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目前本系統共收錄了 1,856 個聖經相關人名
以及 HDBN 包含了 2,616 個姓名的意義解釋。


中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
希伯倫 hebron
代表
出6:8 民3:19 民3:27 代上2:42 代上2:43
Easton
a community; alliance. (1.) A city in the south end of the valley of Eshcol, about midway between Jerusalem and Beersheba, from which it is distant about 20 miles in a straight line. It was built "seven years before Zoan in Egypt" (Gen. 13:18; Num. 13:22). It still exists under the same name, and is one of the most ancient cities in the world. Its earlier name was Kirjath-arba (Gen. 23:2; Josh. 14:15; 15:3). But "Hebron would appear to have been the original name of the city, and it was not till after Abraham's stay there that it received the name Kirjath-arba, who [i.e., Arba] was not the founder but the conqueror of the city, having led thither the tribe of the Anakim, to which he belonged. It retained this name till it came into the possession of Caleb, when the Israelites restored the original name Hebron" (Keil, Com.). The name of this city does not occur in any of the prophets or in the New Testament. It is found about forty times in the Old. It was the favorite home of Abraham. Here he pitched his tent under the oaks of Mamre, by which name it came afterwards to be known; and here Sarah died, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah (Gen. 23:17-20), which he bought from Ephron the Hittite. From this place the patriarch departed for Egypt by way of Beersheba (37:14; 46:1). It was taken by Joshua and given to Caleb (Josh. 10:36, 37; 12:10; 14:13). It became a Levitical city and a city of refuge (20:7; 21:11). When David became king of Judah this was his royal residence, and he resided here for seven and a half years (2 Sam. 5:5); and here he was anointed as king over all Israel (2 Sam. 2:1-4, 11; 1 Kings 2:11). It became the residence also of the rebellious Absalom (2 Sam. 15:10), who probably expected to find his chief support in the tribe of Judah, now called el-Khulil. In one part of the modern city is a great mosque, which is built over the grave of Machpelah. The first European who was permitted to enter this mosque was the Prince of Wales in 1862. It was also visited by the Marquis of Bute in 1866, and by the late Emperor Frederick of Germany (then Crown-Prince of Prussia) in 1869. One of the largest oaks in Palestine is found in the valley of Eshcol, about 3 miles north of the town. It is supposed by some to be the tree under which Abraham pitched his tent, and is called "Abraham's oak." (See OAK
HDBN
society; friendship
SBD
(alliance ). The third son of Kohath, who was the second son of Levi. ( Exodus 6:18 ; Numbers 3:19 ; 1 Chronicles 6:2 1 Chronicles 6:18 ; 23:12 ) He was the founder of a family of Hebronites, ( Numbers 3:27 ; 26:58 ; 1 Chronicles 26:23 1 Chronicles 26:30 1 Chronicles 26:31 ), or Bene-Hebron. ( 1 Chronicles 15:9 ; 23:19 ) A city of Judah, ( Joshua 15:54 ) situated among the mountains, ( Joshua 20:7 ) 20 Roman miles south of Jerusalem, and the same distance north of Beersheba. Hebron is one of the most ancient cities in the world still existing; and in this respect it is the rival of Damascus. It was a well-known town when Abraham entered Canaan, 3800 years ago. ( Genesis 13:18 ) Its original name was Kirjath-arba, ( Judges 1:10 ) "the city of Arba;" so called from Arba the father of Anak. ( Joshua 15:13 Joshua 15:14 ; 21:13 ) Sarah died at Hebron; and Abraham then bought from Ephron the Hittite the field and cave of Machpelah, to serve as a family tomb ( Genesis 23:2-20 ) The cave is still there, and the massive walls of the Haram or mosque, within which it lies, form the most remarkable object in the whole city. Abraham is called by Mohammedans el-Khulil , "the Friend," i.e. of God, and this is the modern name of Hebron. Hebron now contains about 5000 inhabitants, of whom some fifty families are Jews. It is picturesquely situated in a narrow valley, surrounded by rocky hills. The valley runs from north to south; and the main quarter of the town, surmounted by the lofty walls of the venerable Haram , lies partly on the eastern slope. ( Genesis 37:14 ) comp. Genesis23:19 About a mile from the town, up the valley, is one of the largest oak trees in Palestine. This, say some, is the very tree beneath which Abraham pitched his tent, and it still bears the name of the patriarch. One of the towns in the territory of Asher, ( Joshua 19:28 ) probably Ebdon or Abdom.
希倫 helon
代表
民1:9 民2:7 民7:24 民7:29
ISBE
hel-on (chelon, "valorous"; the Septuagints Codex Vaticanus, Chailon): The father of Eliab, the prince of the tribe of Zebulun (Nu 1:9; 2:7; 7:24,29; 10:16).
Easton
strong, father of Eliab, who was "captain of the children of Zebulun" (Num. 1:9; 2:7).
HDBN
window; grief
SBD
(strong ), father of Eliab, of the tribe of Zebulun. ( Numbers 1:9 ; 2:7 ; Numbers 7:24 Numbers 7:29 ; 10:16 ) (B.C. 1491.)
希列 hillel
代表
士12:15
ISBE
hil-el (hillel, "he greatly praised"; Septuagint Ellel): An inhabitant of Pirathon in the hill country of Ephraim, and father of Abdon, one of the judges of Israel (Jdg 12:13,15).
Easton
praising, a Pirathonite, father of the judge Abdon (Judg. 12:13, 15).
HDBN
he that praises
SBD
(praise ), a native of Pirathon in Mount Ephraim, father of Abdon, one of the judges of Israel. ( Judges 12:13 Judges 12:15 )
希別 heber
代表
創46:17 民26:45 代下7:31 士4:17 民5:24 代上4:18 代上8:17
ISBE
he-ber (chebher, "associate" or, possibly, "enchanter"; Eber): A name occurring several times in the Old Testament as the name of an individual or of a clan.
(1) A member of the tribe of Asher and son of Beraiah (Gen 46:17; Nu 26:45; 1 Ch 7:31 f).
(2) A Kenite, husband of Jael, who deceptively slew Sisera, captain of the army of Jabin, a Canaanite king (Jdg 4:17; 5:24). He had separated himself from the main body of the Kenites, which accounts for his tent being near Kedesh, the place of Siseras disastrous battle (Jdg 4:11).
(3) Head of a clan of Judah, and son of Mered by his Jewish, as distinguished from an Egyptian wife. He was father, or founder, of Soco (1 Ch 4:18).
(4) A Benjamite, or clan or family of Elpaal belonging to Benjamin (1 Ch 8:17).
(5) Heber, of our Lords genealogy (Lk 3:35 the King James Version), better, Eber.
So, the name "Eber," `ebher, in 1 Ch 5:13; 8:22, is not to be confused with Heber, chebher, as in the foregoing passages.
Edward Bagby Pollard
Easton
passing over. (1.) Son of Beriah and grandson of Asher (Gen. 46:17; 1 Chr. 7:31, 32). (2.) The Kenite (Judg. 4:11, 17; 5:24), a descendant of Hobab. His wife Jael received Sisera (q.v.) into her tent and then killed him. (3.) 1 Chr. 4:18. (4.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:17). (5.) A Gadite (5:13). (See EBER
HDBN
one that passes; anger
SBD
(alliance ). Grandson of the patriarch Asher, ( Genesis 46:17 ; Numbers 26:45 ; 1 Chronicles 7:31 ) from whom came the Heberites. ( Numbers 26:45 ) The patriarch Eber. ( Luke 3:35 ) [EBER] The father of Socho; a Judite. ( 1 Chronicles 4:18 ) A Benjamite. ( 1 Chronicles 8:17 ) A Benjamite. ( 1 Chronicles 8:22 ) A Gadite. ( 1 Chronicles 5:13 ) The husband of Jael, who slew Sisera by driving a nail into his temple. ( Judges 4:21 Judges 4:22 )
希利斯 helez
代表
代上27:10 代上2:39
ISBE
he-lez (chelets "vigor"; Septuagint Selles, Chelles):
(1) 2 Sam 23:26; 1 Ch 11:27; 27:10. One of Davids mighty men; according to 1 Ch 27:10, he belonged to the sons of Ephraim and was at the head of the 7th course in Davids organization of the kingdom.
(2) Septuagint Chelles, 1 Ch 2:39. A man of Judah of the clan of the Jerahmeelites.
Easton
strong, or loin (?) (1.) One of Judah's posterity (1 Chr. 2:39). (2.) One of David's warriors (2 Sam. 23:26).
HDBN
armed; set free
SBD
(strength ). One of "the thirty" of Davids guard, ( 2 Samuel 23:26 ; 1 Chronicles 11:27 ) an Ephraimite, and captain of the seventh monthly course. ( 1 Chronicles 27:10 ) (B.C. 1016.) A man of Judah, son of Azariah. ( 1 Chronicles 2:39 )
希勒 helek
代表
民26:30 書17:2
ISBE
he-lek chelekh): Son of Gilead the Manassite (Nu 26:30; Josh 17:2). Patronymic, Helekites (Nu 26:30).
Easton
a portion, (Josh. 17:2), descended from Manasseh.
HDBN
part; portion
SBD
(portion ), one of the descendants of Manasseh, and second son of Gilead, ( Numbers 26:30 ) and founder of the Helekites. (B.C. 1445.)
希勒家 hilkiah
代表
尼8:4 尼12:7 代上6:45 代上6:46 代上26:11 耶29:3 王下18:8 王下18:26 賽22:20 耶1:1 王下22:4 王下22:14 王下23:4 代上6:13 代下34:9 代下34:22 代下35:8
ISBE
hil-ki-a (chilqiyah, "Yah is my portion" or "Yahs portion"): The name of 8 individuals in the Old Testament or 7, if the person mentioned in Neh 12:7,21 was the same who stood with Ezra at the reading of the Law (Neh 8:4). The latter appears as Ezecias (the King James Version) in 1 Esdras 9:43. Five of this name are clearly associated with the priesthood, and the others are presumably so. The etymology suggests this. Either interpretation of the name expresses the persons claim on Yahweh or the parents recognition of Yahwehs claim on him.
(1) The person mentioned above (Neh 8:4, etc.).
(2) A Levite of the sons of Merari (1 Ch 6:45).
(3) Another Levite of Merari, son of Hosah (1 Ch 26:11). Is he the "porter," i.e. "doorkeeper" of 1 Ch 16:38?
(4) Father of the Gemariah whom Zedekiah of Judah sent to Nebuchadnezzar (Jer 29:3).
(5) The man in 2 Ki 18:18 ff who is evidently more famous as the father of Eliakim, the majordomo of Hezekiahs palace (Isa 22:20 ff; 36:3 ff). Probably the fathers name is given in this and similar cases to distinguish between two persons of otherwise identical name.
(6) A priest of Anathoth, father of Jeremiah (Jer 1:1).
(7) The son of Shallum, and the best known of the name (1 Ch 6:13). He is great-grandfather of Ezra through his son Azariah (1 Esdras 8:1; compare 1 Ch 9:11; Neh 11:11). He discovered the lost Book of the Law during the repairing of the Temple (2 Ki 22:4,8 ff); became chief leader in the ensuing reformation in 621 BC (2 Ki 23:4; 2 Ch 34:9 ff; 35:8). He showed the recovered book to Shaphan the scribe, who, in turn, brought it to the notice of the king. At Josiahs request he led a deputation to Huldah the prophetess to "inquire of the Lord" concerning the new situation created by the discovery. The book discovered is usually identified with the Book of Deuteronomy.
See DEUTERONOMY.
Henry Wallace
Easton
portion of Jehovah. (1.) 1 Chr. 6:54. (2.) 1 Chr. 26:11. (3.) The father of Eliakim (2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37). (4.) The father of Gemariah (Jer. 29:3). (5.) The father of the prophet Jeremiah (1:1). (6.) The high priest in the reign of Josiah (1 Chr. 6:13; Ezra 7:1). To him and his deputy (2 Kings 23:5), along with the ordinary priests and the Levites who had charge of the gates, was entrusted the purification of the temple in Jerusalem. While this was in progress, he discovered in some hidden corner of the building a book called the "book of the law" (2 Kings 22:8) and the "book of the covenant" (23:2). Some have supposed that this "book" was nothing else than the original autograph copy of the Pentateuch written by Moses (Deut. 31:9-26). This remarkable discovery occurred in the eighteenth year of Josiah's reign (B.C. 624), a discovery which permanently affected the whole subsequent history of Israel. (See JOSIAH
HDBN
God is my portion
SBD
(God is my portion ) Father of Eliakim. ( 2 Kings 18:37 ; Isaiah 22:20 ; 36:22 ) [ELIAKIM] High priest in the reign of Josiah. ( 2 Kings 22:4 ) seq. 2Chr 34:9 seq.; 1 Esd. 1:8. (B.C. 623.) His high priesthood was rendered particularly illustrious by the great reformation effected under it by King Josiah, by the solemn Passover kept at Jerusalem in the 18th year of that kings reign, and above all by the discovery which he made of the book of the law of Moses in the temple. A Merarite Levite, son of Amzi ( 1 Chronicles 6:45 ) hebr. 30. Another Merarite Levite, second son of Hosah. ( 1 Chronicles 26:11 ) One of those who stood on the right hand of Ezra when he read the law to the people; doubtless a Levite, and probably a priest. ( Nehemiah 8:4 ) (B.C 410.) A priest of Anathoth, father of the prophet Jeremiah. ( Jeremiah 1:1 ) (B.C. before 628.) Father of Gemariah, who was one of Zedekiahs envoys to Babylon. ( Jeremiah 29:3 ) (B.C. long before 587.)
希勒愷 helkai
代表
尼12:15
ISBE
hel-ka-i, hel-ki, hel-ka-i (chelqay, perhaps an abbreviation for Helkiah, "Yah is my portion." Not in the Septuagints Codex Vaticanus; Codex L: Chelkias (Neh 12:15)): The head of a priestly house in the days of Joiakim.
Easton
smooth-tongued, one of the chief priests in the time of Joiakim (Neh. 12:15).
HDBN
same as Helek
希太 hiddai
代表
代上11:32
ISBE
hid-a-i, hi-da-i (hidday; Alexandrian Haththai): One of Davids thirty "mighty men" (2 Sam 23:30), described as "of the brooks of Gaash." In the parallel list in 1 Ch 11:32 the form of the name is "Hurai" (huray).
Easton
rejoicing of Jehovah, one of David's thirty-seven guards (2 Sam. 23:30).
HDBN
a praise; a cry
希幔 heman
代表
創36:22 代上1:39 代上6:33 代上25:4 代上25:5 詩88 代上2:6
ISBE
he-man (heman, "faithful"): The name of two men in the Old Testament.
(1) A musician and seer, a Levite, son of Joel and grandson of the prophet Samuel; of the family of the Kohathites (1 Ch 6:33), appointed by David as one of the leaders of the temple-singing (1 Ch 15:17; 2 Ch 5:12). He had 14 sons (and 3 daughters) who assisted their father in the chorus. Heman seems also to have been a man of spiritual power; is called "the kings seer in matters of God" (1 Ch 25:5; 2 Ch 35:15).
(2) One of the noted wise men prior to, or about, the time of Solomon. He was one of the three sons of Mahol (1 Ki 4:31 (Hebrew 5:11)); also called a son of Zerah (1 Ch 2:6).
Ps 88 is inscribed to Heman the Ezrahite, who is probably to be identified with the second son of Zerah.
Edward Babgy Pollard
Easton
faithful. (1.) 1 Kings 4:31; 1 Chr. 2:6, a son of Zerah, noted for his wisdom. (2.) Grandson of Samuel (1 Chr. 6:33; 15:17), to whom the 88th Psalm probably was inscribed. He was one of the "seers" named in 2 Chr. 29:14, 30, and took a leading part in the administration of the sacred services.
HDBN
their trouble; tumult; much; in great number
SBD
(faithful ) Son of Zerah. ( 1 Chronicles 2:6 ; 1 Kings 4:31 ) Son of Joel and grandson of Samuel the prophet, a Kohathite. He is called "the singer," rather the musician, ( 1 Chronicles 6:33 ) and was the first of the three Levites to whom was committed the vocal and instrumental music of the temple service in the reign of David. ( 1 Chronicles 15:16-22 ) The 88th Psalm is ascribed to him. (B.C. 1014.)
希弗 hepher
代表
民26:22 民26:32 代上4:6 代上11:36
ISBE
(chepher):
(1) Septuagint Hopher (Josh 12:17), a Canaanitish town mentioned between Tappuah and Aphek, unidentified.
(2) In 1 Ki 4:10 a district connected with Socoh, and placed by Solomon under the direction of Benhesed of Arubboth, unidentified.
Easton
a well or stream. (1.) A royal city of the Canaanites taken by Joshua (12:17). (2.) The youngest son of Gilead (Num. 26:32; 27:1). (3.) The second son of Asher (1 Chr. 4:6). (4.) One of David's heroes (1 Chr. 11:36).
HDBN
a digger
SBD
(a well ). The youngest of the sons of Gilead, ( Numbers 26:32 ) and head of the family of the Hepherites. (B.C. before 1450.) Son of Ashur, the "father of Tekoa." ( 1 Chronicles 4:6 ) (B.C. about 1445.) The Mecherathite, one of the heroes of Davids guard. ( 1 Chronicles 11:36 ) (B.C. 1046.)
希律 herod
代表
太2:1 太2:2 太2:3 太2:4 太2:5 太2:6 太2:7 太2:8 太2:9 太2:10 太2:11 太2:12 太2:13 太2:14 太2:15 太2:16 太2:17 太2:18 太2:19 太2:20 太2:22 太14:1太10 路13:31 路3:1 太14:3 徒12:1 徒12:2 徒12:3 徒12:4 徒12:5 徒12:6 徒12:7 徒12:8 徒12:9 徒12:10 徒12:11 徒12:12 徒12:13 徒12:14 徒12:15 徒12:16 徒12:17 徒
ISBE
her-ud: The name Herod (Herodes) is a familiar one in the history of the Jews and of the early Christian church. The name itself signifies "heroic," a name not wholly applicable to the family, which was characterized by craft and knavery rather than by heroism. The fortunes of the Herodiam family are inseparably connected with the last flickerings of the flame of Judaism, as a national power, before it was forever extinguished in the great Jewish war of rebellion, 70 AD. The history of the Herodian family is not lacking in elements of greatness, but whatever these elements were and in whomsoever found, they were in every ease dimmed by the insufferable egotism which disfigured the family, root and branch. Some of the Herodian princes were undeniably talented; but these talents, wrongly used, left no marks for the good of the people of Israel. Of nearly all the kings of the house of Herod it may truly be said that at their death "they went without being desired," unmissed, unmourned. The entire family history is one of incessant brawls, suspicion, intrigue arid shocking immorality. In the baleful and waning light of the rule of the Herodians, Christ lived and died, and under it the foundations of the Christian church were laid.1 Cor 11:19 m; Gal 5:20 margin, where it is shown to interfere with that unity of faith and community of interests that belong to Christians. There being but one standard of truth, and one goal for all Christian life, any arbitrary choice varying from what was common to all believers, becomes an inconsistency and a sin to be warned against. Ellicott, on Gal 5:20, correctly defines "heresies" (King James Version, the English Revised Version) as "a more aggravated form of dichostasia" (the American Standard Revised Version "parties") "when the divisions have developed into distinct and organized parties"; so also 1 Cor 11:19, translated by the Revised Version (British and American) "factions." In 2 Pet 2:1, the transition toward the subsequent ecclesiastical sense can be traced. The "destructive heresies" (Revised Version margin, the English Revised Version margin "sects of perdition") are those guilty of errors both of doctrine and of life very fully described throughout the entire chapter, and who, in such course, separated themselves from the fellowship of the church.
1. The Family Descent:
The Herodians were not of Jewish stock. Herod the Great encouraged the circulation of the legend of the family descent from an illustrious Babylonian Jew (Ant., XIV, i, 3), but it has no historic basis. It is true the Idumeans were at that time nominal Jews, since they were subdued by John Hyrcanus in 125 BC, and embodied in the Asmonean kingdom through an enforced circumcision, but the old national antagonism remained (Gen 27:41). The Herodian family sprang from Antipas (died 78 BC), who was appointed governor of Idumaea by Alexander Janneus. His son Antipater, who succeeded him, possessed al the cunning, resourcefulness and unbridled ambition of his son Herod the Great. He had an open eye for two things--the unconquerable strength of the Roman power and the pitiable weakness of the decadent Asmonean house, and on these two factors he built the house of his hopes. He craftily chose the side of Hyrcanus II in his internecine war with Aristobulus his brother (69 BC), and induced him to seek the aid of the Romans. Together they supported the claims of Pompey and, after the latters defeat, they availed themselves of the magnanimity of Caesar to submit to him, after the crushing defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus (48 BC). As a reward, Antipater received the procuratorship of Judea (47 BC), while his innocent dupe Hyrcanus had to satisfy himself with the high-priesthood. Antipater died by the hand of an assassin (43 BC) and left four sons, Phasael, Herod the Great, Joseph, Pheroras, and a daughter Salome. The second of these sons raised the family to its highest pinnacle of power and glory. Pheroras was nominally his co-regent ann, possessed of his fathers cunning, maintained himself to the end, surviving his cruel brother, but he cuts a small figure in the family history. He, as well as his sister Salome, proved an endless source of trouble to Herod by the endless family brawls which they occasioned.
2. Herod the Great:
With a different environment and with a different character, Herod the Great might have been worthy of the surname which he now bears only as a tribute of inane flattery. What we know of him, we owe, in the main, to the exhaustive treatment of the subject by Josephus in his Antiquities and Jewish War, and from Strabo and Dio Cassius among the classics. We may subsume our little sketch of Herods life under the heads of (1) political activity, (2) evidences of talent, and (3) character and domestic life.
(1) Political Activity.
Antipater had great ambitions for his son. Herod was only a young man when he began his career as governor of Galilee. Josephus statement, however, that he was only "fifteen years old" (Ant., XIV, ix, 2) is evidently the mistake of some transcriber, because we are told (XVII, viii, 1) that "he continued his life till a very old age." That was 42 years later, so that Herod at this time must have been at least 25 years old. His activity and success in ridding his dominion of dangerous bands of freebooters, and his still greater success in raising the always welcome tribute-money for the Roman government, gained for him additional power at court. His advance became rapid. Antony appointed him "tetrarch" of Judea in 41 BC, and although he was forced by circumstances temporarily to leave his domain in the hands of the Parthians and of Antigonus, this, in the end, proved a blessing in disguise. In this final spasm of the dying Asmonean house, Antigonus took Jerusalem by storm, and Phasael, Herods oldest brother, fell into his hands. The latter was governor of the city, and foreseeing his fate, he committed suicide by dashing out his brains against the walls of his prison. Antigonus incapacitated his brother Hyrcanus, who was captured at the same time, from ever holding the holy office again by cropping off his ears (Ant., XIV, xiii, 10). Meanwhile, Herod was at Rome, and through the favor of Antony and Augustus he obtained the crown of Judea in 37 BC. The fond ambition of his heart was now attained, although he had literally to carve out his own empire with the sword. He made quick work of the task, cut his way back into Judea and took Jerusalem by storm in 37 BC.
The first act of his reign was the extermination of the Asmonean house, to which Herod himself was related through his marriage with Mariamne, the grandchild of Hyrcanus. Antigonus was slain and with him 45 of his chief adherents. Hyrcanus was recalled from Babylon, to which he had been banished by Antigonus, but the high-priesthood was bestowed on Aristobulus, Herods brother-in-law, who, however, soon fell a victim to the suspicion and fear of the king (Ant., XV, iii, 3). These outrages against the purest blood in Judea turned the love of Mariamne, once cherished for Herod, into a bitter hatred. The Jews, loyal to the dynasty of the Maccabees, accused Herod before the Roman court, but he was summarily acquitted by Antony. Hyrcanus, mutilated and helpless as he was, soon followed Aristobulus in the way of death, 31 BC (Ant., XV, vi, 1). When Antony, who had ever befriended Herod, was conquered by Augustus at Actium (31 BC), Herod quickly turned to the powers that were, and, by subtle flattery and timely support, won the imperial favor. The boundaries of his kingdom were now extended by Rome. And Herod proved equal to the greater task. By a decisive victory over the Arabians, he showed, as he had done in his earlier Galilean government, what manner of man he was, when aroused to action. The Arabians were wholly crushed, and submitted themselves unconditionally under the power of Herod (Ant., XV, v, 5). Afraid to leave a remnant of the Asmonean power alive, he sacrificed Mariamne his wife, the only human being he ever seems to have loved (28 BC), his mother-in-law Alexandra (Ant., XV, vii, 8), and ultimately, shortly before his death, even his own sons by Mariamne, Alexander and Aristobulus 7 BC (Ant., XVI, xi, 7). In his emulation of the habits and views of life of the Romans, he continually offended and defied his Jewish subjects, by the introduction of Roman sports and heathen temples in his dominion. His influence on the younger Jews in this regard was baneful, and slowly a distinct partly arose, partly political, partly religious, which called itself the Herodian party, Jews in outward religious forms but Gentiles in their dress and in their whole view of life. They were a bitter offense to the rest of the nation, but were associated with the Pharisees and Sadducees in their opposition to Christ (Mt 22:16; Mk 3:6; 12:13). In vain Herod tried to win over the Jews, by royal charity in time of famine, and by yielding, wherever possible, to their bitter prejudices. They saw in him only a usurper of the throne of David, maintained by the strong arm of the hated Roman oppressor. Innumerable plots were made against his life, but, with almost superhuman cunning, Herod defeated them all (Ant., XV, viii). He robbed his own people that he might give munificent gifts to the Romans; he did not even spare the grave of King David, which was held in almost idolatrous reverence by the people, but robbed it of its treasures (Ant., XVI, vii, 1). The last days of Herod were embittered by endless court intrigues and conspiracies, by an almost insane suspicion on the part of the aged king, and by increasing indications of the restlessness of the nation. Like Augustus himself, Herod was the victim of an incurable and loathsome disease. His temper became more irritable, as the malady made progress, and he made both himself and his court unutterably miserable. The picture drawn by Josephus (Ant., XVII) is lifelike and tragic in its vividness. In his last will and testament, he remained true to his life-long fawning upon the Roman power (Ant., XVII, vi, 1). So great became his suffering toward the last that he made a fruitless attempt at suicide. But, true to his character, one of the last acts of his life was an order to execute his son Antipater, who had instigated the murder of his halfbrothers, Alexander and Aristobulus, and another order to slay, after his death, a number of nobles, who were guilty of a small outbreak at Jerusalem and who were confined in the hippodrome (Ant., XVI, vi, 5). He died in the 37th year of his reign, 34 years after he had captured Jerusalem and slain Antigonus. Josephus writes this epitaph: "A man he was of great barbarity toward all men equally, and a slave to his passions, but above the consideration of what was right. Yet was he favored by fortune as much as any man ever was, for from a private man he became a king, and though he were encompassed by ten thousand dangers, he got clear of them all and continued his life to a very old age" (Ant., XVII, viii, 1).
(2) Evidences of Talent.
The life of Herod the Great was not a fortuitous chain of favorable accidents. He was unquestionably a man of talent. In a family like that of Antipus and Antipater, talent must necessarily be hereditary, and Herod inherited it more largely than any of his brothers. His whole life exhibits in no small degree statecraft, power of organization, shrewdness. He knew men and he knew how to use them. He won the warmest friendship of Roman emperors, and had a faculty of convincing the Romans of the righteousness of his cause, in every contingency. In his own dominions he was like Ishmael, his hand against all, and the hands of all against him, and yet he maintained himself in the government for a whole generation. His Galilean governorship showed what manner of man he was, a man with iron determination and great generalship. His Judean conquest proved the same thing, as did his Arabian war. Herod was a born leader of men. Under a different environment he might have developed into a truly great man, and had his character been coordinate with his gifts, he might have done great things for the Jewish people. But by far the greatest talent of Herod was his singular architectural taste and ability. Here he reminds one of the old Egyptian Pharaohs. Against the laws of Judaism, which he pretended to obey, he built at Jerusalem a magnificent theater and an amphitheater, of which the ruins remain. The one was within the city, the other outside the walls. Thus he introduced into the ascetic sphere of the Jewish life the frivolous spirit of the Greeks and the Romans. To offset this cruel infraction of all the maxims of orthodox Judaism, he tried to placate the nation by rebuilding the temple of Zerubbabel and making it more magnificent than even Solomons temple had been. This work was accomplished somewhere between 19 BC and 11 or 9 BC, although the entire work was not finished till the procuratorship of Albinus, 62-64 AD (Ant., XV, xi, 5, 6; XX, ix, 7; Jn 2:20). It was so transcendently beautiful that it ranked among the worlds wonders, and Josephus does not tire of describing its glories (BJ, V, v). Even Titus sought to spare the building in the final attack on the city (BJ, VI, iv, 3). Besides this, Herod rebuilt and beautified Strutos Tower, which he called after the emperor, Caesarea. He spent 12 years in this gigantic work, building a theater and amphitheater, and above all in achieving the apparently impossible by creating a harbor where there was none before. This was accomplished by constructing a gigantic mole far out into the sea, and so enduring was the work that the remains of it are seen today. The Romans were so appreciative of the work done by Herod that they made Caesarea the capital of the new regime, after the passing away of the Herodian power. Besides this, Herod rebuilt Samaria, to the utter disgust of the Jews, calling it Sebaste. In Jerusalem itself he built the three great towers, Antonia, Phasaelus and Mariamne, which survived even the catastrophe of the year 70 AD. All over Herods dominion were found the evidences of this constructive passion. Antipatris was built by him, on the site of the ancient Kapharsaba, as well as the stronghold Phasaelus near Jericho, where he was destined to see so much suffering and ultimately to die. He even reached beyond his own domain to satisfy this building mania at Ascalon, Damascus, Tyre and Sidon, Tripoli, Ptolemais, nay even at Athens and Lacedaemon. But the universal character of these operations itself occasioned the bitterest hatred against him on the part of the narrowminded Jews.
(3) Characteristics and Domestic Life.
The personality of Herod was impressive, and he was possessed of great physical strength. His intellectual powers were far beyond the ordinary; his will was indomitable; he was possessed of great tact, when he saw fit to employ it; in the great crises of his life he was never at a loss what to do; and no one has ever accused Herod the Great of cowardice. There were in him two distinct individualities, as was the case with Nero. Two powers struggled in him for the mastery, and the lower one at last gained complete control. During the first part of his reign there were evidences of large-heartedness, of great possibilities in the man. But the bitter experiences of his life, the endless whisperings and warnings of his court, the irreconcilable spirit of the Jews, as well as the consciousness of his own wrongdoing, changed him into a Jewish Nero: a tyrant, who bathed his own house and his own people in blood. The demons of Herods life were jealousy of power, and suspicion, its necessary companion.
He was the incarnation of brute lust, which in turn became the burden of the lives of his children. History tells of few more immoral families than the house of Herod, which by intermarriage of its members so entangled the genealogical tree as to make it a veritable puzzle. As these marriages were nearly all within the line of forbidden consanguinity, under the Jewish law, they still further embittered the people of Israel against the Herodian family. When Herod came to the throne of Judea, Phasael was dead. Joseph his younger brother had fallen in battle (Ant., XIV, xv, 10), and only Pheroras and Salome survived. The first, as we have seen, nominally shared the government with Herod, but was of little consequence and only proved a thorn in the kings flesh by his endless interference and plotting. To him were allotted the revenues of the East Jordanic territory. Salome, his sister, was ever neck-deep in the intrigues of the Herodian family, but had the cunning of a fox and succeeded in making Herod believe in her unchangeable loyalty, although the king had killed her own son-in-law and her nephew, Aristobulus, his own son. The will of Herod, made shortly before his death, is a convincing proof of his regard for his sister (Ant., XVII, viii, 1).
His domestic relations were very unhappy. Of his marriage with Doris and of her son, Antipater, he reaped only misery, the son, as stated above, ultimately falling a victim to his fathers wrath, when the crown, for which he plotted, was practically within his grasp. Herod appears to have been deeply in love with Mariamne, the grandchild of Hyrcanus, in so far as he was capable of such a feeling, but his attitude toward the entire Asmonean family and his fixed determination to make an end of it changed whatever love Mariamne had for him into hatred. Ultimately she, as well as her two sons, fell victims to Herods insane jealousy of power. Like Nero, however, in a similar situation, Herod felt the keenest remorse after her death. As his sons grew up, the family tragedy thickened, and the court of Herod became a veritable hotbed of mutual recriminations, intrigues and catastrophes. The trials and executions of his own conspiring sons were conducted with the acquiescence of the Roman power, for Herod was shrewd enough not to make a move without it. Yet so thoroughly was the condition of the Jewish court understood at Rome, that Augustus, after the death of Mariamnes sons (7 BC), is said to have exclaimed: "I would rather be Herods hog hus than his son huios." At the time of his death, the remaining sons were these: Herod, son of Mariamne, Simons daughter; Archelaus and Antipas, sons of Malthace, and Herod Philip, son of Cleopatra of Jerusalem. Alexander and Aristobulus were killed, through the persistent intrigues of Antipater, the oldest son and heir presumptive to the crown, and he himself fell into the grave he had dug for his brothers.
By the final testament of Herod, as ratified by Rome, the kingdom was divided as follows: Archelaus received one-half of the kingdom, with the title of king, really "ethnarch," governing Judea, Samaria and Idumaea; Antipas was appointed "tetrarch" of Galilee and Peraea; Philip, "tetrarch" of Trachonitis, Gaulonitis and Paneas. To Salome, his intriguing sister, he bequeathed Jamnia, Ashdod and Phasaelus, together with 500,000 drachmas of coined silver. All his kindred were liberally provided for in his will, "so as to leave them all in a wealthy condition" (Ant., XVII, viii, 1). In his death he had been better to his family than in his life. He died unmourned and unbeloved by his own people, to pass into history as a name soiled by violence and blood. As the waters of Callirhoe were unable to cleanse his corrupting body, those of time were unable to wash away the stains of a tyrants name. The only time he is mentioned in the New Testament is in Mt 2 and Lk 1. In Matthew he is associated with the wise men of the East, who came to investigate the birth of the "king of the Jews." Learning their secret, Herod found out from the "priests and scribes of the people" where the Christ was to be born and ordered the "massacre of the innocents," with which his name is perhaps more generally associated than with any other act of his life. As Herod died in 4 BC and some time elapsed between the massacre and his death (Mt 2:19), we have here a clue to the approximate fixing of the true date of Christs birth. Another, in this same connection, is an eclipse of the moon, the only one mentioned by Josephus (Ant., XVII, vi, 4; text and note), which was seen shortly before Herods death. This eclipse occurred on March 13, in the year of the Julian Period, 4710, therefore 4 BC.
3. Herod Antipas:
Herod Antipas was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace, a Samaritan woman. Half Idumean, half Samaritan, he had therefore not a drop of Jewish blood in his veins, and "Galilee of the Gentiles" seemed a fit dominion for such a prince. He ruled as "tetrarch" of Galilee and Peraea (Lk 3:1) from 4 BC till 39 AD. The gospel picture we have of him is far from prepossessing. He is superstitious (Mt 14:1 f), foxlike in his cunning (Lk 13:31 f) and wholly immoral. John the Baptist was brought into his life through an open rebuke of his gross immorality and defiance of the laws of Moses (Lev 18:16), and paid for his courage with his life (Mt 14:10; Ant, XVIII, v, 2).
On the death of his father, although he was younger than his brother Archelaus (Ant., XVII, ix, 4 f; BJ, II, ii, 3), he contested the will of Herod, who had given to the other the major part of the dominion. Rome, however, sustained the will and assigned to him the "tetrarchy" of Galilee and Peraea, as it had been set apart for him by Herod (Ant., XVII, xi, 4). Educated at Rome with Archelaus and Philip, his half-brother, son of Mariamne, daughter of Simon, he imbibed many of the tastes and graces and far more of the vices of the Romans. His first wife was a daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia. But he sent her back to her father at Petra, for the sake of Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip, whom he had met and seduced at Rome. Since the latter was the daughter of Aristobulus, his half-brother, and therefore his niece, and at the same time the wife of another half-brother, the union between her and Antipas was doubly sinful. Aretas repaid this insult to his daughter by a destructive war (Ant., XVIII, v, 1). Herodias had a baneful influence over him and wholly dominated his life (Mt 14:3-10). He emulated the example of his father in a mania for erecting buildings and beautifying cities. Thus, he built the wall of Sepphoris and made the place his capital. He elevated Bethsaida to the rank of a city and gave it the name "Julia," after the daughter of Tiberius. Another example of this inherited or cultivated building-mania was the work he did at Betharamphtha, which he called "Julias" (Ant., XVIII, ii, 1). His influence on his subjects was morally bad (Mk 8:15). If his life was less marked by enormities than his fathers, it was only so by reason of its inevitable restrictions. The last glimpse the Gospels afford of him shows him to us in the final tragedy of the life of Christ. He is then at Jerusalem. Pilate in his perplexity had sent the Saviour bound to Herod, and the utter inefficiency and flippancy of the man is revealed in the account the Gospels give us of the incident (Lk 23:7-12; Acts 4:27). It served, however, to bridge the chasm of the enmity between Herod and Pilate (Lk 23:12), both of whom were to be stripped of their power and to die in shameful exile. When Caius Caligula had become emperor and when his scheming favorite Herod Agrippa I, the bitter enemy of Antipas, had been made king in 37 AD, Herodias prevailed on Herod Antipas to accompany her to Rome to demand a similar favor. The machinations of Agrippa and the accusation of high treason preferred against him, however, proved his undoing, and he was banished to Lyons in Gaul, where he died in great misery (Ant., XVIII, vii, 2; BJ, II, ix, 6).
4. Herod Philip:
Herod Philip was the son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem. At the death of his father he inherited Gaulonitis, Traehonitis and Paneas (Ant., XVII, viii, 1). He was Philip apparently utterly unlike the rest of the Herodian family, retiring, dignified, moderate and just. He was also wholly free from the intriguing spirit of his brothers, and it is but fair to suppose that he inherited this totally un-Herodian character and disposition from his mother. He died in the year 34 AD, and his territory was given three years later to Agrippa I, his nephew and the son of Aristobulus, together with the tetrarchy of Lysanias (Ant., XVIII, iv, 6; XIX, v, 1).
5. Herod Archelaus:
Herod Archelaus was the oldest son of Herod the Great by Malthace, the Samaritan. He was a man of violent temper, reminding one a great deal of his father. Educated like all Archelaus the Herodian princes at Rome, he was fully familiar with the life and arbitrariness of the Roman court. In the last days of his fathers life, Antipater, who evidently aimed at the extermination of all the heirs to the throne, accused him and Philip, his half-brother, of treason. Both were acquitted (Ant., XVI, iv, 4; XVII, vii, 1). By the will of his father, the greater part of the Herodian kingdom fell to his share, with the title of "ethnarch." The will was contested by his brother Antipas before the Roman court. While the matter was in abeyance, Archelaus incurred the hatred of the Jews by the forcible repression of a rebellion, in which some 3,000 people were slain. They therefore opposed his claims at Rome, but Arche1aus, in the face of all this opposition, received the Roman support (Ant., XVII, xi, 4). It is very ingeniously suggested that this episode may be the foundation of the parable of Christ, found in Lk 19:12-27. Archelaus, once invested with the government of Judea, ruled with a hard hand, so that Judea and Samaria were both soon in a chronic state of unrest. The two nations, bitterly as they hated each other, became friends in this common crisis, and sent an embassy to Rome to complain of the conduct of Archelaus, and this time they were successful. Archelaus was warned by a dream of the coming disaster, whereupon he went at once to Rome to defend himself, but wholly in vain. His government was taken from him, his possessions were all confiscated by the Roman power and he himself was banished to Vienna in Gaul (Ant., XVII, xiii, 2, 3). He, too, displayed some of his fathers taste for architecture, in the building of a royal palace at Jericho and of a village, named after himself, Archelais. He was married first to Mariamne, and after his divorce from her to Glaphyra, who had been the wife of his half-brother Alexander (Ant., XVII, xiii). The only mention made of him in the Gospels is found in Mt 2:22.
Of Herod, son of Herod the Great and Mariamne, Simons daughter, we know nothing except that he married Herodias, the daughter of his dead halfbrother Aristobulus. He is called Philip in the New Testament (Mt 14:3), and it was from him that Antipas lured Herodias away. His later history is wholly unknown, as well as that of Herod, the brother of Philip the tetrarch, and the oldest son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem.
6. Herod Agrippa I:
Two members of the Herodian family are named Agrippa. They are of the line of Aristobulus, who through Mariamne, grand-daughter of Hyrcanus, carried down the line of the Asmonean blood. And it is worthy of note that in this line, nearly extinguished by Herod through his mad jealousy and fear of the Maccabean power, the kingdom of Herod came to its greatest glory again.
Herod Agrippa I, called Agrippa by Josephus, was the son of Aristobulus and Bernice and the grandson of Herod the Great and Mariamne. Educated at Rome with Claudius (Ant., XVIII, vi, 1, 4), he was possessed of great shrewdness and tact. Returning to Judea for a little while, he came back to Rome in 37 AD. He hated his uncle Antipas and left no stone unturned to hurt his cause. His mind was far-seeing, and he cultivated, as his grandfather had done, every means that might lead to his own promotion. He, therefore, made fast friends with Caius Caligula, heir presumptive to the Roman throne, and his rather outspoken advocacy of the latters claims led to his imprisonment by Tiberius. This proved the making of his fortune, for Caligula did not forget him, but immediately on his accession to the throne, liberated Agrippa and bestowed on him, who up to that time had been merely a private citizen, the "tetrarchies" of Philip, his uncle, and of Lysanias, with the title of king, although he did not come into the possession of the latter till two more years had gone by (Ant., XVIII, vi, 10). The foolish ambition of Herod Antipas led to his undoing, and the emperor, who had heeded the accusation of Agrippa against his uncle, bestowed on him the additional territory of Galilee and Peraea in 39 AD. Agrippa kept in close touch with the imperial government, and when, on the assassination of Caligula, the imperial crown was offered to the indifferent Claudius, it fell to the lot of Agrippa to lead the latter to accept the proffered honor. This led to further imperial favors and further extension of his territory, Judea and Samaria being added to his domain, 40 AD. The fondest dreams of Agrippa had now been realized, his fathers fate was avenged and the old Herodian power had been restored to its original extent. He ruled with great munificence and was very tactful in his contact with the Jews. With this end in view, several years before, he had moved Caligula to recall the command of erecting an imperial statue in the city of Jerusalem; and when he was forced to take sides in the struggle between Judaism and the nascent Christian sect, he did not hesitate a moment, but assumed the role of its bitter persecutor, slaying James the apostle with the sword and harrying the church whenever possible (Acts 12.). He died, in the full flush of his power, of a death, which, in its harrowing details reminds us of the fate of his grandfather (Acts 12:20-23; Ant, XIX, viii, 2). Of the four children he left (BJ, II, xi, 6), three are known to history--Herod Agrippa II, king of Calchis, Bernice of immoral celebrity, who consorted with her own brother in defiance of human and Divine law, and became a byword even among the heathen (Juv. Sat. vi. 156-60), and Drusilla, the wife of the Roman governor Felix (Acts 24:24). According to tradition the latter perished in the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD, together with her son Agrippa. With Herod Agrippa I, the Herodian power had virtually run its course.
7. Herod Agrippa II:
Herod Agrippa II was the son of Herod Agrippa I and Cypros. When his father died in 44 AD he was a youth of only 17 years and considered too young to assume the government of Judea. Claudius therefore placed the country under the care of a procurator. Agrippa had received a royal education in the palace of the emperor himself (Ant., XIX, ix, 2). But he had not wholly forgotten his people, as is proven by his intercession in behalf of the Jews, when they asked to be permitted to have the custody of the official highpriestly robes, till then in the hands of the Romans and to be used only on stated occasions (Ant., XX, i, 1). On the death of his uncle, Herod of Calchis, Claudius made Agrippa II "tetrarch" of the territory, 48 AD (BJ, II, xii, 1; XIV, iv; Ant, XX, v, 2). As Josephus tells us, he espoused the cause of the Jews whenever he could (Ant., XX, vi, 3). Four years later (52 AD), Claudius extended the dominion of Agrippa by giving him the old "tetrarchies" of Philip and Lysanias. Even at Calchis they had called him king; now it became his official title (Ant., XX, vii, 1). Still later (55 AD), Nero added some Galilean and Perean cities to his domain. His whole career indicates the predominating influence of the Asmonean blood, which had shown itself in his fathers career also. If the Herodian taste for architecture reveals itself here and there (Ant., XX, viii, 11; IX, iv), there is a total absence of the cold disdain wherewith the Herods in general treated their subjects. The Agrippas are Jews.
Herod Agrippa II figures in the New Testament in Acts 25:13; 26:32. Paul there calls him "king" and appeals to him as to one knowing the Scriptures. As the brother-in-law of Felix he was a favored guest on this occasion. His relation to Bernice his sister was a scandal among Jews and Gentiles alike (Ant., XX, vii, 3). In the fall of the Jewish nation, Herod Agrippas kingdom went down. Knowing the futility of resistance, Agrippa warned the Jews not to rebel against Rome, but in vain (BJ, II, xvi, 2-5; XVII, iv; XVIII, ix; XIX, iii). When the war began he boldly sided with Rome and fought under its banners, getting wounded by a sling-stone in the siege of Gamala (BJ, IV, i, 3). The oration by which he sought to persuade the Jews against the rebellion is a masterpiece of its kind and became historical (BJ, II, xvi). When the inevitable came and when with the Jewish nation also the kingdom of Herod Agrippa II had been destroyed, the Romans remembered his loyalty. With Bernice his sister he removed to Rome, where he became a praetor and died in the year 100 AD, at the age of 70 years, in the beginning of Trajans reign.

LITERATURE.
Josephus, Josephus, Antiquities and BJ; Strabo; Dio Cassius. Among all modern works on the subject, Schurer, The Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (5 vols) is perhaps still the best.
Henry E. Dosker
HDBN
son of a hero
SBD
(hero-like ). This family though of Idumean origin and thus alien by race, was Jewish in faith. I. HEROD THE GREAT was the second son of Antipater, an Idumean, who was appointed procurator of Judea by Julius Caesar, B.C. 47. Immediately after his fathers elevation when only fifteen years old, he received the government of Galilee and shortly afterward that of Coele-Syria. Though Josephus says he was 15 years old at this time, it is generally conceded that there must be some mistake, as he lived to be 69 or 70 years old, and died B.C. 4; hence he must have been 25 years old at this time.--ED.) In B.C. 41 he was appointed by Antony tetrarch of Judea. Forced to abandon Judea the following year, he fled to Rome, and received the appointment of king of Judea. In the course of a few years, by the help of the Romans he took Jerusalem (B.C. 37), and completely established his authority throughout his dominions. The terrible acts of bloodshed which Herod perpetrated in his own family were accompanied by others among his subjects equally terrible, from the number who fell victims to them. According to the well-known story) he ordered the nobles whom he had called to him in his last moment to be executed immediately after his decease, that so at least his death might be attended by universal mourning. It was at the time of his fatal illness that he must have caused the slaughter of the infants at Bethlehem. ( Matthew 2:16-18 ) He adorned Jerusalem with many splendid monuments of his taste and magnificence. The temple, which he built with scrupulous care, was the greatest of these works. The restoration was begun B.C. 20, and the temple itself was completed in a year and a half. But fresh additions were constantly made in succeeding years, so that it was said that the temple was "built in forty and six years," ( John 2:20 ) the work continued long after Herods death. (Herod died of a terrible disease at Jericho, in April, B.C. 4, at the age of 69, after a long reign of 37 years.--ED.) II. HEROD ANTIPAS ANTIPAS was the son of Herod the Great by Malthake, a Samaritan. He first married a daughter of Aretas, "king of Arabia Petraea," but afterward Herodias, the wife of his half-brother, Herod Philip. Aretas, indignant at the insult offered to his daughter, found a pretext for invading the territory of Herod, and defeated him with great loss. This defeat, according to the famous passage in Josephus, was attributed by many to the murder of John the Baptist, which had been committed by Antipas shortly before, under the influence of Herodias. ( Matthew 14:4 ) ff.; Mark 6:17 ff.; Luke 3:19 At a later time the ambition of Herodias proved the cause of her husbands ruin. She urged him to go to Rome to gain the title of king, cf. ( Mark 6:14 ) but he was opposed at the court of Caligula by the emissaries of Agrippa, and condemned to perpetual banishment at Lugdunum, A.D. 39. Herodias voluntarily shared his punishment, and he died in exile. Pilate took occasion from our Lords residence in Galilee to bend him for examination, ( Luke 23:6 ) ff., to Herod Antipas, who came up to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover. The city of Tiberias, which Antipas founded and named in honor of the emperor, was the most conspicuous monument of his long reign. III. HEROD PHILIP I. (Philip,) ( Mark 6:17 ) was the son of Herod the Great and Mariamne. He married Herodias the sister of Agrippa I by whom he had a daughter, Salome. He was excluded from all share in his fathers possessions in consequence of his mothers treachery, and lived afterward in a private station. IV. HEROD PHILIP II. was the son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra. He received as his own government Batanea Trachonitis, Auramtis (Gaulanitis), and some parts about Jamnia, with the title of tetrarch. Luke 3:1. He built a new city on the site of Paneas, near the sources of the Jordan, which be called Caesarea Philippi, ( Matthew 16:13 ; Mark 8:27 ) and raised Bethsaida to the rank of a city under the title of Julias and died there A.D. 34. He married Salome, the daughter of Herod Philip I. and Herodias. V. HEROD AGRIPPA I. was the son of Aristobulus and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great. He was brought up at Rome, and was thrown into prison by Tiberius, where he remained till the accession of Caligula, who made him king, first of the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias; afterward the dominions of Antipas were added, and finally Judea and Samaria. Unlike his predessors, Agrippa was a strict observer of the law, and he sought with success the favor of the Jews. It is probable that it was with this view he put to death James the son of Zebedee, and further imprisoned Peter. ( Acts 12:1 ) ff. But his sudden death interrupted his ambitious projects. ( Acts 12:21 Acts 12:23 ) VI. HEROD AGRIPPA II --was the son of Herod Agrippa I. In A.D. 62 the emperor gave him the tetrarches formerly held by Philip and Lysanias, with the title of king. ( Acts 25:13 ) The relation in which he stood to his sister Berenice, ( Acts 25:13 ) was the cause of grave suspicion. It was before him that Paul was tried. ( Acts 26:28 )
希悉 hezir
代表
代上25:14 尼10:20
ISBE
he-zer:
(1) (chezir; the Septuagints Codex Vaticanus, Chezein; Codex Alexandrinus, Iezeir): A Levite in the time of David (1 Ch 24:15).
(2) Septuagint Hezeir): A chief of the people in the time of Nehemiah (Neh 10:20).
Easton
swine or strong. (1.) The head of the seventeenth course of the priests (1 Chr. 24:15). (2.) Neh. 10:20, one who sealed Nehemiah's covenant.
SBD
(Swine ). A priest in the time of David, leader of the seventeenth monthly course in the service. ( 1 Chronicles 24:15 ) (B.C. 1014.) One of the heads of the people (lay-men) who sealed the solemn covenant with Nehemiah. ( Nehemiah 10:20 ) (B.C. 410.)
希拉 hirah
代表
創38:1 創38:12
ISBE
hi-ra (chirah; Septuagint Eiras): A native of Adullam, and a "friend" of Judah (Gen 38:1,12). The Septuagint and the Vulgate (Jeromes Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) both describe him as Judahs "shepherd."
HDBN
liberty; anger
SBD
(a noble race ), an Adullamite, the friend of Judah. ( Genesis 38:1 Genesis 38:12 ) and see Genesis38:20
希拉 helah
代表
代上4:5 代上7
ISBE
he-la (chelah): A wife of Ashhur, father of Tekoa (1 Ch 4:5,7).
Easton
rust, (1 Chr. 4:5, 7), one of the wives of Ashur.
SBD
(rust ), one of the two wives of Ashur, father of Tekoa. ( 1 Chronicles 4:5 )
希拿達 henadad
代表
拉3:9
ISBE
hen-a-dad (chenadhadh, "favor of Hadad"; Septuagint Henaad; Henadad; Henadab; Henalab (Ezr 3:9; Neh 3:18,24; 10:9)): One of the heads of the Levites in the post-exilic community.
Easton
favour of Hadad, the name of a Levite after the Captivity (Ezra 3:9).
HDBN
grace of the beloved
SBD
(grace of Hadad ), the head of a family of the Levites who took a prominent part in the rebuilding of the temple. ( Ezra 3:9 )
希斯倫 hezron
代表
創46:9 初6:14 民26:6 創46:12 民26:21
Easton
enclosed. (1.) One of the sons of Reuben (Gen. 46:9; Ex. 6:14). (2.) The older of the two sons of Pharez (Gen. 46:12). (3.) A plain in the south of Judah, west of Kadesh-barnea (Josh. 15:3).
HDBN
the dart of joy; the division of the song
SBD
(surrounded by a wall ). A son of Reuben. ( Genesis 46:9 ; Exodus 6:14 ) A son of Pharez. ( Genesis 46:12 ; Ruth 4:18 )
希斯倫 hezron
代表
民26:6 創46:12 民26:21
Easton
enclosed. (1.) One of the sons of Reuben (Gen. 46:9; Ex. 6:14). (2.) The older of the two sons of Pharez (Gen. 46:12). (3.) A plain in the south of Judah, west of Kadesh-barnea (Josh. 15:3).
HDBN
the dart of joy; the division of the song
SBD
(surrounded by a wall ). A son of Reuben. ( Genesis 46:9 ; Exodus 6:14 ) A son of Pharez. ( Genesis 46:12 ; Ruth 4:18 )
希斯羅 hezro
代表
撒下23:35
Easton
a Carmelite, one of David's warriors (1 Chr. 11:37).
希斯萊 hezro
代表
代上11:37
Easton
a Carmelite, one of David's warriors (1 Chr. 11:37).
希旬 hezion
代表
王上15:18
ISBE
he-zi-on (chezyon; the Septuagints Codex Vaticanus, Azein; Codex Alexandrinus, Azael): An ancestor of Ben-hadad, king of Syria (1 Ki 15:18).
Easton
vision, the father of Tabrimon, and grandfather of Ben-hadad, king of Syria (1 Kings 15:18).
SBD
(vision ), a king of Aram (Syria), father of Tabrimon and grandfather of Ben-hadad I. ( 1 Kings 15:18 ) He is probably identical with REZON, the contemporary of Solomon, in ( 1 Kings 11:23 ) (B.C. before 928.)
希百 heber
代表
士4:17 士5:24
ISBE
he-ber (chebher, "associate" or, possibly, "enchanter"; Eber): A name occurring several times in the Old Testament as the name of an individual or of a clan.
(1) A member of the tribe of Asher and son of Beraiah (Gen 46:17; Nu 26:45; 1 Ch 7:31 f).
(2) A Kenite, husband of Jael, who deceptively slew Sisera, captain of the army of Jabin, a Canaanite king (Jdg 4:17; 5:24). He had separated himself from the main body of the Kenites, which accounts for his tent being near Kedesh, the place of Siseras disastrous battle (Jdg 4:11).
(3) Head of a clan of Judah, and son of Mered by his Jewish, as distinguished from an Egyptian wife. He was father, or founder, of Soco (1 Ch 4:18).
(4) A Benjamite, or clan or family of Elpaal belonging to Benjamin (1 Ch 8:17).
(5) Heber, of our Lords genealogy (Lk 3:35 the King James Version), better, Eber.
So, the name "Eber," `ebher, in 1 Ch 5:13; 8:22, is not to be confused with Heber, chebher, as in the foregoing passages.
Edward Bagby Pollard
Easton
passing over. (1.) Son of Beriah and grandson of Asher (Gen. 46:17; 1 Chr. 7:31, 32). (2.) The Kenite (Judg. 4:11, 17; 5:24), a descendant of Hobab. His wife Jael received Sisera (q.v.) into her tent and then killed him. (3.) 1 Chr. 4:18. (4.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:17). (5.) A Gadite (5:13). (See EBER
HDBN
one that passes; anger
SBD
(alliance ). Grandson of the patriarch Asher, ( Genesis 46:17 ; Numbers 26:45 ; 1 Chronicles 7:31 ) from whom came the Heberites. ( Numbers 26:45 ) The patriarch Eber. ( Luke 3:35 ) [EBER] The father of Socho; a Judite. ( 1 Chronicles 4:18 ) A Benjamite. ( 1 Chronicles 8:17 ) A Benjamite. ( 1 Chronicles 8:22 ) A Gadite. ( 1 Chronicles 5:13 ) The husband of Jael, who slew Sisera by driving a nail into his temple. ( Judges 4:21 Judges 4:22 )
希立 heled
代表
代上11:30
ISBE
he-led (cheledh, 1 Ch 11:30).
See HELDAI.
Easton
this world, (1 Chr. 11:30); called Heleb (2 Sam. 23:29).
希羅天 herodion
代表
羅16:11
ISBE
he-ro-di-on (Herodion; Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in Greek Hrodion): A Roman Christian to whom Paul sent greetings (Rom 16:11). The name seems to imply that he was a freedman of the Herods, or a member of the household of Aristobulus, the grandson of Herod the Great (Rom 16:10). Paul calls him "my kinsman," i.e. "a Jew" (see JUNIAS, 1).
Easton
a Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes and calls his "kinsman" (Rom. 16:11).
HDBN
the song of Juno
SBD
a relative of St. Paul, to whom he sends his salutation amongst the Christians of the Roman church. ( Romans 16:11 ) (A.D. 55.)
希羅底 herodias
代表
太14:1 太14:2 太14:3 太14:4 太14:5 太14:6 太14:7 太14:8 太14:9 太14:10 太14:11 太14:12 可6:14 可6:15 可6:16 可6:17 可6:18 可6:19 可6:20 可6:21 可6:22 可6:23 可6:24 可6:25 可6:26 可6:27 可6:28 可6:29 路3:19 路3:20
ISBE
he-ro-di-as (Herodias): The woman who compassed the death of John the Baptist at Macherus (Mt 14:1-12; Mk 6:14-29; compare also Lk 3:19,20; 9:7-9). According to the Gospel records, Herodias had previously been married to Philip, but had deserted him for his brother Herod the tetrarch. For this Herod was reproved by John (compare Lev 18:16; 20:21), and Herod, therefore, to please Herodias, bound him and cast him into prison. According to Mt 14:5 he would even then have put John to death, but "feared the multitude," which regarded John as a prophet. But Mk 6:19 f relates it was Herodias who especially desired the death of John, but that she was withstood by Herod whose conscience was not altogether dead. This latter explanation is more in harmony with the sequel. At Herods birthday feast, Herodias induced her daughter Salome, whose dancing had so charmed the tetrarch, to ask as her reward the head of John the Baptist on a charger. This was given her and she then brought it to her mother.
Herodias was daughter of Aristobulus, son of Herod the Great, by Mariamne, daughter of Hyrcanus. Her second husband (compare above) was Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea (circa 4-39 AD), son of Herod the Great by Malthace. Herod Antipus was thus the step-brother of Aristobulus, father of Herodias. Regarding the first husband of Herodias, to whom she bore Salome, some hold that the Gospel accounts are at variance with that of Josephus. In Mt 14:3; Mk 6:17; Lk 3:19, he is called Philip the brother of Herod (Antipus). But in Mt 14:3 and Lk 3:19 the name Philip is omitted by certain important manuscripts. According to Josephus, he was Herod, son of Herod the Great by Mariamne daughter of Simon the high priest, and was thus a step-brother of Herod Antipas (compare Josephus, Ant, XVIII, v, 4). It is suggested in explanation of the discrepancy (1) that Herod, son of Mariamne, bore a second name Philip, or (2) that there is confusion in the Gospels with Heroal-Philip, tetrarch of Trachonitis, who was the son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra, and who was in reality the husband of Salome, daughter of Herodias (compare also A. B. Bruce, The Expositor Greek Testament., I, 381; A. C. Headlam, article "Herod" in HDB, II, 359, 360). According to Josephus (Ant., VIII, vii, 2; XVIII, vii, 1) the ambition of Herodias proved the ruin of Herod Antipas. Being jealous of the power of Agrippa her brother, she induced Herod to demand of Caligula the title of king. This was refused through the machinations of Agrippa, and Herod was banished. But the pride of Herodias kept her still faithful to her husband in his misfortune.
C. M. Kerr
Easton
(Matt. 14:3-11; Mark 6:17-28; Luke 3:19), the daughter of Aristobulus and Bernice. While residing at Rome with her husband Herod Philip I. and her daughter, Herod Antipas fell in with her during one of his journeys to that city. She consented to leave her husband and become his wife. Some time after, Herod met John the Baptist, who boldly declared the marriage to be unlawful. For this he was "cast into prison," in the castle probably of Machaerus (q.v.), and was there subsequently beheaded.
SBD
daughter of Aristobulus, one of the sons of Mariamne and Herod the Great, and consequently sister of Agrippa I. She first married Herod Philip I.; then she eloped from him to marry Herod Antipas her step-uncle. The head of John the Baptist was granted at the request of Herodias. ( Matthew 14:8-11 ; Mark 6:24-28 ) (A.D. 29.) She accompanied Antipas into exile to Lugdunum


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary