against the Amalekites under Agag, who were likewise completely defeated. The fight was carried out with all the remorselessness common to tribal warfare. Warning was sent to the friendly Kenites to withdraw out of danger; then the hostile tribe was slaughtered to a man, their chief alone being spared for the time being. Even the women and children were not taken as slaves, but were all killed (1 Sam 15).
5. Deposition Pronounced:
It is not clear what was the precise attitude of Samuel toward Saul. As the undoubted head of theocracy he naturally objected to his powers being curtailed by the loss of the civil power (1 Sam 8:6). Even after the elections of Saul, Samuel claimed to be the ecclesiastical head of the state. He seems to have objected to Sauls offering the sacrifice before battle (1 Sam 13:10 ff), and to have considered him merely as his lieutenant (1 Sam 15:3) who could be dismissed for disobedience (1 Sam 15:14 ff). Here again there seem to be two distinct accounts in the traditional text, which we may again call A and B. In A, Saul is rejected because he does not wait long enough for Samuel at Gilgal (1 Sam 13:8; compare 10:8). "Seven days," of course, means eight, or even more, in short, until Samuel should come, whenever that might be. The expression might almost be omitted in translating. In B Saul is rejected because he did not carry out Samuels orders (1 Sam 15:3) to the letter. The two narratives are not mutually exclusive. The second offense was an aggravation of the first, and after it Samuel did not see Saul again (1 Sam 15:35).
6. David Introduced to Saul:
He had good reason for not doing so. He had anointed a rival head of the state in opposition to Saul, an act of treason which, if discovered, would have cost him his head (compare 2 Ki 9:6,10). Saul did not at once accept his deposition, but he lost heart. One cannot but admire him, deserted by Samuel, and convinced that he was playing a losing game, and yet continuing in office. To drive away his melancholy, his servants introduced to him a musician who played until his spirits revived (1 Sam 16:14 ff; compare 2 Ki 3:15).
7. Two Accounts:
By a strange coincidence (compare I, 5, above) the minstrel was the very person whom Samuel had secretly anointed to supplant Saul. According to what looks like another account, however, it was his encounter with Goliath which led to the introduction of David to Saul (1 Sam 17:1 ff; see DAVID). In spite of all that has been said to the contrary, the two narratives are not incompatible, since we are not told the order of the events nor over how many years these events were spread. The theory of duplicate narratives rests upon the assumption that all statements made by the dramatis personae in the Bible are to be taken at their face value. If 1 Samuel 16 and 17 had formed part of a play of Shakespeare, they would have been considered a fine example of his genius. Treatises would have been written to explain why Saul did not recognize David, and why Abner denied all knowledge of him. Septuagint, however, omits 1 Sam 17:12-31,41,50,55 through 18:5.
8. Sauls Envy of David:
Whether Saul actually discovered that David had been anointed by Samuel or not, he soon saw in him his rival and inevitable successor, and he would hardly have been human if he had not felt envious of him. His dislike of David had two motives. The first was jealousy, because the women preferred the military genius of David to his own (1 Sam 18:7 f). His consequent attempt upon the life of David (1 Sam 18:8-11) is omitted in the Septuagint. Not least was the love of his own daughter for David (1 Sam 18:20; in 18:28 read with Septuagint "all Israel"). The second cause was his natural objection to see his son Jonathan supplanted in his rights to the throne, an objection which was aggravated by the devotion of that son to his own rival (1 Sam 20:30).
See also DAVID; JONATHAN.
9. Attempts to Get Rid of David:
Saul could not believe that David could remain loyal to him (1 Sam 24:9); at the first favorable opportunity he would turn upon him, hurl him from the throne, and exterminate his whole house. In these circumstances, it was his first interest to get rid of him. His first attempt to do so (omitting with Septuagint 1 Sam 18:8b-11) was to encourage him to make raids on the Philistines in the hope that these might kill him (1 Sam 18:21 ff); his next, assassination by one of his servants (1 Sam 19:1), and then by his own hand (1 Sam 19:9 f). When David was compelled to fly, the quarrel turned to civil war. The superstitious fear of hurting the chosen of Yahweh had given place to blind rage. Those who sheltered the fugitive, even priests, were slaughtered (1 Sam 22:17 ff). From one spot to another David was hunted, as he says, like a partridge (1 Sam 26:20).
10. David Spares Saul:
It is generally maintained that here also we have duplicate accounts; for example, that there are two accounts of David taking refuge with Achish, king of Gath, and two of his sparing Sauls life. The latter are contained in 1 Samuel 24 and 26, but the points of resemblance are slight. Three thousand (24:2; 26:2) was the number of Sauls picked men (compare 13:2). David uses the simile of "a flea" in 24:14, but in 26:20 for "a flea" Septuagint has "my soul," which is no doubt original. The few other expressions would occur naturally in any narrative with the same contents.
11. Sauls Divided Energies:
Obviously Sauls divided energies could not hold out long; he could not put down the imaginary rebellion within, and at the same time keep at bay the foreign foe. No sooner had he got the fugitive within his grasp than he was called away by an inroad of the Philistines (1 Sam 23:27 f); but after his life had been twice spared, he seemed to realize at last that the latter were the real enemy, and he threw his whole strength into one desperate effort for existence.
12. Consults a Necromancer:
Saul himself saw that his case was desperate, and that in fact the game was up. As a forlorn hope he determined to seek occult advice. He could no longer use the official means of divination (1 Sam 28:6), and was obliged to have recourse to a necromancer, one of a class whom he himself had taken means to suppress (1 Sam 28:3). The result of the seance confirmed his worst fears and filled his soul with despair (1 Sam 28:7 ff).
13. Battle of Gilboa:
It says much for Saul that, hopeless as he was, he engaged in one last forlorn struggle with the enemy. The Philistines had gathered in great force at Shunem. Saul drew up his army on the opposing hill of Gilboa. Between the two forces lay a valley (compare 1 Sam 14:4). The result was what had been foreseen. The Israelites, no doubt greatly reduced in numbers (contrast 1 Sam 11:8), were completely defeated, and Saul and his sons slain. Their armor was placed in the temple of Ashtaroth, and their bodies hung on the wall of Bethshan, but Sauls head was set in the temple of Dagon (1 Ch 10:10). The citizens of Jabesh-gilead, out of ancient gratitude, rescued the bodies and, in un-Semitic wise, burned them and buried the bones.
14. Double Accounts:
Once more we have, according to most present-day critics, duplicate accounts of the death of Saul. According to one, which we may name A, he fell, like Ajax whom he much resembles, upon his own sword, after being desperately wounded by the archers (1 Sam 31:4). According to the second (2 Sam 1:2 ff), an Amalekite, who had been by accident a witness of the battle, dispatched Saul at his own request to save him from the enemy. But B is simply the continuation of A, and tells us how David received the news of the battle. The Amalekites story is, of course, a fabrication with a view to a reward. Similar claims for the reward of assassination are common (2 Sam 4:9 ff).
15. Sauls Posterity:
With Saul the first Israelite dynasty began and ended. The names of his sons are given in 1 Sam 14:49 as Jonathan, Ishvi and Malchishua. Ishvi or Ishyo (Septuagint) is Eshbaal, called in 2 Sam 2:8 ISH-BOSHETH (which see). 1 Ch 8:33 adds Abinadab. Jonathan left a long line of descendants famous, like himself, as archers (1 Ch 8:34 ff). The rest of Sauls posterity apparently died out. Malchishua and Abinadab were slain at Gilboa (1 Sam 31:6; 1 Ch 10:2), and Ish-bosheth was assassinated shortly after (2 Sam 4:2 ff). Saul had also two natural sons by Rizpah who were put to death by David in accordance with a superstitious custom, as also were the five sons of Sauls daughter Merab (2 Sam 21:8, not Michal; compare 1 Sam 18:19). Saurs other daughter Michal apparently had no children. Saul had, it seems, other wives, who were taken into the harem of David in accordance with the practice of the times (2 Sam 12:8), but of them and their descendants we know nothing.
III. Character.
1. Book of Chronicles:
Sauls life and character are disposed of in a somewhat summary fashion by the Chronicler (1 Ch 10, especially 10:13,14). Saul was rejected because he was disloyal to Yahweh, especially in consulting a necromancer. The major premise of this conclusion, however, is the ancient dictum, "Misfortune presupposes sin." From a wider point of view, Saul cannot be dismissed in so cavalier a manner.
2. Sauls Failings:
Like everyone else, Saul had his virtues and his failings. His chief weakness seems to have been want of decision of character. He was easily swayed by events and by people. The praises of David (1 Sam 18:7 f) at once set his jealousy on fire. His persecution of David was largely due to the instigation of mischievous courtiers (1 Sam 24:9). Upon remonstrance his repentance was as deep as it was short-lived (1 Sam 24:16; 26:21). His impulsiveness was such that he did not know where to stop. His interdict (1 Sam 14:24 ff) was quite as uncalled for as his religious zeal (1 Sam 15:9) was out of place. He was always at one extreme. His hatred of David was only equal to his affection for him at first (1 Sam 18:2). His pusillanimity led him to commit crimes which his own judgment would have forbidden (1 Sam 22:17). Like most beaten persons, he became suspicious of everyone (1 Sam 22:7 f), and, like those who are easily led, he soon found his evil genius (1 Sam 22:9,18,22). Sauls inability to act alone appears from the fact that he never engaged in single combat, so far as we know. Before he could act at all his fury or his pity had to be roused to boiling-point (1 Sam 11:6). His mind was peculiarly subject to external influences, so that he was now respectable man of the world, now a prophet (1 Sam 10:11; 19:24).
3. His Virtues:
On the other hand, Saul possessed many high qualities. His dread of office (1 Sam 10:22) was only equaled by the coolness with which he accepted it (1 Sam 11:5). To the first call to action he responded with promptitude (1 Sam 11:6 ff). His timely aid excited the lasting gratitude of the citizens of Jabesh-gilead (1 Sam 31:11 ff) If we remember that Saul was openly disowned by Samuel (1 Sam 15:30), and believed himself cast off by Yahweh, we cannot but admire the way in which he fought on to the last. Moreover, the fact that he retained not only his own sons, but a sufficient body of fighting men to engage a large army of Philistines, shows that there must have been something in him to excite confidence and loyalty.
4. Davids Elegy:
There is, however, no question as to the honorable and noble qualities of Saul. The chief were his prowess in war and his generosity in peace. They have been set down by the man who knew him best in what are among the most authentic verses in the Bible (2 Sam 1:19 ff).
(2) Saul of Tarsus.
See PAUL.
Thomas Hunter Weir
Easton
asked for. (1.) A king of Edom (Gen. 36:37, 38); called Shaul in 1 Chr. 1:48. (2.) The son of Kish (probably his only son, and a child of prayer, "asked for"), of the tribe of Benjamin, the first king of the Jewish nation. The singular providential circumstances connected with his election as king are recorded in 1 Sam. 8-10. His father's she-asses had strayed, and Saul was sent with a servant to seek for them. Leaving his home at Gibeah (10:5, "the hill of God," A.V.; lit., as in R.V. marg., "Gibeah of God"), Saul and his servant went toward the north-west over Mount Ephraim, and then turning north-east they came to "the land of Shalisha," and thence eastward to the land of Shalim, and at length came to the district of Zuph, near Samuel's home at Ramah (9:5-10). At this point Saul proposed to return from the three days' fruitless search, but his servant suggested that they should first consult the "seer." Hearing that he was about to offer sacrifice, the two hastened into Ramah, and "behold, Samuel came out against them," on his way to the "bamah", i.e., the "height", where sacrifice was to be offered; and in answer to Saul's question, "Tell me, I pray thee, where the seer's house is," Samuel made himself known to him. Samuel had been divinely prepared for his coming (9:15-17), and received Saul as his guest. He took him with him to the sacrifice, and then after the feast "communed with Saul upon the top of the house" of all that was in his heart. On the morrow Samuel "took a vial of oil and poured it on his head," and anointed Saul as king over Israel (9:25-10:8), giving him three signs in confirmation of his call to be king. When Saul reached his home in Gibeah the last of these signs was fulfilled, and the Sprit of God came upon him, and "he was turned into another man." The simple countryman was transformed into the king of Israel, a remarkable change suddenly took place in his whole demeanour, and the people said in their astonishment, as they looked on the stalwart son of Kish, "Is Saul also among the prophets?", a saying which passed into a "proverb." (Comp. 19:24.) The intercourse between Saul and Samuel was as yet unknown to the people. The "anointing" had been in secret. But now the time had come when the transaction must be confirmed by the nation. Samuel accordingly summoned the people to a solemn assembly "before the Lord" at Mizpeh. Here the lot was drawn (10:17-27), and it fell upon Saul, and when he was presented before them, the stateliest man in all Israel, the air was rent for the first time in Israel by the loud cry, "God save the king!" He now returned to his home in Gibeah, attended by a kind of bodyguard, "a band of men whose hearts God had touched." On reaching his home he dismissed them, and resumed the quiet toils of his former life. Soon after this, on hearing of the conduct of Nahash the Ammonite at Jabeshgilead (q.v.), an army out of all the tribes of Israel rallied at his summons to the trysting-place at Bezek, and he led them forth a great army to battle, gaining a complete victory over the Ammonite invaders at Jabesh (11:1-11). Amid the universal joy occasioned by this victory he was now fully recognized as the king of Israel. At the invitation of Samuel "all the people went to Gilgal, and there they made Saul king before the Lord in Gilgal." Samuel now officially anointed him as king (11:15). Although Samuel never ceased to be a judge in Israel, yet now his work in that capacity practically came to an end. Saul now undertook the great and difficult enterprise of freeing the land from its hereditary enemies the Philistines, and for this end he gathered together an army of 3,000 men (1 Sam. 13:1, 2). The Philistines were encamped at Geba. Saul, with 2,000 men, occupied Michmash and Mount Bethel; while his son Jonathan, with 1,000 men, occupied Gibeah, to the south of Geba, and seemingly without any direction from his father "smote" the Philistines in Geba. Thus roused, the Philistines, who gathered an army of 30,000 chariots and 6,000 horsemen, and "people as the sand which is on the sea-shore in multitude," encamped in Michmash, which Saul had evacuated for Gilgal. Saul now tarried for seven days in Gilgal before making any movement, as Samuel had appointed (10:8); but becoming impatient on the seventh day, as it was drawing to a close, when he had made an end of offering the burnt offering, Samuel appeared and warned him of the fatal consequences of his act of disobedience, for he had not waited long enough (13:13, 14). When Saul, after Samuel's departure, went out from Gilgal with his 600 men, his followers having decreased to that number (13:15), against the Philistines at Michmash (q.v.), he had his head-quarters under a pomegrante tree at Migron, over against Michmash, the Wady esSuweinit alone intervening. Here at Gibeah-Geba Saul and his army rested, uncertain what to do. Jonathan became impatient, and with his armour-bearer planned an assault against the Philistines, unknown to Saul and the army (14:1-15). Jonathan and his armour-bearer went down into the wady, and on their hands and knees climbed to the top of the narrow rocky ridge called Bozez, where was the outpost of the Philistine army. They surprised and then slew twenty of the Philistines, and immediately the whole host of the Philistines was thrown into disorder and fled in great terror. "It was a very great trembling;" a supernatural panic seized the host. Saul and his 600 men, a band which speedily increased to 10,000, perceiving the confusion, pursued the army of the Philistines, and the tide of battle rolled on as far as to Bethaven, halfway between Michmash and Bethel. The Philistines were totally routed. "So the Lord saved Israel that day." While pursuing the Philistines, Saul rashly adjured the people, saying, "Cursed be the man that eateth any food until evening." But though faint and weary, the Israelites "smote the Philistines that day from Michmash to Aijalon" (a distance of from 15 to 20 miles). Jonathan had, while passing through the wood in pursuit of the Philistines, tasted a little of the honeycomb which was abundant there (14:27). This was afterwards discovered by Saul (ver. 42), and he threatened to put his son to death. The people, however, interposed, saying, "There shall not one hair of his head fall to the ground." He whom God had so signally owned, who had "wrought this great salvation in Israel," must not die. "Then Saul went up from following the Philistines: and the Philistines went to their own place" (1 Sam. 14:24-46); and thus the campaign against the Philistines came to an end. This was Saul's second great military success. Saul's reign, however, continued to be one of almost constant war against his enemies round about (14:47, 48), in all of which he proved victorious. The war against the Amalekites is the only one which is recorded at length (1 Sam. 15). These oldest and hereditary (Ex. 17:8; Num. 14:43-45) enemies of Israel occupied the territory to the south and south-west of Palestine. Samuel summoned Saul to execute the "ban" which God had pronounced (Deut. 25:17-19) on this cruel and relentless foe of Israel. The cup of their iniquity was now full. This command was "the test of his moral qualification for being king." Saul proceeded to execute the divine command; and gathering the people together, marched from Telaim (1 Sam. 15:4) against the Amalekites, whom he smote "from Havilah until thou comest to Shur," utterly destroying "all the people with the edge of the sword", i.e., all that fell into his hands. He was, however, guilty of rebellion and disobedience in sparing Agag their king, and in conniving at his soldiers' sparing the best of the sheep and cattle; and Samuel, following Saul to Gilgal, in the Jordan valley, said unto him, "Because thou hast rejected the word of the Lord, he also hath rejected thee from being king" (15:23). The kingdom was rent from Saul and was given to another, even to David, whom the Lord chose to be Saul's successor, and whom Samuel anointed (16:1-13). From that day "the spirit of the Lord departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord troubled him." He and Samuel parted only to meet once again at one of the schools of the prophets. David was now sent for as a "cunning player on an harp" (1 Sam. 16:16, 18), to play before Saul when the evil spirit troubled him, and thus was introduced to the court of Saul. He became a great favourite with the king. At length David returned to his father's house and to his wonted avocation as a shepherd for perhaps some three years. The Philistines once more invaded the land, and gathered their army between Shochoh and Azekah, in Ephes-dammim, on the southern slope of the valley of Elah. Saul and the men of Israel went forth to meet them, and encamped on the northern slope of the same valley which lay between the two armies. It was here that David slew Goliath of Gath, the champion of the Philistines (17:4-54), an exploit which led to the flight and utter defeat of the Philistine army. Saul now took David permanently into his service (18:2); but he became jealous of him (ver. 9), and on many occasions showed his enmity toward him (ver. 10, 11), his enmity ripening into a purpose of murder which at different times he tried in vain to carry out. After some time the Philistines "gathered themselves together" in the plain of Esdraelon, and pitched their camp at Shunem, on the slope of Little Hermon; and Saul "gathered all Israel together," and "pitched in Gilboa" (1 Sam. 28:3-14). Being unable to discover the mind of the Lord, Saul, accompanied by two of his retinue, betook himself to the "witch of Endor," some 7 or 8 miles distant. Here he was overwhelmed by the startling communication that was mysteriously made to him by Samuel (ver. 16-19), who appeared to him. "He fell straightway all along on the earth, and was sore afraid, because of the words of Samuel" (ver. 20). The Philistine host "fought against Israel: and the men of Israel fled before the Philistines, and fell down slain in Mount Gilboa" (31:1). In his despair at the disaster that had befallen his army, Saul "took a sword and fell upon it." And the Philistines on the morrow "found Saul and his three sons fallen in Mount Gilboa." Having cut off his head, they sent it with his weapons to Philistia, and hung up the skull in the temple of Dagon at Ashdod. They suspended his headless body, with that of Jonathan, from the walls of Bethshan. The men of Jabesh-gilead afterwards removed the bodies from this position; and having burnt the flesh, they buried the bodies under a tree at Jabesh. The remains were, however, afterwards removed to the family sepulchre at Zelah (2 Sam. 21:13, 14). (See DAVID
HDBN
demanded; lent; ditch; death
SBD
(desired ), more accurately Shaul. One of the early kings of Edom, and successor of Samlah. ( Genesis 36:37 Genesis 36:38 ; 1 Chronicles 1:48 ) (B.C. after 1450.) The first king of Israel, the son of Kish, and of the tribe of Benjamin. (B.C, 1095-1055.) His character is in part illustrated by the fierce, wayward, fitful nature of the tribe and in part accounted for by the struggle between the old and new systems in which he found himself involved. To this we must add a taint of madness. which broke out in violent frenzy at times leaving him with long lucid intervals. He was remarkable for his strength and activity, ( 2 Samuel 1:25 ) and, like the Homeric heroes, of gigantic stature, taller by head and shoulders than the rest of the people, and of that kind of beauty denoted by the Hebrew word "good," ( 1 Samuel 9:2 ) and which caused him to be compared to the gazelle, "the gazelle of Israel." His birthplace is not expressly mentioned; but, as Zelah in Benjamin was the place of Kishs sepulchre. ( 2 Samuel 21:14 ) it was probable; his native village. His father, Kish, was a powerful and wealthy chief though the family to which he belonged was of little importance. ( 1 Samuel 9:1 1 Samuel 9:21 ) A portion of his property consisted of a drove of asses. In search of these asses, gone astray on the mountains, he sent his son Saul It was while prosecuting this adventure that Saul met with Samuel for the first time at his home in Ramah, five miles north of Jerusalem. A divine intimation had made known to him the approach of Saul, whom he treated with special favor, and the next morning descending with him to the skirts of the town, Samuel poured over Sauls head the consecrated oil, and with a kiss of salutation announced to him that he was to be the ruler of the nation. ( 1 Samuel 9:25 ; 1 Samuel 10:1 ) Returning homeward his call was confirmed by the incidents which according to Samuels prediction, awaited him. ( 1 Samuel 10:9 1 Samuel 10:10 ) What may be named the public call occurred at Mizpeh, when lots were cast to find the tribe and family which was to produce the king, and Saul, by a divine intimation was found hid in the circle of baggage which surrounded the encampment. ( 1 Samuel 10:17-24 ) Returning to Gibeah, apparently to private life, he heard the threat issued by Nahash king of Ammon against Jabesh-gilead. He speedily collected an army, and Jabesh was rescued. The effect was instantaneous on the people, and the monarchy was inaugurated anew at Gilgal. ( 1 Samuel 11:1-15 ) It should be, however, observed that according to ( 1 Samuel 12:12 ) the affair of Nahash preceded and occasioned the election of Saul. Although king of Israel, his rule was at first limited; but in the second year of his reign he began to organize an attempt to shake off the Philistine yoke, and an army was formed. In this crisis, Saul, now on the very confines of his kingdom at Gilgal, impatient at Samuels delay, whom he had directed to be present, offered sacrifice himself. Samuel, arriving later, pronounced the first curse, on his impetuous zeal. ( 1 Samuel 13:5-14 ) After the Philistines were driven back to their own country occurred the first appearance of Sauls madness in the rash vow which all but cost the life of his soil. ( 1 Samuel 14:24 ; 44 ) The expulsion of the Philistines, although not entirely completed, ch. ( 1 Samuel 14:52 ) at once placed Saul in a position higher than that of any previous ruler of Israel, and he made war upon the neighboring tribes. In the war with Amalek, ch. ( 1 Samuel 14:48 ; 15:1-9 ) he disobeyed the prophetical command of Samuel, which called down the second curse, and the first distinct intimation of the transference of the kingdom to a rival. The rest of Sauls life is one long tragedy. The frenzy which had given indications of itself before now at times took almost entire possession of him. In this crisis David was recommended to him. From this time forward their lives are blended together. [DAVID] In Sauls better moments he never lost the strong affection which he had contracted for David. Occasionally, too his prophetical gift returned, blended with his madness. ( 2 Samuel 19:24 ) But his acts of fierce, wild zeal increased. At last the monarchy itself broke down under the weakness of his head. The Philistines re-entered the country, and just before giving them battle Sauls courage failed and he consulted one of the necromancers, the "Witch of Endor," who had escaped his persecution. At this distance of time it is impossible to determine the relative amount of fraud or of reality in the scene which follows, though the obvious meaning of the narrative itself tends to the hypothesis of some kind of apparition. ch. ( 2 Samuel 19:28 ) On hearing the denunciation which the apparition conveyed, Saul fell the whole length of his gigantic stature on the ground, and remained motionless till the woman and his servants forced him to eat. The next day the battle came on. The Israelites were driven up the side of Gilboa. The three sons of Saul were slain. Saul was wounded. According to one account, he fell upon his own sword, ( 1 Samuel 31:4 ) and died. The body on being found by the Philistines was stripped slid decapitated, and the headless trunk hung over the city walls, with those of his three sons. ch. ( 1 Samuel 31:9 1 Samuel 31:10 ) The head was deposited (probably at Ashdod) in the temple of Dagon ( 1 Chronicles 10:10 ) The corpse was buried at Jabesh-gilead. ( 1 Samuel 31:13 ) The Jewish name of St. Paul.
推喇奴 TYRANNUS
代表
徒19:9
ISBE
ti-ran-us (Turannos): When the Jews of Ephesus opposed Pauls teaching in the synagogue, he withdrew, and, separating his followers, reasoned daily in the school of Tyrannus. "This continued for the space of two years" (Acts 19:9,10). D Syriac (Western text) adds after Tyrannus (Acts 19:9), "from the 5th hour unto the 10th." Schole is the lecture-hall or teaching-room of a philosopher or orator, and such were to be found m every Greek city. Tyrannus may have been (1) a Greek rhetorician or (2) a Jewish rabbi.
(1) This is the common opinion, and many identify him with a certain Tyrannus, a sophist, mentioned by Suidas. Paul would thus appear to be one of the traveling rhetors of the time, who had hired such a hall to proclaim his own peculiar philosophy (Ramsay, Paul the Traveler, 246, 271).
(2) Meyer thinks that as the apostle had not passed wholly to the Gentiles, and Jews still flocked to hear him, and also that as Tyrannus is not spoken of as a proselyte (sebomenos ton Theon), this schole is the beth Midrash of a Jewish rabbi. "Paul with his Christians withdrew from the public synagogue to the private synagogue of Tyrannus, where he and his doctrine were more secure from public annoyance" (Meyer in the place cited.).
(3) Another view (Overbeck) is that the expression was the standing name of the place after the original owner.
S. F. Hunter
Easton
prince, a Greek rhetorician, in whose "school" at Ephesus Paul disputed daily for the space of two years with those who came to him (Acts 19:9). Some have supposed that he was a Jew, and that his "school" was a private synagogue.
HDBN
a prince; one that reigns
SBD
(sovereign ), the name of a man in whose school or place of audience Paul taught the gospel for two years, during his sojourn at Ephesus. See ( Acts 19:9 ) (A.D. 52,53.) The presumption is that Tyrannus himself was a Greek, and a public teacher of philosophy or rhetoric.
推基古 TYCHICUS
代表
徒20:4 弗6:21 弗6:22 西4:7 西4:8 提前1:3 提後4:9 提後4:12 多3:12
ISBE
tik-i-kus (Tuchikos, lit. "chance"): Mentioned 5 times in the New Testament (Acts 20:4; Eph 6:21; Col 4:7; 2 Tim 4:12; Tit 3:12); an Asiatic Christian, a friend and companion of the apostle Paul.
(1) In the first of these passages his name occurs as one of a company of the friends of Paul. The apostle, at the close of his 3rd missionary journey, was returning from Greece through Macedonia into Asia, with a view to go to Jerusalem. This journey proved to be the last which he made, before his apprehension and imprisonment. It was felt, both by himself and by his friends, that this journey was a specially important one. He was on his way to Jerusalem, "bound in the spirit" (Acts 20:22). But another cause which gave it particular importance was that he and his friends were carrying the money which had been collected for several years previous in the churches of the Gentiles, for the help of the poor members of the church in Jerusalem (Acts 24:17). No fewer than eight of his intimate friends companied him into Asia, and one of these was Tychicus Luke uses the word "Asian" (English Versions of the Bible "of Asia," Acts 20:4) to describe Tychicus. He was with Paul at Troas, and evidently journeyed with him, as one of "Pauls company" (Acts 21:8 the King James Version), all the way to Jerusalem.
(2) The 2nd and 3rd passages in which the name of Tychicus occurs (see above) give the information that he was with Paul in Rome during his first imprisonment. In Colossians Paul writes, "All my affairs shall Tychicus make known unto you, the beloved brother and faithful minister and fellow-servant in the Lord: whom I have sent unto you for this very purpose, that ye may know our state, and that he may comfort your hearts" (4:7,8). In almost identical words he writes in Ephesians, "But that ye also may know my affairs, how I do, Tychicus, the beloved brother and faithful minister in the Lord, shall make known to you all things: whom I have sent unto you for this very purpose, that ye may know our state, and that he may comfort your hearts" (6:21,22).
Paul had entrusted Tychicus with a very important mission. He was to deliver the Epistle to the Ephesians, that is, "the circular letter" (see LAODICEANS, EPISTLE TO THE) to the churches in proconsular Asia, to which it was sent, giving a copy of it to the church in Laodicea. He was then to proceed to Colosse, with the Epistle to the church there. In Colosse Tychicus would plead the cause of Onesimus, who accompanied him from Rome. "Under his shelter Onesimus would be safer than if he encountered Philemon alone" (Lightfoot, Commentary on Colossians, 314). In Laodicea and Colosse Tychicus would not only deliver the Epistles from Paul, but he would also, as the apostle had written to the churches in those places, Communicate to them all information about his "state," that is, how things were going with him in regard to his appeal to the emperor, and his hope of being soon set at liberty. Tychicus would make known to them all things.
(3) The passages in the Epistles to Titus and to Timothy show that Tychicus was again with Paul, after the appeal to the emperor had resulted in the apostle regaining his freedom. The passage in Titus evidently refers to the interval between Pauls first and second Roman imprisonments, and while he was again engaged in missionary journeys. The apostle writes to Titus, who was in Crete in charge of the churches there, that he intended to send either Artemas or Tychicus to him, so as to take the oversight of the work of the gospel in that island, that Titus might be free to come to be with the apostle at Nicopolis.
(4) The last passage where Tychicus is mentioned occurs in 2 Timothy, which was written in Rome not long before Pauls execution. To the very end Paul was busy as ever in the work of the gospel; and though it would have been a comfort to him to have his friends beside him, yet the interests of the kingdom of Christ are uppermost in his thoughts, and he sends these friends to help the progress of the work. To the last, Tychicus was serviceable as ever: "Tychicus I sent to Ephesus" (4:12). As Timothy was in charge of the church in Ephesus (1 Tim 1:3), the coming of Tychicus would set him free, so as to enable him to set off at once to rejoin Paul at Rome, as the apostle desired him (2 Tim 4:9,21).
It should also be noted that at Ephesus Tychicus would be able to visit his old friend Trophimus, who was, at that very time, only a few miles away, at Miletus, sick (2 Tim 4:20).
It is possible that Tychicus is the brother referred to in 2 Cor 8:22,23 as one "whom we have many times proved earnest in many things .... (one of) the messengers of the churches .... the glory of Christ."
(5) The character and career of Tychicus are such as show him altogether affectionate, faithful and worthy of the confidence reposed in him by Paul, who, as already seen, sent him again and again on important work, which could be performed only by a man of ability and of high Christian worth and experience. Thus, all that is known regarding Tychicus fully bears out the description of his character given by the apostle himself, that he was a beloved brother, a faithful minister and fellow-servant in the Lord.
John Rutherfurd
Easton
chance, an Asiatic Christian, a "faithful minister in the Lord" (Eph. 6:21, 22), who, with Trophimus, accompanied Paul on a part of his journey from Macedonia to Jerusalem (Acts 20:4). He is alluded to also in Col. 4:7, Titus 3:12, and 2 Tim. 4:12 as having been with Paul at Rome, whence he sent him to Ephesus, probably for the purpose of building up and encouraging the church there.
HDBN
casual; by chance
SBD
(fateful ) and Trophimus (nutritious ), companions of St. Paul on some of his journeys, are mentioned as natives of Asia. ( Acts 20:4 ; 21:29 ; 2 Timothy 4:20 ) (A.D. 54-64.) There is much probability in the conjecture that Tychicus and Trophimus were the two brethren who were associated with Titus. ( 2 Corinthians 8:16-24 ) in conducting the business of the collection for the poor Christians in Judea.
提倫 TILON
代表
代上4:20
ISBE
ti-lon (tilon; Kethibh, Qere; Codex Vaticanus Inon; Codex Alexandrinus Thilan; Lucian Tholeim: A son of Shimon (1 Ch 4:20).
HDBN
murmuring
SBD
(gift ), one of the four sons of Shimon, whose family is reckoned in the genealogies of Judah. ( 1 Chronicles 4:20 ) (B.C. 1451.)
提八 TEBAH
代表
創22:24
ISBE
te-ba (tebhach): A son of Nahor, the brother of Abraham (Gen 22:24).
HDBN
murder; butchery; guarding of the body; a cook
SBD
(slaughter ), eldest of the sons of Nahor by his concubine Reumah. ( Genesis 22:24 ) (B.C. 1872.)
提列 TERESH
代表
斯2:21 斯2:22 斯2:23 斯6:2
ISBE
te-resh (teresh (Est 2:21; 6:2); Codex Vaticanus, Codex Alexandrinus, and Codex Sinaiticus omit it; but Codex Sinaiticus margin has Tharas and Tharras): A chamberlain of King Ahasuerus. Oppert compares the name with Tiri-dates, the name of the governor of Persepolis in the time of Alexander. Another explanation identifies it with the Persian word turs "firm"; Scheft links it with the Persian tarsha, "desire."
Easton
severe, a eunuch or chamberlain in the palace of Ahasuerus, who conspired with another to murder him. The plot was detected by Mordecai, and the conspirators were put to death (Esther 2:21; 6:2).
SBD
(strictness ), one of the two eunuchs whose plot to assassinate Ahasuerus was discovered by Mordecai. ( Esther 2:21 ; 6:2 ) He was hanged. (B.C. 479.)
提利 TIRIA
代表
代上4:16
ISBE
tir-i-a, ti-ri-a (tireya, Baer tirya; Codex Vaticanus omits it; Codex Alexandrinus Theria; Lucian Ethria): A son of Jehallelel (1 Ch 4:16).
HDBN
searching out
SBD
(fear ), son of Jehaleleel, of the tribe of Judah. ( 1 Chronicles 4:16 ) (B.C. about 1451.)
提多 TITUS
代表
加2:3 林後8:23 林後12:18 多1:5 徒18:7
ISBE
ti-tus (Titos (2 Cor 2:13; 7:6,13 ff; 8:6,16,23; 12:18; Ga1:2:1,3; 2 Tim 4:10; Tit 1:4)):
1. One of Pauls Converts:
A Greek Christian, one of Pauls intimate friends, his companion in some of his apostolic journeys, and one of his assistants in Christian work. His name does not occur in the Acts; and, elsewhere in the New Testament, it is found only in 2 Corinthians, Galatians, 2 Timothy and Titus. As Paul calls him "my true child after a common faith" (Tit 1:4), it is probable that he was one of the apostles converts.
2. Paul Refuses to Have Him Circumcised:
The first notice of Titus is in Acts 15:2, where we read that after the conclusion of Pauls 1st missionary journey, when he had returned to Antioch, a discussion arose in the church there, in regard to the question whether it was necessary that Gentile Christians should be circumcised and should keep the Jewish Law. It was decided that Paul and Barnabas, "and certain other of them," should go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. The "certain other of them" includes Titus, for in Gal 2:3 it is recorded that Titus was then with Paul. The Judaistic party in the church at Jerusalem desired to have Titus circumcised, but Paul gave no subjection to these persons and to their wishes, "no, not for an hour; that the truth of the gospel might continue with you" (Gal 2:5). The matter in dispute was decided as recorded in Acts 15:13-29. The decision was in favor of the free promulgation of the gospel, as preached by Paul, and unrestricted by Jewish ordinances. Pauls action therefore in regard to Titus was justified. In fact Titus was a representative or test case.
It is difficult and perhaps impossible to give the true reason why Titus is not mentioned by name in the Acts, but he is certainly referred to in 15:2.
3. Sent to Corinth:
There is no further notice of Titus for some years afterward, when he is again mentioned in 2 Corinthians. In this Epistle his name occurs 8 times. From the notices in this Epistle it appears that Titus had been sent by Paul, along with an unnamed "brother," to Corinth as the apostles delegate to the church there (2 Cor 12:18). His chief business was evidently to deal with the cases of immorality which had occurred there. His mission was largely successful, so that he was able to return to Paul with joy, because his spirit was refreshed by the Corinthians (2 Cor 7:13). His inward affection was largely drawn out to them, and "he remembereth the obedience of you all, how with fear and trembling ye received him" (2 Cor 7:15). At Corinth Titus seems also to have assisted in organizing the weekly collections for the poor saints in Jerusalem. See 1 Cor 16:1,2 compared with 2 Cor 8:6: "We exhorted Titus, that as he had made a beginning before, so he would also complete in you this grace also."
After the departure of Titus from Corinth, difficulty had again arisen in the church there, and Titus seems to have been sent by Paul a second time to that city, as the apostles messenger, carrying a letter from him--referred to in 2 Cor 2:3 ff; 7:8 ff.
4. Paul Goes to Meet Him:
The state of the Corinthian church had been causing much anxiety to Paul, so much so that when he had come to Troas to preach Christs gospel, and a door was opened to him of the Lord, he found no rest in his spirit, because he found not Titus, his brother; so he left Troas, and went thence into Macedonia, in order to meet Titus the sooner, so as to ascertain from him how matters stood in Corinth. In Macedonia accordingly the apostle met Titus, who brought good news regarding the Corinthians. In the unrest and fightings and fears which the troubles at Corinth had caused Paul to experience, his spirit was refreshed when Titus reached him. "He that comforteth the lowly, even God, comforted us by the coming of Titus .... while he told us your longing, your mourning, your zeal for me; so that I rejoiced yet more" (2 Cor 7:6,7).
Paul now wrote to the Corinthians again--our Second Epistle to the Corinthians--and dispatched it to its destination by the hand of Titus, into whose heart `God had put the same earnest care for them (2 Cor 8:16-18). Titus was also again entrusted with the work of overseeing the weekly collection in the Corinthian church (2 Cor 8:10,24).
5. Travels with Paul to Crete:
There is now a long interval in the history of Titus, for nothing further is recorded of him till we come to the Pastoral Epistles. From Pauls Epistle to him these details are gathered: On Pauls liberation at the conclusion of his first Roman imprisonment he made a number of missionary journeys, and Titus went with him, as his companion and assistant, on one of these--to the island of Crete. From Crete, Paul proceeded onward but he left Titus to "set in order the things that were wanting, and appoint elders in every city" (Tit 1:5) . Paul reminds him of the character of the people of Crete, and gives him various instructions for his guidance; charges him to maintain sound doctrine, and advises him how to deal with the various classes of persons met with in his pastoral capacity.
6. Paul Sends for Him:
Titus is informed that Artemas or Tychicus will be sent to Crete so that he will be free to leave the island and to rejoin the apostle at Nicopolis, where he has determined to winter. Such were Pauls plans; whether they were carried out is unknown. But this at least is certain, that Titus did rejoin Paul, if not at Nicopolis, then at some other spot; and he was with him in Rome on the occasion of his 2nd imprisonment there, for he is mentioned once again (2 Tim 4:10) as having gone to Dalmatia, evidently on an evangelistic errand, as the apostle was in the habit of sending his trusted friends to do such work, when he himself was no longer able to do this, owing to his imprisonment. "Paul regarded as his own the work done from centers where he labored, by helpers associated with him, considering the churches thus organized as under his jurisdiction. This throws light upon the statement in 2 Tim 4:10, that Titus at that time had gone to Dalmatia, and a certain Crescens to Gaul. There is no indication that they, like Demas, had deserted the apostle and sought safety for themselves, or that, like Tychicus, they had been sent by the apostle upon some special errand. In either case it would be a question why they went to these particular countries, with which, so far as we know, Paul, up to this time, had never had anything to do. The probability is that Titus, who had long been associated with Paul (Gal 2:3), who, as his commissioner, had executed difficult offices in Corinth (2 Cor 7-9), and who, not very long before 2 Timothy was written, had completed some missionary work in Crete that had been begun by others, had gone as a missionary and as Pauls representative and helper to Dalmatia. .... If by this means, beginnings of church organizations had been made .... in Spain by Paul himself, in Gaul by Crescens, in Dalmatia by Titus, then, in reality, the missionary map had been very much changed since Pauls first defense" (Zahn, Introduction to the New Testament. II, 11).
7. His Character:
Titus was one of Pauls very dear and trusted friends; and the fact that he was chosen by the apostle to act as his delegate to Corinth, to transact difficult and delicate work in the church there, and that he did this oftener than once, and did it thoroughly and successfully, shows that Titus was not merely a good but a most capable man, tactful and resourceful and skillful in the handling of men and of affairs. "Whether any inquire about Titus, he is my partner and fellow-worker to you-ward" (2 Cor 8:23).
John Rutherfurd
Easton
honourable, was with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch, and accompanied them to the council at Jerusalem (Gal. 2:1-3; Acts 15:2), although his name nowhere occurs in the Acts of the Apostles. He appears to have been a Gentile, and to have been chiefly engaged in ministering to Gentiles; for Paul sternly refused to have him circumcised, inasmuch as in his case the cause of gospel liberty was at stake. We find him, at a later period, with Paul and Timothy at Ephesus, whence he was sent by Paul to Corinth for the purpose of getting the contributions of the church there in behalf of the poor saints at Jerusalem sent forward (2 Cor. 8:6; 12:18). He rejoined the apostle when he was in Macedonia, and cheered him with the tidings he brought from Corinth (7:6-15). After this his name is not mentioned till after Paul's first imprisonment, when we find him engaged in the organization of the church in Crete, where the apostle had left him for this purpose (Titus 1:5). The last notice of him is in 2 Tim. 4:10, where we find him with Paul at Rome during his second imprisonment. From Rome he was sent into Dalmatia, no doubt on some important missionary errand. We have no record of his death. He is not mentioned in the Acts.
HDBN
pleasing
SBD
Our materials for the biography of this companion of St. Paul must be drawn entirely from the notices of him in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, the Galatians, and to Titus himself, combined with the Second Epistle to Timothy. He is not mentioned in the Acts at all. Taking the passages in the epistles in the chronological order of the events referred to, we turn first to ( Galatians 2:1 Galatians 2:3 ) We conceive the journey mentioned here to be identical with that (recorded in Acts 15) in which Paul and Barnabas went from Antioch to Jerusalem to the conference which was to decide the question of the necessity of circumcision to the Gentiles. Here we see Titus in close association with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch. He goes with them to Jerusalem. His circumcision was either not insisted on at Jerusalem, or, if demanded, was firmly resisted. He is very emphatically spoken of as a Gentile by which is most probably meant that both his parents were Gentiles. Titus would seem on the occasion of the council to have been specially a representative of the church of the uncircumcision. It is to our purpose to remark that, in the passage cited above, Titus is so mentioned as apparently to imply that he had become personally known to the Galatian Christians. After leaving Galatia., ( Acts 18:23 ) and spending a long time at Ephesus, ( Acts 19:1 ; 20:1 ) the apostle proceeded to Macedonia by way of Troas. Here he expected to meet Titus, ( 2 Corinthians 2:13 ) who had been sent on a mission to Corinth. In this hope he was disappointed, but in Macedonia Titus joined him. ( 2 Corinthians 7:6 2 Corinthians 7:7 2 Corinthians 7:13-15 ) The mission to Corinth had reference to the immoralities rebuked in the First Epistle, and to the collection at that time in progress, for the poor Christians of Judea. ( 2 Corinthians 8:6 ) Thus we are prepared for what the apostle now proceeds to do after his encouraging conversations with Titus regarding the Corinthian church. He sends him back from Macedonia to Corinth, in company with two other trustworthy Christians, bearing the Second Epistle, and with an earnest request, ibid. ( 2 Corinthians 8:6 2 Corinthians 8:17 ) that he would see to the completion of the collection. ch. ( 2 Corinthians 8:6 ) A considerable interval now elapses before we come upon the next notices of this disciple. St. Pauls first imprisonment is concluded, and his last trial is impending. In the interval between the two, he and Titus were together in Crete. ( Titus 1:5 ) We see Titus remaining in the island when St. Paul left it and receiving there a letter written to him by the apostle. From this letter we gather the following biographical details. In the first place we learn that he was originally converted through St. Pauls instrumentality. ( Titus 1:4 ) Next we learn the various particulars of the responsible duties which he had to discharge. In Crete, he is to complete what St. Paul had been obliged to leave unfinished, ch. ( Titus 1:5 ) and he is to organize the church throughout the island by appointing presbytery in every city. Next he is to control and bridle, ver. 11, the restless and mischievous Judaizers. He is also to look for the arrival in Crete of Artemas and Tychicus, ch. ( Titus 3:12 ) and then is to hasten to join St. Paul at Nicopolis, where the apostle purposes to pass the winter. Zenas and Apollos are in Crete, or expected there; for Titus is to send them on their journey, and to supply them with whatever they need for it. Whether Titus did join the apostle at Nicopolis we cannot tell; but we naturally connect the mention of this place with what St. Paul wrote, at no great interval of time afterward, in the last of the Pastoral Epistles, ( 2 Timothy 4:10 ) for Dalmatia lay to the north of Nicopolis, at no great distance from it. From the form of the whole sentence, it seems probable that this disciple had been with St. Paul in Rome during his final imprisonment; but this cannot be asserted confidently. The traditional connection of Titus with Crete is much more specific and constant, though here again we cannot be certain of the facts. He said to have been permanent bishop in the island, and to have died there at an advanced age. The modern capital, Candia , appears to claim the honor of being his burial-place. In the fragment by the lawyer Zenas, Titus is called bishop of Gortyna. Lastly, the name of Titus was the watchword of the Cretans when they were invaded by the Venetians.
提幔 TEMAN
代表
創36:11 創36:15 代上1:36 代上1:53
ISBE
te-man (teman, "on the right," i.e. "south"; Thaiman): The name of a district and town in the land of Edom, named after Teman the grandson of Esau, the son of his firstborn, Eliphaz (Gen 36:11; 1 Ch 1:36). A duke Teman is named among the chiefs or clans of Edom (Gen 36:42; 1 Ch 1:53). He does not however appear first, in the place of the firstborn. Husham of the land of the Temanites was one of the ancient kings of Edom (Gen 36:34; 1 Ch 1:45). From Obad 1:9 we gather that Teman was in the land of Esau (Edom). In Am 1:12 it is named along with Bozrah, the capital of Edom. In Ezek 25:13 desolation is denounced upon Edom: "From Teman even unto Dedan shall they fall by the sword." Dedan being in the South, Teman must be sought in the North Eusebius, Onomasticon knows a district in the Gebalene region called Theman, and also a town with the same name, occupied by a Roman garrison, 15 miles from Petra. Unfortunately no indication of direction is given. No trace of the name has yet been found. It may have been on the road from Elath to Bozrah.
The inhabitants of Teman seem to have been famous for their wisdom (Jer 49:7; Obad 1:8 f). Eliphaz the Temanite was chief of the comforters of Job (2:11, etc.). The manner in which the city is mentioned by the prophets, now by itself, and again as standing for Edom, shows how important it must have been in their time.
W. Ewing
Easton
id. (1.) A grandson of Esau, one of the "dukes of Edom" (Gen. 36:11, 15, 42). (2.) A place in Southern Idumea, the land of "the sons of the east," frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. It was noted for the wisdom of its inhabitants (Amos 1:12; Obad. 1:8; Jer. 49:7; Ezek. 25:13). It was divided from the hills of Paran by the low plain of Arabah (Hab. 3:3).
HDBN
Temani
SBD
(the south ). A son of Eliphaz, son of Esau by Adah. ( Genesis 36:11 Genesis 36:15 Genesis 36:41 ; 1 Chronicles 1:36 1 Chronicles 1:53 ) (B.C. about 1792.) A country, and probably a city, named after the Edomite phylarch, or from which the phylarch took his name. The Hebrew signifies "south," etc., see ( Job 9:9 ; Isaiah 43:6 ) and it is probable that the land of Teman was a southern portion of the land of Edom, or, in a wider sense, that of the sons of the east. Teman is mentioned in five places by the prophets, in four of which it is connected with Edom and in two with Dedan. ( Jeremiah 49:7 Jeremiah 49:8 ; Ezekiel 25:13 ) Eusebius and Jerome mention Teman as a town in their day distant 15 miles from Petra, and a Roman post.
提拉 TIRAS
代表
創20:2 代上1:5
ISBE
ti-ras (tirac; Theiras, Lucian Thiras): A son of Japheth (Gen 10:2 (P); 1 Ch 1:5). Not mentioned elsewhere; this name was almost unanimously taken by the ancient commentators (so Josephus, Ant, I, vi, 1) to be the same as that of the Thracians (Thrakes); but the removal of the nominative ending -s does away with this surface resemblance. Tuch was the first to suggest the Tursenioi, a race of Pelasgian pirates, who left many traces of their ancient power in the islands and coasts of the Aegean, and who were doubtless identical with the Etruscans of Italy. This brilliant suggestion has since been confirmed by the discovery of the name Turusa among the seafaring peoples who invaded Egypt in the reign of Merenptah (W.M. Muller, AE, 356 ff). Tiras has also been regarded as the same as Tarshish.
Horace J. Wolf
Easton
the youngest of the sons of Japheth (Gen. 10:2; 1 Chr. 1:5).


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary