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每日一詞 主題辭典 聖經人名 聖經地名 聖經英文

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目前本系統共收錄了 1,856 個聖經相關人名
以及 HDBN 包含了 2,616 個姓名的意義解釋。


中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
以利雅薩 ELIASAPH
代表
民1:14 民3:24
ISBE
e-li-a-saf (elyacaph, "God has added"):
(1) Son of Deuel; prince of the tribe of Gad in the Exodus (Nu 1:14; 2:14; 7:42,47; 10:20).
(2) Son of Lael; prince of the Gershonites (Nu 3:24).
HDBN
the Lord increaseth
SBD
Head of the tribe of Dan at the time of the census in the wilderness of Sinai. ( Numbers 1:14 ; 2:14 ; Numbers 7:42 Numbers 7:47 ; 10:20 ) (B.C. 1490.) A levite, and "chief of the Gershonites" at the same time. ( Numbers 3:24 )
以勒大 ELDAAH
代表
創25:4 代上1:33
ISBE
el-da-a (elda`ah, "God has called"?): A son of Midian (Gen 25:4; 1 Ch 1:33).
HDBN
knowledge of God
SBD
( Genesis 25:4 ; 1 Chronicles 1:3 ) the last in order of the sons of Midian.
以南 ENAN
代表
民1:15
ISBE
e-nan (`enan, "having fountains," or "eyes," i.e. "keen-eyed"; in Septuagint Ainan): The father of Ahira, and prince of Naphtali at the first census of Israel (Nu 1:15; 2:29; 7:78,83; 10:27).
HDBN
cloud
SBD
(having eyes. ). Ahira ben-Enan was "prince" of the tribe of Naphtali at the time of the numbering of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai. ( Numbers 1:15 ) (B.C. 1491.)
以呂馬 ELIMAS
代表
徒13:6 徒13:7 徒13:8 徒13:9 徒13:10 徒13:11 徒13:12
以太 ITTAI
代表
撒下15:21 代上11:31 撒下23:29 撒下15:19 撒下15:20 撒下15:21 撒下15:22
ISBE
it-a-i, it-i (ittay, ithay):
(1) A Gittite or native of Gath, one of Davids chief captains and most faithful friends during the rebellion of Absalom (2 Sam 15:11-22; 18:2,4,12). The narrative reveals Davids chivalrous and unselfish spirit in time of trouble, as well as the most self-sacrificing loyalty on the part of Ittai. He seems to have but recently left his native city and joined Davids army through personal attachment to the king. David rapidly promoted him. Hearing of Absaloms rebellion and approach to Jerusalem, he flees with David. The latter remonstrates, urges him to go back and join Absalom, as he is a foreigner and in exile. His interests are in the capital and with the king; there is no reason why he should be a fugitive and perhaps suffer the loss of everything; it would be better for him, with his band of men, to put himself and them at the service of Absalom, the new king. "Mercy and truth be with thee," says David in his magnanimity. Ittai, with a double oath, absolutely refuses to go back, but will stand by David until the last. Remonstrance being useless, the monarch orders him across the river, doubtless glad that he had such a doughty warrior and faithful friend by his side. On mustering his hosts to meet Absalom, David makes Ittai a chief captain with the intrepid Joab and Abishai. He doubtless did his part in the battle, and as nothing more is said of him it is possible that he fell in the fight.
(2) A Benjamite, one of Davids 30 mighty men (2 Sam 23:29; 1 Ch 11:31, "Ithai").
J. J. Reeve
Easton
near; timely; or, with the Lord. (1.) A Benjamite, one of David's thirty heroes (2 Sam. 23:29). (2.) A native of Gath, a Philistine, who had apparently the command of the six hundred heroes who formed David's band during his wanderings (2 Sam. 15:19-22; comp. 1 Sam. 23:13; 27:2; 30:9, 10). He is afterwards with David at Mahanaim, holding in the army equal rank with Joab and Abishai (2 Sam. 18:2, 5, 12). He then passes from view.
以察 EZER
代表
創36:20 創36:21
ISBE
e-zer (`ezer, "help"):
(1) A Horite chief (Gen 36:21; 1 Ch 1:38).
(2) A Judahite (1 Ch 4:4).
(3) An Ephraimite, slain by men of Gath (1 Ch 7:21).
(4) A Gadite who followed David while in exile on account of the wrath of Saul (1 Ch 12:9).
(5) One of those who under direction of Nehemiah repaired the wall of Jerusalem (Neh 3:19).
(6) A musician in one of the great companies appointed by Nehemiah to give thanks at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh 12:42).
Easton
treasure. (1.) One of the sons of Seir, the native princes, "dukes," of Mount Hor (Gen. 36:21, 27). (2.) 1 Chr. 7:21; (3.) 4:4. (4.) One of the Gadite champions who repaired to David at Ziklag (12:9). (5.) A Levite (Neh. 3:19). (6.) A priest (12:42).
HDBN
a help
SBD
(treasure ). A son of Ephraim, who was slain by the aboriginal inhabitants of Gath while engaged in a foray on their cattle. ( 1 Chronicles 7:21 ) (B.C. before 1491.) A priest who assisted in the dedication of the walls of Jerusalem under Nehemiah. ( Nehemiah 12:42 ) (B.C. 446.) Father of Hushah of the sons of Hur. ( 1 Chronicles 4:4 ) One of the Gadite chiefs who fought with David. ( 1 Chronicles 12:8 1 Chronicles 12:9 ) (B.C. 1054.) One who aided in repairing the wall at Jerusalem; a Levite. ( Nehemiah 3:19 )
以實各 ESHCOL
代表
創14:13 創14:14 創14:15 創14:16 創14:17 創14:18 創14:19 創14:20 創14:21 創14:22 創14:23 創14:24
Easton
bunch; brave. (1.) A young Amoritish chief who joined Abraham in the recovery of Lot from the hands of Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:13, 24). (2.) A valley in which the spies obtained a fine cluster of grapes (Num. 13:23, 24; "the brook Eshcol," A.V.; "the valley of Eshcol," R.V.), which they took back with them to the camp of Israel as a specimen of the fruits of the Promised Land. On their way back they explored the route which led into the south (the Negeb) by the western edge of the mountains at Telilat el-'Anab, i.e., "grape-mounds", near Beersheba. "In one of these extensive valleys, perhaps in Wady Hanein, where miles of grape-mounds even now meet the eye, they cut the gigantic clusters of grapes, and gathered the pomegranates and figs, to show how goodly was the land which the Lord had promised for their inheritance.", Palmer's Desert of the Exodus.
HDBN
bunch of grapes
SBD
(cluster of grapes ), brother of Mamre the Amorite and of Aner, and one of Abrahams companions in his pursuit of the four kings who had carried off Lot. ( Genesis 14:13 Genesis 14:24 ) (B.C. 1912.).
以實提摩 ESHTEMOA
代表
代上4:17
ISBE
esh-te-mo-a, esh-te-mo-a (eshtemoa`): A Levitical city in the hill country of Judah (Josh 21:14; 1 Ch 6:57); Eshtemoh (eshtemoh, Josh 15:50). In Ch 4:17,19, Eshtemoa is said to be a Maacathite and "son" of Ishbah. David after routing the Amalekites sent a present to his friends in (among other places) Eshtemoa (1 Sam 30:28). It is now es-Semu`a, a considerable village of evident antiquity some 8 miles South of Hebron.
Easton
obedience, a town in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 21:14; 1 Chr. 6:57), which was allotted, with the land round it, to the priests. It was frequented by David and his followers during their wanderings; and he sent presents of the spoil of the Amalekites to his friends there (1 Sam. 30:28). It is identified with es-Semu'a, a village about 3 1/2 miles east of Socoh, and 7 or 8 miles south of Hebron, around which there are ancient remains of the ruined city. It is the centre of the "south country" or Negeb. It is also called "Eshtemoh" (Josh. 15:50).
HDBN
the bosom of a woman
以實比諾 ISHBI-BENOB
代表
撒下21:16 撒下21:15 撒下21:16 撒下21:17
ISBE
ish-bi-be-nob (yishbi bhenobh): One of the four "born to the giant in Gath" who were slain by David and his men (2 Sam 21:15-22). Ishbi-benob was slain by Abishai, and Davids life saved by the act (21:16,17).
Easton
my seat at Nob, one of the Rephaim, whose spear was three hundred shekels in weight. He was slain by Abishai (2 Sam. 21:16, 17).
HDBN
respiration; conversion; taking captive
SBD
(he that dwells at Nobl ), son of Rapha, one of the race of Philistine giants, who attacked David in battle, but was slain by Abishai. ( 2 Samuel 21:16 2 Samuel 21:17 ) (B.C. 1018.)
以實瑪利 ISHMAEL
代表
創16:11 創16:7 創16:8 創16:9 創16:10 創16:11 創16:12 創16:13 創16:14 創16:15 創16:16 代上8:38 代上9:44 代下23:1 拉10:22 代下19:11 耶40:13 耶40:14 耶40:15 耶40:16
Easton
God hears. (1.) Abraham's eldest son, by Hagar the concubine (Gen. 16:15; 17:23). He was born at Mamre, when Abraham was eighty-six years of age, eleven years after his arrival in Canaan (16:3; 21:5). At the age of thirteen he was circumcised (17:25). He grew up a true child of the desert, wild and wayward. On the occasion of the weaning of Isaac his rude and wayward spirit broke out in expressions of insult and mockery (21:9, 10); and Sarah, discovering this, said to Abraham, "Expel this slave and her son." Influenced by a divine admonition, Abraham dismissed Hagar and her son with no more than a skin of water and some bread. The narrative describing this act is one of the most beautiful and touching incidents of patriarchal life (Gen. 21:14-16). (See HAGAR
HDBN
God that hears
SBD
(whom God hears ). The son of Abraham by Hagar the Egyptian his concubine; born when Abraham was fourscore and six years old. ( Genesis 16:15 Genesis 16:16 ) (B.C. 1910.) Ishmael was the first-born of his father. He was born in Abrahams house when he dwelt in the plain of Mamre; and on the institution of the covenant of circumcision, was circumcised, he being then thirteen years old ( Genesis 17:26 ) With the institution of the covenant, God renewed his promise respecting Ishmael. He does not again appear in the narrative until the weaning of Isaac. At the great feast made in celebration of the weaning, "Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had borne unto Abraham, mocking," and urged Abraham to cast him and his mother out. Comforted by the renewal of Gods promise to make of Ishmael a great nation, Abraham sent them away, and they departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba. His mother took Ishmael a wife out of the land of Egypt." ( Genesis 21:9-21 ) This wife of Ishmael was the mother of the twelve sons and one daughter. Of the later life of Ishmael we know little. He was present with Isaac at the burial of Abraham. He died at the age of 137 years. ( Genesis 25:17 Genesis 25:18 ) The sons of Ishmael peopled the north and west of the Arabian peninsula, and eventually formed the chief element of the Arab nation, the wandering Bedouin tribes. They are now mostly Mohammedans who look to him as their spiritual father, as the Jews look to Abraham. Their language, which is generally acknowledged to have been the Arabic community so called, has been adopted with insignificant exceptions throughout Arabia. The term "Ishmaelite" occur on three occasions: ( Genesis 37:25 Genesis 37:27 Genesis 37:28 ; 39:1 ; Judges 8:24 ; Psalms 83:6 ) One of the sons of Azel, a descendant of Saul through Meribbaal or Mephibosheth. ( 1 Chronicles 8:38 ; 9:44 ) A man of Judah, father of Zebadiah. ( 2 Chronicles 19:11 ) Another man of Judah, son of Jehohanan; one of the captains of hundreds who assisted Jehoiada in restoring Joash to the throne. ( 2 Chronicles 23:1 ) A priest of the Bene-Pashur, who was forced by Ezra to relinquish his foreign wife. ( Ezra 10:22 ) The son of Nethaniah; a perfect marvel of craft and villainy, whose treachery forms one of the chief episodes of the history of the period immediately succeeding the first fall of Jerusalem. His exploits are related in ( Jeremiah 40:7 ; Jeremiah 41:16 ) with a short summary. During the siege of the city he had fled across the Jordan where he found a refuge at the court of Baalis. After the departure of the Chaldeans, Ishmael made no secret of his intention to kill the superintendent left by the king of Babylon and usurp his position. Of this Zedaliah was warned in express terms by Johanan and his companions, but notwithstanding entertained Ishmael and his followers at a feast, ( Jeremiah 41:1 ) during which Ishmael murdered Gedaliah and all his attendants. The same night he killed all Zedaliahs establishment, including some Chaldean soldiers who were there. For two days the massacre remained entirely unknown to the people of the town. On the second day eighty devotees were bringing incense and offerings to the ruins of the temple. At his invitation they turned aside to the residence of the superintendent, and there Ishmael and his band butchered nearly the whole number: ten only escaped by offering a heavy ransom for their lives. This done he descended to the town, surprised and carried off the daughters of King Zedekiah, who had been sent there by Nebuchadnezzar for safety, with their eunuchs and their Chaldean guard, ( Jeremiah 41:10 Jeremiah 41:16 ) and all the people of the town, and made off with his prisoners to the country of the Ammonites. The news of the massacre had by this time got abroad, and Ishmael was quickly pursued by Johanan and his companions. He was attacked, two of his bravos slain, the whole of the prey recovered; and Ishmael himself with the remaining eight of his people, escaped to the Ammonites.
以實買雅 ESHMAIAH
代表
代上12:4 代上27:19
以尼雅 AENEAS
代表
徒9:33 徒9:34
ISBE
e-ne-as (Aineas): A paralytic at Lydda, who, after he "had kept his bed eight years," was miraculously healed by Peter (Acts 9:33,34).
HDBN
praised; praiseworthy
SBD
(laudble ), a paralytic at Lydda healed by St. Peter. ( Acts 9:33 Acts 9:34 )
以巴弗 EPAPHRAS
代表
西1:7 西4:12 西4:13
ISBE
ep-a-fras (Epaphras): A contracted form of Epaphroditus. He must not, however, be confounded with the messenger of the Philippian community. He was with Paul during a part of his 1st Roman imprisonment, joining in Pauls greetings to Philemon (Philem 1:23). Epaphras was the missionary by whose instrumentality the Colossians had been converted to Christianity (Col 1:7), and probably the other churches of the Lycus had been founded by him. In sending his salutation to the Colossians Paul testified, "He hath much labor for you, and for them in Laodicea, and for them in Hierapolis" (Col 4:13). Epaphras had brought to Paul good news of the progress of the gospel, of their "faith in Christ Jesus" and of their love toward all the saints (Col 1:4). Pauls regard for him is shown by his designating him "our beloved fellow-servant," "a faithful minister of Christ" (Col 1:7), and "a bondservant of Christ Jesus" (Col 4:12 margin) . The last designation Paul uses several times of himself, but only once of another besides Epaphras (Phil 1:1).
S. F. Hunter
Easton
lovely, spoken of by Paul (Col. 1:7; 4:12) as "his dear fellow-servant," and "a faithful minister of Christ." He was thus evidently with him at Rome when he wrote to the Colossians. He was a distinguished disciple, and probably the founder of the Colossian church. He is also mentioned in the Epistle to Philemon (1:23), where he is called by Paul his "fellow-prisoner."
HDBN
covered with foam
SBD
(lovely ), a fellow laborer with the apostle Paul, mentioned ( Colossians 1:7 ) as having taught the Colossian church the grace of God in truth, and designated a faithful minister of Christ on their behalf. He was at that time with St. Paul at Rome. (A.D. 57.) For Pauls estimate of him see ( Colossians 1:7 Colossians 1:8 ; 4:12 )
以巴弗提 EPAPHRODITUS
代表
腓2:25 腓4:18
ISBE
e-paf-ro-di-tus (Epaphroditos, "lovely"): Mentioned only in Phil 2:25; 4:18. The name corresponds to the Latin Venustus (= handsome), and was very common in the Roman period. "The name occurs very frequently in inscriptions both Greek and Latin, whether at full length Epaphroditus, or in its contracted form Epaphras" (Lightfoot, Philippians, 123). Epaphroditus was the delegate of the Christian community at Philippi, sent with their gift to Paul during his first Roman imprisonment. Paul calls him "my brother and fellow-worker and fellow-soldier." "The three words are arranged in an ascending scale: common sympathy, common work, common danger and toil and suffering" (Lightfoot, l.c.). On his arrival at Rome, Epaphroditus devoted himself to "the work of Christ," both as Pauls attendant and as his assistant in missionary work. So assiduously did he labor that he lost his health, and "was sick nigh unto death." He recovered, however, and Paul sent him back to Philippi with this letter to quiet the alarm of his friends, who had heard of his serious illness. Paul besought for him that the church should receive him with joy and hold him in honor.
S. F. Hunter
Easton
fair, graceful; belonging to Aphrodite or Venus the messenger who came from Phillipi to the apostle when he was a prisoner at Rome (Phil. 2:25-30; 4:10-18). Paul mentions him in words of esteem and affection. On his return to Philippi he was the bearer of Paul's letter to the church there.
HDBN
agreeable; handsome
SBD
(lovely ), the full name of which Epaphras is a contraction. ( Philippians 2:25 ; 4:18 )
以巴錄 EBAL
代表
創36:23 代上1:40 代上1:22 創10:28
Easton
stony. (1.) A mountain 3,076 feet above the level of the sea, and 1,200 feet above the level of the valley, on the north side of which stood the city of Shechem (q.v.). On this mountain six of the tribes (Deut. 27:12,13) were appointed to take their stand and respond according to a prescribed form to the imprecations uttered in the valley, where the law was read by the Levites (11:29; 29:4, 13). This mountain was also the site of the first great altar erected to Jehovah (Deut. 27:5-8; Josh. 8:30-35). After this the name of Ebal does not again occur in Jewish history. (See GERIZIM
HDBN
ancient heaps
SBD
(stone, bare mountain ). One of the sons of Shobal the son of Seir. ( Genesis 36:23 ; 1 Chronicles 1:40 ) Obal the son of Joktan. ( 1 Chronicles 1:22 ) comp. Genesis 10:28
以希 EHI
代表
創46:21
ISBE
e-hi (ehi): Apparently a contracted form (Gen 46:21).
See AHIRAM.
SBD
(my brother ), head of one of the Benjamite houses according to the list in ( Genesis 46:21 ) He seems to be the same as Ahiram in the list in ( Numbers 26:38 ) In ( 1 Chronicles 8:1 ) he is called Aharah, and perhaps also Ahoah in ver. 4, Ahiah, ver. 7, and Aher, ( 1 Chronicles 7:12 )
以弗 EPHOD
代表
民34:23
Easton
something girt, a sacred vestment worn originally by the high priest (Ex. 28:4), afterwards by the ordinary priest (1 Sam. 22:18), and characteristic of his office (1 Sam. 2:18, 28; 14:3). It was worn by Samuel, and also by David (2 Sam. 6:14). It was made of fine linen, and consisted of two pieces, which hung from the neck, and covered both the back and front, above the tunic and outer garment (Ex. 28:31). That of the high priest was embroidered with divers colours. The two pieces were joined together over the shoulders (hence in Latin called superhumerale) by clasps or buckles of gold or precious stones, and fastened round the waist by a "curious girdle of gold, blue, purple, and fine twined linen" (28:6-12). The breastplate, with the Urim and Thummim, was attached to the ephod.
SBD
(image ), father of Hanniel of the tribe of Manesseh. ( Numbers 34:23 )
以弗 EPHER
代表
創25:4 代上1:33 代上4:17 代上5:23 代上5:24
ISBE
e-fer (`epher, "calf," "young deer"; Apher, Opher:
(1) The second son of Midian, descended from Abraham by his wife Keturah (Gen 25:4; 1 Ch 1:33). See further Dillmanns Commentary on Gen (25:4).
(2) The third son of Ezra, descended from the tribe of Judah (1 Ch 4:17).
(3) The first of five heads of their fathers houses, "mighty men of valor, famous men," in the halftribe of Manasseh, who dwelt between Bashan and Mt. Hermon (1 Ch 5:23,14).
Easton
a calf. (1.) One of the sons of Midian, who was Abraham's son by Keturah (Gen. 25:4). (2.) The head of one of the families of trans-Jordanic Manasseh who were carried captive by Tiglath-pileser (1 Chr. 5:24).
HDBN
dust; lead
SBD
(a calf ), the second, in order, of the sons of Midian. ( Genesis 25:4 ; 1 Chronicles 1:33 ) (B.C. 1820).
以弗崙 EPHRON
代表
創23:8 創13:17 創25:9
Easton
fawn-like. (1.) The son of Zohar a Hittite, the owner of the field and cave of Machpelah (q.v.), which Abraham bought for 400 shekels of silver (Gen. 23:8-17; 25:9; 49:29, 30). (2.) A mountain range which formed one of the landmarks on the north boundary of the tribe of Judah (Josh. 15:9), probably the range on the west side of the Wady Beit-Hanina.
HDBN
dust
SBD
(fawn-like ), the son of Zochar, a Hittite, from whom Abraham bought the field and cave of Machpelah. ( Genesis 23:8-17 ; 25:9 ; Genesis 49:29 Genesis 49:30 ; 50:13 ) (B.C. 1860.)
以弗拉 EPHLAL
代表
代上2:37
ISBE
ef-lal (ephlal, "judgment"): A descendant of Judah (1 Ch 2:37).
SBD
(judgment ), a descendant of Judah, of the family of Hezron and of Jerahmeel. ( 1 Chronicles 2:37 )
以彼古羅 EPICUREANS
代表
徒17:18
ISBE
ep-i-ku-re-anz (Epikoureioi):
1. Social and Political Causes
2. Egoistic Hedonism
3. Back to Nature
4. Ataraxy
5. Pleasure Is the Absence of Pain
6. Social Contract
7. Atomic Theory
8. Materialism
9. Theory of Ideas
10. Epicurean Gods
11. Consensus Gentium
12. Causes of Success
13. Complete Antithesis of Pauls Teaching

LITERATURE
The Epicureans with the STOICS (which see) encountered Paul in Athens (Acts 17:18). They were the followers of Epicurus, a philosopher who was born in Samos in 341 BC, and who taught first in Asia Minor and afterward in Athens till his death in 270 BC. His system, unlike most philosophies, maintained its original form, with little development or dissent, to the end of its course. The views of Pauls opponents of this school may therefore be gathered from the teaching of Epicurus.
1. Social and Political Causes:
The conditions for the rise of Epicureanism and Stoicism were political and social rather than intellectual. Speculative thought had reached its zenith in the great constructive ideals of Plato, and the encyclopaedic system of Aristotle. Criticism of these would necessarily drive men back upon themselves to probe deeper into the meaning of experience, as Kant did in later times. But the conditions were not propitious to pure speculation. The breaking up of the Greek city-states and the loss of Greek independence had filled mens minds with a sense of insecurity. The institutions, laws and customs of society, which had hitherto sheltered the individual, now gave way; and men demanded from philosophy a haven of rest for their homeless and weary souls. Philosophy, therefore, became a theory of conduct and an art of living.
Epicurus deprecated the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake, whether as philosophy or science, and directed his inquiries to the two practical questions: What is the aim of life? and How to attain to it? Philosophy he defined as "a daily business of speech and thought to secure a happy life."
2. Egoistic Hedonism:
His ethical teaching is therefore the central and governing factor of Epicurus philosophy. It belongs to the type generally described as Egoistic Hedonism. The same general principles had been taught by Aristippus and his school, the Cyrenaics, a century earlier, and they were again revived in the 17th century in England by Thomas Hobbes.
The aim and end of life for every man is his own happiness, and happiness is primarily defined as pleasure. "Wherefore we call pleasure the Alpha and Omega of a blessed life. Pleasure is our first and kindred good. It is the starting-point of every choice and of every aversion, and to it we come back, inasmuch as we make feeling the rule by which to judge every good thing" (Epicurus, Letter to Menoeceus). So far Epicurus might seem to be simply repeating the view of the Cyrenaics. But there are important differences. Aristippus held the pleasure of the moment to be the end of action; but Epicurus taught that life should be so lived as to secure the greatest amount of pleasure during its whole course. And in this larger outlook, the pleasures of the mind came to occupy a larger place than the pleasures of the body. For happiness consists not so much in the satisfaction of desires, as in the suppression of wants, and in arriving at a state of independence of all circumstances, which secures a peace of mind that the privations and changes of life cannot disturb. Mans desires are of various kinds: "Some are natural, some are groundless; of the natural, some are necessary as well as natural, and some are natural only. And of the necessary desires, some are necessary if we are to be happy, some if the body is to be rid of uneasiness, some if we are even to live." Mans aim should be to suppress all desires that are unnecessary, and especially such as are artificially produced. Learning, culture, civilization and the distractions of social and political life are proscribed, much as they were in the opposite school of the Cynics, because they produce many desires difficult to satisfy, and so disturb the peace of the mind. This teaching has been compared to that of Rousseau and even of Buddha. Like the former, Epicurus enjoins the withdrawal of life from the complexities and perplexities of civilization, to the bare necessities of Nature, but he stops short of the doctrine of Nirvana, for life and the desire to live he regards as good things.
3. Back to Nature:
He even rises above Naturalism to a view that has some kinship with modern Spiritualism, in his affirmation of the mastery of mind over adverse circumstances. "Though he is being tortured on the rack, the wise man is still happy."
4. Ataraxy:
Epicurus definition of the end of life and of the way to it bears a superficial resemblance to that of his opponents, the Stoics. The end sought by both is ataraxia, "imperturbability," a peace of mind that transcends all circumstances, and the way to it is the life according to Nature. But Nature for Epicurus is purely physical and material, and the utmost happiness attainable is the complete absence of pain.
5. Pleasure Is the Absence of Pain:
He justly protests against the representation of his teaching as gross and immoral. "When we say, then, that pleasure is the end and aim, we do not mean the pleasures of the prodigal, or the pleasures of sensuality, as we are understood to do by some, through ignorance, prejudice or willful misrepresentation. By pleasure we mean the absence of pain in the body and trouble in the soul" (Letter to Menoeceus). His own life was marked by a simplicity verging on asceticism, and by kindly consideration for his friends. But theory was capable of serving the purposes of worse men to justify license and selfishness.
6. Social Contract:
Justice and ordinary morality were recognized in the system as issuing from an original social compact, such as Hobbes and Rousseau supposed, and resting upon the self-interest and happiness of individuals who entered into the compact the better to gain those ends. Ordinary morality has therefore no stronger sanction than the individuals desire to secure his own happiness. Against public violations of the moral code, the sanction finds its agent in the social order and the penalties it inflicts; but the only deterrent from secret immorality is the fear of being found out, and the necessarily disturbing character of that fear itself. Friendship, the supreme virtue of Epicureanism, is based upon the same calculating selfishness, and is to be cultivated for the happiness it begets to its owners. The fundamental defect of the system is its extreme individualism, which issues in a studied selfishness that denies any value of their own to the social virtues, and in the negation of the larger activities of life.
Epicurus had no interest in knowledge for its own sake, whether of the external world, or of any ultimate or supreme, reality. But he found mens minds full of ideas about the world, immortality and the gods, which disturbed their peace and filled them with vain desires and fears. It was therefore necessary for the practical ends of his philosophy to find a theory of the things outside of man that would give him tranquillity and serenity of mind.
7. Atomic Theory:
For this purpose Epicurus fell back upon Democritus atomic theory of the world. The original constituents of the universe, of which no account could be given, were atoms, the void, and motion. By a fixed law or fate, the atoms moved through the void, so as to form the world as we know it. The same uniform necessity maintains and determines the abiding condition of all that exists. Epicurus modified this system so far as to admit an initial freedom to the atoms, which enabled them to divert slightly from their uniform straight course as they fell like rain through space, and so to impinge, combine and set up rotatory motions by which the worlds, and all that is in them, came into being.
8. Materialism:
He did not follow the idea of freedom in Nature and man beyond the exigencies of his theory, and the thoroughly materialistic nature of his universe precluded him from deducing a moral realm. By this theory he gets rid of the causes of fear and anxiety that disturb the human mind. Teleology, providence, a moral order of the universe, the arbitrary action of the gods, blind fate, immortality, hell, reward and punishment after death, are all excluded from a universe where atoms moving through space do everything. The soul, like the body, is made of atoms, but of a smaller or finer texture. In death, the one like the other dissolves and comes to its end.
9. Theory of Ideas:
From the same premises one would expect the complete denial of any Divine beings. But it is a curiosity of the system that a grossly materialistic theory of knowledge should require the affirmation of the existence of the gods. Mens ideas are derived from thin material films that pass from the objects around them into the kindred matter of their minds. It follows that every idea must have been produced by a corresponding object. Men generally possess ideas of gods. Therefore, gods must exist to produce those ideas, which come to men in sleep and dreams. But they are not such gods as men generally believe to exist. They are constituted of the same atomic matter as men, but of a still finer texture. They dwell in the intermundia, the interspaces outside the worlds, where earthly cares and the dissolution of death cannot approach them. They are immortal and completely blessed. They cannot therefore know anything of the world, with its pain and its troubles, nor can they be in any way concerned with it. They are apotheoses of the Epicurean sage, entirely withdrawn from the worlds turmoil, enjoying a life of calm repose, and satisfied with the bounty that Nature provides for them.
10. Epicurean Gods:
"For the nature of the gods must ever in itself of necessity enjoy immortality with supreme repose, far removed and withdrawn from our concerns; since exempt from every pain, exempt from all dangers, strong in its own resources, not wanting aught of us, it is neither gained by favors nor moved by anger" (Lucretius). All religion is banned, though the gods are retained. Epicurus failure to carry the logic of his system to the denial of the gods lies deeper than his theory of ideas.
11. Consensus Gentium:
He was impressed by the fact that "a steadfast unanimity continues to prevail among all men without exception" that gods exist. "A consciousness of godhead does not allow him to deny the existence of God altogether. Hence, his attempt to explain the fact so as not to interfere with his general theory" (Wallace, Epicureanism, 209).
During his lifetime, Epicurus attracted a large following to his creed, and it continued to flourish far down into the Christian era. It was presented to the Roman world by the poet Lucretius in his poem De natura rerum, which is still the chief source for the knowledge of it. One Old Testament writer, the author of Eccl, may have been influenced by its spirit, though he did not adopt all its ideas.
12. Causes of Success:
The personal charm and engaging character of Epicurus himself drew men to him, and elevated him into the kind of ideal sage who personified the teaching of the school, as was the custom of all schools of philosophy. The system was clear-cut and easily understood by ordinary men, and it offered a plausible theory of life to such as could not follow the profounder and more difficult speculations of other schools. Its moral teaching found a ready response in all that was worldly, commonplace and self-seeking in men that had lost their high ideals and great enthusiasms. Above all it delivered men from the terrors of a dark superstition that had taken the place of religion. It is a remarkable revelation of the inadequacy of Greek religion that Epicurus should have relegated the gods from the visible world, without any sense of loss, but only the relief of a great deliverance.
13. Complete Antithesis of Pauls Teaching:
It was inevitable that the teaching of Paul should have brought this school up against him. He came to Athens teaching a God who had become man, who had suffered and died to accomplish the utmost self-sacrifice, who had risen from the dead and returned to live among men to guide and fashion their lives, and who at last would judge all men, and according to their deeds reward or punish them in a future world. To the Epicurean this was the revival of all the ancient and hated superstitions. It was not only folly but impiety; for Epicurus had taught that "not the man who denies the gods worshipped by the multitude, but he who affirms of the gods what the multitude believe about them, is truly impious."

LITERATURE.
Hicks, Stoic and Epicurean (whose translations are adopted in all quotations in this article); Zeller, Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics; Wallace, Epicureanism; Lucretius, De natura rerum.
T. Rees
Easton
followers of Epicurus (who died at Athens B.C. 270), or adherents of the Epicurean philosophy (Acts 17:18). This philosophy was a system of atheism, and taught men to seek as their highest aim a pleasant and smooth life. They have been called the "Sadducees" of Greek paganism. They, with the Stoics, ridiculed the teaching of Paul (Acts 17:18). They appear to have been greatly esteemed at Athens.
以律 ELIUD
代表
太1:14 太1:14 太1:15
ISBE
e-li-ud (Elioud, "God my praise"): An ancestor of Jesus, four generations before Joseph (Mt 1:15).
HDBN
God is my praise
SBD
(God his praise ), son of Achim in the genealogy of Christ. ( Matthew 1:15 )
以得 EDER
代表
代上23:23 代上24:30 代上8:15
Easton
flock. (1.) A city in the south of Judah, on the border of Idumea (Josh. 15:21). (2.) The second of the three sons of Mushi, of the family of Merari, appointed to the Levitical office (1 Chr. 23:23; 24:30).
HDBN
a flock
SBD
(a flock ). One of the towns of Judah, in the extreme south, and on the borders of Edom. ( Joshua 15:21 ) No trace of it has been discovered in modern times. A Levite of the family of Merari, in the time of David. ( 1 Chronicles 23:23 ; 24:30 )
以忽 EHUD
代表
代上7:10 士3:15
ISBE
e-hud (ehudh, "united," "strong"): A Benjamite, son of Gera, deliverer of Israel from oppression by Moab (Jdg 3:15-30). Gaining access alone to the presence of King Eglon under pretense of a secret errand connected with the payment of Israels tribute, Ehud, a left-handed man, drew the sword he had concealed upon his right side, and thrust the king through. He locked the doors of the upper chamber after him, made his escape, and with the Israelites overcame Moab at the fords of the Jordan, slaying some 10,000. Ehuds name occurs again in the Benjamite genealogy (1 Ch 7:10).
F. K. Farr
Easton
union. (1.) A descendant of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:10), his great-grandson. (2.) The son of Gera, of the tribe of Benjamin (Judg. 3:15). After the death of Othniel the people again fell into idolatry, and Eglon, the king of Moab, uniting his bands with those of the Ammonites and the Amalekites, crossed the Jordan and took the city of Jericho, and for eighteen years held that whole district in subjection, exacting from it an annual tribute. At length Ehud, by a stratagem, put Eglon to death with a two-edged dagger a cubit long, and routed the Moabites at the fords of the Jordan, putting 10,000 of them to death. Thenceforward the land, at least Benjamin, enjoyed rest "for fourscore years" (Judg. 3:12-30). (See QUARRIES
HDBN
he that praises
SBD
(union ). Ehud son of Bilhah, and great-grandson of Benjamin the patriarch. ( 1 Chronicles 7:10 ; 8:6 ) Ehud son of Gera, of the tribe of Benjamin, ( Judges 3:15 ) the second judge of the Israelites. (B.C. about 1370.) In the Bible he is not called a judge, but a deliverer (l.c.): so Othniel, ( Judges 3:9 ) and all the Judges. ( Nehemiah 9:27 ) As a Benjamite he was specially chosen to destroy Eglon, who had established himself in Jericho, which was included in the boundaries of that tribe. He was very strong, and left-handed. [EGLON]
以拉 IRA
代表
撒下20:26 撒下23:38 代上11:40 撒下23:26 代上11:28
ISBE
i-ra (`ira; Eiras):
(1) A person referred to in 2 Sam 20:26 as "priest" (so the Revised Version (British and American) correctly; the King James Version "a chief ruler," the American Standard Revised Version "chief minister") unto David. The translation of the Revised Version (British and American) is the only possible one; but, according to the text, Ira was "a Jairite," and thus of the tribe of Manasseh (Nu 32:41) and not eligible to the priesthood. On the basis of the Peshitta some would correct "Jairite" of 2 Sam 20:26 into "Jattirite," referring to Jattir, a priestly city within the territory of Judah (Josh 21:14). Others point to 2 Sam 8:18 margin, "Davids sons were priests," as an indication that in Davids time some non-Levites were permitted to serve--in some sense--as priests.
(2) An "Ithrite," or (with a different pointing of the text) a "Jattirite," one of Davids "thirty" (2 Sam 23:38 parallel 1 Ch 11:40); possibly identical with (1).
(3) Another of Davids "thirty," son of Ikkesh of Tekoa (2 Sam 23:26; 1 Ch 11:28) and a captain of the temple guard (1 Ch 27:9).
F. K. Farr
Easton
citizen; wakeful. (1.) A Tekoite, one of David's thirty warriors (2 Sam. 23:26). (2.) An Ithrite, also one of David's heroes (2 Sam. 23:38). (3.) A Jairite and priest, a royal chaplain (2 Sam. 20:26) or confidential adviser (comp. 2 Sam. 8:18; 1 Chr. 18:17).
HDBN
watchman; making bare; pouring out
SBD
(watchful of a city ). "The Jairite," named in the catalogue of Davids great officers. ( 2 Samuel 20:26 ) One of the heroes of Davids guard. ( 2 Samuel 23:38 ; 1 Chronicles 11:40 ) Another of Davids guard, a Tekoite, son of Ikkesh- ( 2 Samuel 23:26 ; 1 Chronicles 11:28 ) (B.C. 1046-1014.)


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary