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每日一詞 主題辭典 聖經人名 聖經地名 聖經英文

搜尋方式: 本搜尋引擎限搜尋一個字,採模糊比對。

目前本系統共收錄了 1,856 個聖經相關人名
以及 HDBN 包含了 2,616 個姓名的意義解釋。


中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
哈突 HATTUSH
代表
代上3:22 拉8:2 尼10:4 尼12:2 尼3:10
ISBE
hat-ush (chaTTush):
(1) Son of Shemaiah, a descendant of the kings of Judah, in the 5th generation from Zerubbabel (1 Ch 3:22). He returned with Zerubbabel and Ezra from Babylon to Jerusalem (Ezr 8:2; Neh 12:2). (There is some doubt as to whether the Hatrush of the lineage of David and the priest of the same name, mentioned in Neh 10:4 and 12:2, are one and the same.) He was one of those who signed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh 10:4).
(2) Son of Hashabneiah; aided Nehemiah to repair the walls of Jerusalem (Neh 3:10).
Horace J. Wolf
Easton
assembled. (1.) A priest who returned with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:2). (2.) Ezra 8:2. (3.) Neh. 3:10. (4.) Neh. 10:4. (5.) 1 Chr. 3:22.
HDBN
forsaking sin
哈米勒 HAMMELECH
代表
耶36:26 耶38:6
ISBE
ham-e-lek (ha-melekh, "the king"): Wrongly translated as a proper name in the King James Version. It should be rendered "the king," as in the American Standard Revised Version (Jer 36:26; 38:6).
Easton
the king's, the father of Jerahmeel, mentioned in Jer. 36:26. Some take this word as a common noun, "the king", and understand that Jerahmeel was Jehoiakim's son. Probably, however, it is to be taken as a proper name.
HDBN
a king; a counselor
SBD
lit. "the king, " unnecessarily rendered in the Authorized Version as a proper name. ( Jeremiah 36:26 ; 38:6 )
哈米大他 HAMMEDATHA
代表
斯3:1
ISBE
ham-e-da-tha (hammedhatha): The father of Haman (Est 3:1). He is generally termed the "Agagite"; the name is of Persian etymology, signifying "given by the moon."
Easton
father of Haman, designated usually "the Agagite" (Esther 3:1, 10; 8:5).
HDBN
he that troubles the law
SBD
(double ), father of the infamous Haman. ( Esther 3:1 Esther 3:10 ; 8:5 ; 9;24 Esther 24 )
哈羅以 HAROEH
代表
代上2:52
ISBE
ha-ro-e (ha-roeh, "the seer"): A Judahite (1 Ch 2:52).
SBD
a name occurring in the genealogical lists of Judah. ( 1 Chronicles 2:52 )
哈羅黑 HALOHESH
代表
尼3:12 尼10:24
SBD
Shallum, son of Halohesh was "ruler of the half part of Jerusalem" at the time of the repair of the wall by Nehemiah. ( Nehemiah 3:12 ) (B.C. 446.)
哈腓拉 HAVILAH
代表
創10:7 代上1:9 創10:29 代上1:23
ISBE
hav-i-la (chawilah; Heuila):
(1) Son of Cush (Gen 10:7; 1 Ch 1:9).
(2) Son of Yoktan, descendant of Shem (Gen 10:29; 1 Ch 1:23).
(3) Mentioned with Shur as one of the limits of the territory of the Ishmaelites (Gen 25:18); compare the same limits of the land of the Amalekites (1 Sam 15:7), where, however, the text is doubtful. It is described (Gen 2:11,12) as bounded by the river Pishon and as being rich in gold, bdellium and "shoham-stone" (English Version of the Bible, "onyx"). The shoham-stone was perhaps the Assyrian samtu, probably the malachite or turquoise. The mention of a Cushite Havilah is explained by the fact that the Arabian tribes at an early time migrated to the coast of Africa. The context of Gen 10:7 thus favors situation on the Ethiopian shore, and the name is perhaps preserved in the kolpos Aualites and in the tribe Abalitai on the South side of the straits of Babel-Mandeb. Or possibly a trace of the name appears in the classical Aualis, now Zeila` in Somaliland. But its occurrence among the Yoktanite Arabs (Gen 10:29) suggests a location in Arabia. South Arabian inscriptions mention a district of Khaulan (Chaulan), and a place of this name is found both in Tihama and Southeast of San`a. Again Strabos Chaulotaioi and Chuwaila in Bahrein point to a district on the Arabian shore of the Persian Gulf. No exact identification has yet been made.
A. S. Fulton
Easton
the sand region. (1.) A land mentioned in Gen. 2:11 rich in gold and bdellium and onyx stone. The question as to the locality of this region has given rise to a great diversity of opinion. It may perhaps be identified with the sandy tract which skirts Babylonia along the whole of its western border, stretching from the lower Euphrates to the mountains of Edom. (2.) A district in Arabia-Felix. It is uncertain whether the tribe gave its name to this region or derived its name from it, and whether it was originally a Cushite (Gen. 10:7) or a Joktanite tribe (10:29; comp. 25:18), or whether there were both a Cushite and a Joktanite Havilah. It is the opinion of Kalisch, however, that Havilah "in both instances designates the same country, extending at least from the Persian to the Arabian Gulf, and on account of its vast extent easily divided into two distinct parts." This opinion may be well vindicated. (3.) One of the sons of Cush (Gen. 10:7). (4.) A son of Joktan (Gen. 10:29; 1 Chr. 1:23).
HDBN
that suffers pain; that brings forth
SBD
(circle ). A son of Cush. ( Genesis 10:7 ) A son of Joktan. ( Genesis 10:29 )
哈舒巴 HASHUBAH
代表
代上3:20
ISBE
ha-shoo-ba (chashubhah, "consideration"): One of the sons of Zerubbabel (1 Ch 3:20).
Easton
ibid., a descendant of David (1 Chr. 3:20).
HDBN
estimation; thought
SBD
(intelligent ), the first of a group of five men, apparently the latter half of the family of Zerubbabel. ( 1 Chronicles 3:20 )
哈薛 HAZIEL
代表
代上23:9
ISBE
ha-zi-el (chaziel, "God sees"): A Levite of the sons of Shimei, of Davids time (1 Ch 23:9).
哈薛 HAZAEL
代表
王上19:15 王上19:17 王下8:7 王下8:8 王下8:9 王下8:10 王下8:11 王下8:12 王下8:13 王下8:14 王下8:15 王下10:32 王下12:17 王下12:18 王下13:4 王下13:5 王下13:6 王下13:7
ISBE
ha-za-el, ha-za-el, haz-a-el (chaza-el and chazah-el; Hazael; Assyrian hazailu):
1. In Biblical History:
Comes first into Biblical history as a high officer in the service of Ben-hadad II, king of Syria (2 Ki 8:7 ff; compare 1 Ki 19:15 ff). He had been sent by his sick sovereign to inquire of the prophet Elisha, who was then in Damascus, whether he should recover of his sickness or not. He took with him a present "even of every good thing of Damascus, forty camels burden," and stood before the man of God with his masters question of life or death. To it Elisha made the oracular response, "Go, say unto him, Thou shalt surely recover; howbeit Yahweh hath showed me that he shall surely die." Elisha looked steadfastly at Hazael and wept, explaining to the incredulous officer that he was to be the perpetrator of horrible cruelties against the children of Israel: "Their strongholds wilt thou set on fire, and their young men wilt thou slay with the sword, and wilt dash in pieces their little ones, and rip up their women with child" (2 Ki 8:12). Hazael protested against the very thought of such things, but Elisha assured him that Yahweh had shown him that he was to be king of Syria. No sooner had Hazael delivered to his master the answer of the man of God than the treacherous purpose took shape in his heart to hasten Ben-hadads end, and "He took the coverlet, and dipped it in water, and spread it on his face, so that he died: and Hazael reigned in his stead" (2 Ki 8:15). The reign which opened under such sinister auspices proved long and successful, and brought the kingdom of Syria to the zenith of its power. Hazael soon found occasion to invade Israel. It was at Ramoth-gilead, which had already been the scene of a fierce conflict between Israel and Syria when Ahab met his death, that Hazael encountered Joram, the king of Israel, with whom his kinsman, Ahaziah, king of Judah, had joined forces to retain that important fortress which had been recovered from the Syrians (2 Ki 9:14,15). The final issue of the battle is not recorded, but Joram received wounds which obliged him to return across the Jordan to Jezreel, leaving the forces of Israel in command of Jehu, whose anointing by Elishas deputy at Ramoth-gilead, usurpation of the throne of Israel, slaughter of Joram, Ahaziah and Jezebel, and vengeance upon the whole house of Ahab are told in rapid and tragic succession by the sacred historian (2 Ki 9; 10).
Whatever was the issue of this attack upon Ramoth-gilead, it was not long before Hazael laid waste the whole country East of the Jordan--"all the land of Gilead, the Gadites, and the Reubenites, and the Manassites, from Aroer, which is by the valley of the Arnon, even Gilead and Bashan" (2 Ki 10:33; compare Am 1:3). Nor did Judah escape the heavy hand of the Syrian oppressor. Marching southward through the plain of Esdraelon, and following a route along the maritime plain taken by many conquerors before and since, Hazael fought against Gath and took it, and then "set his face to go up to Jerus" (2 Ki 12:17). As other kings of Judah had to do with other conquerors, Jehoash, who was now on the throne, bought off the invader with the gold and the treasures of temple and palace, and Hazael withdrew his forces from Jerusalem.
Israel, however, still suffered at the hands of Hazael and Ben-hadad, his son, and the sacred historian mentions that Hazael oppressed Israel all the days of Jehoahaz, the son of Jehu. So grievous was the oppression of the Syrians that Hazael "left not to Jehoahaz, of the people save fifty horsemen, and ten chariots, and ten thousand footmen; for the king of Syria destroyed them, and made them like the dust in threshing" (2 Ki 13:1-7). Forty or fifty years later Amos, in the opening of his prophecy, recalled those Syrian campaigns against Israel when he predicted vengeance that was to come upon Damascus. "Thus saith Yahweh .... I will send a fire into the house of Hazael, and it shall devour the palaces of Ben-hadad" (Am 1:3,4).
2. In the Monuments:
Already, however, the power of Syria had passed its meridian and had begun to decline. Events of which there is no express record in the Biblical narrative were proceeding which, ere long, made it possible for the son of Jehoahaz, Joash or Jehoash, to retrieve the honor of Israel and recover the cities that had been lost (2 Ki 13:25). For the full record of these events we must turn to the Assyrian annals preserved in the monuments. We do read in the sacred history that Yahweh gave Israel "a saviour, so that they went out from under the hand of the Syrians" (2 Ki 13:5). The annals of the Assyrian kings give us clearly and distinctly the interpretation of this enigmatic saying. The relief that came to Israel was due to the crippling of the power of Syria by the aggression of Assyria upon the lands of the West. From the Black Obelisk in the British Museum, on which Shalmaneser II (860-825 BC) has inscribed the story of the campaign he carried on during his long reign, there are instructive notices of this period of Israelite history. In the 18th year of his reign (842 BC), Shalmaneser made war against Hazael. On the Obelisk the record is short, but a longer account is given on one of the pavement slabs from Nimroud, the ancient Kalab. It is as follows: "In the 18th year of my reign for the 16th time I crossed the Euphrates. Hazael of Damascus trusted to the strength of his armies and mustered his troops in full force. Senir (Hermon), a mountain summit which is in front of Lebanon, he made his stronghold. I fought with him; his defeat I accomplished; 600 of his soldiers with weapons I laid low; 1,121 of his chariots, 470 of his horses, with his camp I took from him. To save his life, he retreated; I pursued him; in Damascus, his royal city, I shut him up. His plantations I cut down. As far as the mountains of the Hauran I marched. Cities without number I wrecked, razed, and burnt with fire. Their spoil beyond count I carried away. As far as the mountains of Baal-Rosh, which is a headland of the sea (at the mouth of the Nahr el-Kelb, Dog River), I marched; my royal likeness I there set up. At that time I received the tribute of the Syrians and Sidonians and of Yahua (Jehu) the son of Khumri (Omri)" (Ball, Light from the East, 166; Schrader, COT, 200 f). From this inscription we gather that Shalmaneser did not succeed in the capture of Damascus. But it still remained an object of ambition to Assyria, and Ramman-nirari III, the grandson of Shalmaneser, succeeded in capturing it, and reduced it to subjection. It was this monarch who was "the saviour" whom God raised up to deliver Israel from the hand of Syria. Then it became possible for Israel under Jehoash to recover the cities he had lost, but by this time Hazael had died and Ben-hadad, his son, Ben-hadad III, called Mari on the monuments, had become king in his stead (2 Ki 13:24,25).

LITERATURE.
Schrader, COT, 197-208; McCurdy, HPM, I, 282 ff.
T. Nicol.
Easton
whom God beholds, an officer of Ben-hadad II., king of Syria, who ultimately came to the throne, according to the word of the Lord to Elijah (1 Kings 19:15), after he had put the king to death (2 Kings 8:15). His interview with Elisha is mentioned in 2 Kings 8. The Assyrians soon after his accession to the throne came against him and defeated him with very great loss; and three years afterwards again invaded Syria, but on this occasion Hazael submitted to them. He then turned his arms against Israel, and ravaged "all the land of Gilead," etc. (2 Kings 10:33), which he held in a degree of subjection to him (13:3-7, 22). He aimed at the subjugation also of the kingdom of Judah, when Joash obtained peace by giving him "all the gold that was found in the treasures of the house of the Lord, and in the king's house" (2 Kings 12:18; 2 Chr. 24:24). He reigned about forty-six years (B.C.886-840), and was succeeded on the throne by his son Ben-hadad (2 Kings 13:22-25), who on several occasions was defeated by Jehoash, the king of Israel, and compelled to restore all the land of Israel his father had taken.
HDBN
that sees God
哈薩瑪非 HAZARMAVETH
代表
創10:26 代上1:20
HDBN
dwelling of death
SBD
(court of death ), the third in order of the sons of Joktan ( Genesis 10:26 ) The name is preserved in the Arabic Hadramawt and Hadrumawl , the appellation of a province and an ancient people of southern Arabia. The capital is Satham, a very ancient city, and its chief ports are Mirbat, Zafari and Kisheem, from whence a great trade was carried on in ancient times with India and Africa.
哈蘇巴 HASUPHA
代表
拉2:43 尼7:46
ISBE
ha-sa-fa (chasupha): Head of a family of Nethinim among the returning exiles (Ezr 2:43; Neh 7:46). Neh 7:46 the King James Version has "Hashupha," and 1 Esdras 5:29, "Asipha."
Easton
uncovered, one of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:43; Neh. 7:46).
SBD
[See HASHUPHA]
哈蘭 HARAN
代表
創11:27 創11:28 創11:29 創11:30 創11:31 代上2:46 代上23:9
Easton
(1.) Heb. haran; i.e., "mountaineer." The eldest son of Terah, brother of Abraham and Nahor, and father of Lot, Milcah, and Iscah. He died before his father (Gen. 11:27), in Ur of the Chaldees. (2.) Heb. haran, i.e., "parched;" or probably from the Accadian charana, meaning "a road." A celebrated city of Western Asia, now Harran, where Abram remained, after he left Ur of the Chaldees, till his father Terah died (Gen. 11:31, 32), when he continued his journey into the land of Canaan. It is called "Charran" in the LXX. and in Acts 7:2. It is called the "city of Nahor" (Gen. 24:10), and Jacob resided here with Laban (30:43). It stood on the river Belik, an affluent of the Euphrates, about 70 miles above where it joins that river in Upper Mesopotamia or Padan-aram, and about 600 miles northwest of Ur in a direct line. It was on the caravan route between the east and west. It is afterwards mentioned among the towns taken by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 19:12; Isa. 37:12). It was known to the Greeks and Romans under the name Carrhae. (3.) The son of Caleb of Judah (1 Chr. 2:46) by his concubine Ephah.
HDBN
mountainous country
SBD
(a mountaineer ). The third son of Terah, and therefore youngest brother of Abram. ( Genesis 11:26 ) (B.C. 1926.) Three children are ascribed to him --Lot, vs. ( Genesis 11:27 Genesis 11:31 ) and two daughters, viz., Milcah, who married her uncle Nahor, ver. ( Genesis 11:29 ) and Iscah. ver. ( Genesis 11:29 ) Haran was born in Ur of the Chaldees, and he died there while his father was still living. ver. ( Genesis 11:28 ) A Gershonite Levite in the time of David, one of the family of Shimei. ( 1 Chronicles 23:9 ) A son of the great Caleb by his concubine Ephah. ( 1 Chronicles 2:46 ) HARAN or CHARRAN, ( Acts 7:2 Acts 7:4 ) name of the place whither Abraham migrated with his family from Ur of the Chaldees, and where the descendants of his brother Nahor established themselves. Comp. ( Genesis 24:10 ) with Genesis27:43 It is said to be in Mesopotamia, ( Genesis 24:10 ) or more definitely in Padan-aram, ch. ( Genesis 25:20 ) the cultivated district at the foot of the hills, a name well applying to the beautiful stretch of country which lies below Mount Masius between the Khabour and the Euphrates. Here, about midway in this district, is a small village still called Harran . It was celebrated among the Romans, under the name of Charrae, as the scene of the defeat of Crassus.
哈西努 HASENUAH
代表
代上9:7 尼11:9
ISBE
has-e-nu-a (haccenuah): In the King James Version (1 Ch 9:7) for HASSENUAH (which see).
Easton
bristling or hated, a Benjamite (1 Chr. 9:7).
SBD
(the hated ), a Benjamite, of one of the chief families in the tribe. ( 1 Chronicles 9:7 )
哈西努亞 SENUAH
代表
尼11:9
ISBE
se-nu-a, sen-u-a (cenuah): In the King James Version "A Benjamite" (Neh 11:9); the Revised Version (British and American) has "Hassenuah," transliterating the definite article the King James Version is to be preferred (compare 1 Ch 9:7).
SBD
(bristling , properly Hassenuah, with the definite article), a Benjamite. ( Nehemiah 11:9 )
哈西拿 HASSENAAH
代表
尼3:3
ISBE
has-e-na-a (haccenaah): In Neh 3:3 the "sons of Hassenaah" are mentioned among the builders of the wall. Probably the same as Senaah (Ezr 2:35; Neh 7:38) with the definite article, i.e. has-Senaah. The latter, from the connection, would appear to be a place-name.
See also HASSENUAH.
SBD
The Bene-Hassenaah rebuilt the fish-gate in the repair of the wall of Jerusalem. ( Nehemiah 3:3 ) (B.C. 446.)
哈該 HAGGAI
代表
該1:1 該1:2 該1:3 該1:4 該2:1 該2:2 該2:3 該2:4
ISBE
hag-a-i, hag-a-i (chaggay, an adjective formed from chagh, "feast"):
1. Name:
The word "Haggai" may mean "festal," the prophet having been born perhaps on a festival day; compare the Roman name "Festus." Hebrew proper names were sometimes formed in this manner, e.g. Barzillai, "a man of iron," from barzel, "iron." Haggai may, however, be a shortened form of Haggiah (1 Ch 6:30), meaning "festival of Yahweh," as Mattenai is an abbreviation of Mattaniah (Ezr 10:33,16). In Greek Haggaios, in Latin, Aggaeus or Aggeus, sometimes Haggaeus. Haggai is the 10th in the order of the Twelve Prophets.
2. Personal History:
Little is really known of his personal history. But we do know that he lived soon after the captivity, being the first of the prophets of the Restoration. From Hag 2:3 of his prophecies it is inferred by many that he had seen the first temple, which, as we know, was destroyed in 586 BC. If so, he must have prophesied when a comparatively old man, for we know the exact date of his prophecies, 520 BC. According to Ezr 5:1; 6:14, he was a contemporary of Zechariah, and was associated with him in the work of rebuilding the temple; besides, in the Greek and Latin and Syriac VSS, his name stands with Zechariahs at the head of certain psalms, e.g. Ps 111 (112), in the Vulgate (Jeromes Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) alone; Psalms 125; 126, in the Peshitta alone; Ps 137, in the Septuagint alone; Psalms 146; 147; 148, in Septuagint and Peshitta; and Ps 145, in Septuagint, Peshitta and Vulgate; perhaps these psalms were introduced into the temple-service on their recommendation. He was a prophet of great faith (compare 2:1-5); it is possible that he was a priest also (compare 2:10-19). Like Malachi he bears the name of "Yahwehs messenger" (Heg 1:13; compare Mal 3:1). According to Jewish tradition, he was a member of the Great Synagogue.
3. Work:
Haggais work was intensely practical and important. Yahweh employed him to awaken the conscience and stimulate the enthusiasm of his compatriots in the rebuilding of the temple. "No prophet ever appeared at a more critical juncture in the history of the people, and, it may be added, no prophet was more successful" (Marcus Dods). Zechariah assisted him (compare Hag 1:1; Zec 1:1).
4. Period and Circumstances:
Haggais prophecies, like Ezekiels, are dated "in the second year of Darius" (Hag 1:1; 2:10), i.e. 520 BC. The Jews, 42,360 strong (Ezr 2:64), had returned from Babylon 16 years before (536 BC), under the leadership of Zerubbabel, the civil head of the community, and Joshua, the ecclesiastical. The generous edict of Cyrus had made return possible (compare Ezr 1:1-4). The new colonists had settled in Jerusalem and in the neighboring towns of Bethlehem, Bethel, Anathoth, Gibeon, Kiriath-jearim, and others adjacent (Ezr 2:20 ff). Eager to reestablish the public worship of the sanctuary, they set about at once to erect the altar of burnt offering upon its old site (Ezr 3:2,3; compare Hag 2:14). Plans were also made for the immediate rebuilding of the temple, and the foundation stone was actually laid in the 2nd month of the 2nd year of the return (Ezr 3:8-10), but the work was suddenly interrupted by the jealous, half-caste, semi-pagan Samaritans, descendants of the foreign colonists introduced into Samaria in 722 BC (compare 2 Ki 17:24-41), whose offer to cooperate had been refused (Ezr 4:1-5,24). For 16 years thereafter nothing was done toward rearing the superstructure (Ezr 4:5,24; 5:16); indeed, the Jews became indifferent, and began to build for themselves "ceiled houses" (Hag 1:4). (W. H. Kosters has attempted to show that there was no return under Cyrus, and that Haggai and Zechariah, who never allude to any return, but rather look upon the return as still in the future (compare Zec 2:6,7), preached to the Jews who remained in Jerusalem, never having been carried by Nebuchadnezzar into captivity in 586 BC. But this theory is opposed by too many converging lines of Scriptural statement to warrant serious credence.) With the accession of Darius Hystaspes (i.e. Darius, the son of Hystaspes), the tide turned. Darius was a true successor to Cyrus, and favored religious freedom. Through the influence of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, the people were roused from their lethargy, and the work of rebuilding was resumed with energy in 520 BC (Hag 1:14,15). The foundations were relaid (Hag 2:18). Four years later, in the 6th year of Darius, the whole structure was completed and dedicated (Ezr 6:15). Meanwhile important events were taking place in the Persian empire. On the death (of Cambyses in 522 BC, the throne had been seized by a usurper, the so-called Pseudo-Smerdis. who held it, however, for some 7 months only. He was murdered by Darius, and the latter was elevated to the throne. But this gave other ambitious pretenders cause to rebel, and many provinces revolted, among them Susiana, Media, Assyria, Armenia, Parthia, and others (compare the famous Behistun inscription). Altogether Darius fought 19 battles in putting down his rivals, and did not succeed in vanquishing all of his foes till the year after Haggai prophesied. This accounts for the prophets repeated allusions to Yahwehs "shaking" the nations (2:6,7,21,22). Haggai seems to regard the "shaking" of the nations as the precursor of the Messianic age. It was, therefore, important from the prophets point of view, that Yahwehs temple should be made ready for the Messiahs advent, that it might become the religious center of the world (compare Isa 2:2-4). The exact date of Haggais preaching was from September to December, 520 BC.
5. Analysis:
Haggais prophecies are dated and therefore easily analyzed. They are composed of four distinct discourses, all four being delivered within 4 months time in the year 520 BC: (1) Hag 1, delivered on the 1st day of the 6th month (September), in which the prophet reproaches the people for their indifference to the work of rebuilding the temple, and warns them to consider their ways; assuring them that their procrastination was not due to want of means (1:4), and that God on account of their apathy was withholding the produce of the field (1:10). The effect of this appeal was that 24 days later, all the people, including Zerubbabel and Joshua, began the work of reconstruction (1:14,15). (2) Hag 2:1-9, delivered on the 21st day of the 7th month (October), which was about one month after the work had been resumed, and containing a note of encouragement to those who felt that the new structure was destined to be so much inferior to Solomons temple. The prophet, on the contrary, assures them that the latter glory of the new house shall eclipse that of Solomons magnificent temple, for soon a great "shaking" on Yahwehs part among the nations will usher in the Messianic age, and the precious things of all nations will flow in to beautify it (compare Heb 12:26-28). (3) Hag 2:10-19, delivered on the 24th day of the 9th month (December) which was exactly 3 months after the building had been resumed, and containing, like the first discourse, a rebuke to the people because of their indifference and inertia. The discourse is couched in the form of a parable (2:11-14), by means of which the prophet explains why the prayers of the people go unanswered. It is because they have so long postponed the completion of the temple; a taint of guilt vitiates everything they do, and blasting and mildew and hail, and consequently unfruitful seasons, are the result. On the other hand, if they will but press forward with the work, Yahweh will again bless them, and fruitful seasons will follow their revived zeal (2:19; compare Zec 8:9-12). (4) Hag 2:20-23, delivered on the 24th day of the 9th month, the very same day as that on which the discourse in 2:10-19 was delivered. The sequence is immediate. For when Yahweh "shakes" the nations, He will establish Zerubbabel, the representative of the Davidic dynasty and the object of patriotic hopes. When the heathen powers are overthrown, Zerubbabel will stand unshaken as Yahwehs honored and trusted vicegerent, and as the precious signet on Yahwehs hand (compare Jer 22:24; Song 8:6).
6. Message:
The most striking feature in Haggais message is its repeated claim of Divine origin: 5 times in the 38 verses of his prophecies, he tells us that "the word of Yahweh came" unto him (Hag 1:1,3; 2:1,10,20); 4 t, also, he used the formula, "Thus saith Yahweh of hosts" (1:2,5,7; 2:11); 5 times "saith Yahweh of hosts" (1:9; 2:6,7,9,23); and 4 times simply "saith Yahweh" (1:13; 2:4,14,17). Altogether he uses the exalted phrase "Yahweh of hosts" 14 t, besides 19 repetitions of the single but ineffable name "Yahweh." The most striking sentence in all his prophecies is probably that found in 1:13, "Then spake Haggai, Yahwehs messenger in Yahwehs message unto the people." His single purpose, as we have above seen, was to encourage the building of the temple. This he seems to have regarded as essential to the purity of Israels religion. His key-exhortation is "Consider your ways" (1:5:7; compare 2:15,18). His prophecies reflect the conditions of his age. He points to judgments as a proof of the Divine displeasure (1:9,10; 2:15-19). Unlike the earlier prophets, he does not denounce idolatry; but like his contemporary, Zechariah, and his successor, Malachi, he does lay stress on the external side of religion. Chief interest centers in the somewhat unusual parable contained in Hag 2:10-19, which teaches that holiness is not contagious, but that evil is. "The faint aroma of sanctity coming from their altar and sacrifices was too feeble to pervade the secular atmosphere of their life" (A. B. Davidson, Exile and Restoration, 82). Haggai argues that Israels sacrifices for 16 years had been unclean in Gods sight, and had brought them no blessing, because they had left the temple in ruins; and, that while a healthy man cannot give his health to another by touching him, a sick man may easily spread contagion among all those about him. The thought is suggestive. Haggai may or may not have been a priest, "but in so short a prophecy this elaborate allusion to ritual is very significant." Another very striking thought in Haggais book is his reference to Zerubbabel as Yahwehs "servant" and "signet," whom Yahweh has "chosen" (2:23). Wellhausen regards these words as an equivalent to making Zerubbabel the Messiah; but it is enough to think that the prophet is attempting only to restore him to the honorable position from which his grandfather, Jehoiachin, in Jer 22:24, had been degraded. Thus would the prophet link Zerubbabel, the political hope of the post-exilic congregation, to the royal line of Judah. Isaiah speaks of Cyrus in similar terms without any Messianic implication (Isa 44:28; 45:1). On the other hand, the implicit Messianic import of Hag 2:7,8 is recognized on all sides.
7. Style:
Haggais style is suited to the contents of his prophecies. While he is less poetical than his predecessors, yet parallelism is not altogether wanting in his sentence (Hag 2:8). Compared with the greater books of prophecy, his brief message has been declared "plain and unadorned," "tame and prosaic"; yet it must be acknowledged that he is not wanting in pathos when he reproves, or in force when he exhorts. Though he labors under a poverty of terms, and frequently repeats the same formulas, yet he was profoundly in earnest, and became the most successful in his purpose of all his class. He was especially fond of interrogation. At best we have only a summary, probably, of what he actually preached.
8. Criticism:
The critical questions involved in Haggais case are not serious: Hag 2:5a, for example, is wanting in the Septuagint; to 2:14 the Septuagint adds from Am 5:10; 2:17 is very similar to, and seems dependent on, Am 4:9; 1:7b and 13, are rejected by some as later interpolations; while Klostermann and Marti hold that the book as a whole was not written by Haggai at all, but rather about his prophetic activity, a perfectly gratuitous assumption without any substantial proof in its favor.

LITERATURE.
Driver, New Century Bible, "The Minor Prophets," II, 1906; LOT, 1909; G. A. Smith, Expositors Bible, "The Twelve Prophets," II, 1898; E. B. Pusey, The Minor Prophets, II, 1878; M. Dods, "Handbooks for Bible Classes," Hag, Zec, Mal; J. Wellhausen, Die kleinen Propheten ubersetzt u. erklart, 1898; W. Nowack, Die kleinen Propheten ubersetzt u. erklart, 1905; K. Marti, Dodekapropheton erklart, 1904; H. G. Mitchell, ICC, 1912.
George L. Robinson
Easton
festive, one of the twelve so-called minor prophets. He was the first of the three (Zechariah, his contemporary, and Malachi, who was about one hundred years later, being the other two) whose ministry belonged to the period of Jewish history which began after the return from captivity in Babylon. Scarcely anything is known of his personal history. He may have been one of the captives taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. He began his ministry about sixteen years after the Return. The work of rebuilding the temple had been put a stop to through the intrigues of the Samaritans. After having been suspended for fifteen years, the work was resumed through the efforts of Haggai and Zechariah (Ezra 6:14), who by their exhortations roused the people from their lethargy, and induced them to take advantage of the favourable opportunity that had arisen in a change in the policy of the Persian government. (See DARIUS
HDBN
feast; solemnity
哈諾 HANOCH
代表
創25:4 代上1:33 創46:9 出6:14
HDBN
dedicated
SBD
(dedicated ). The third in order of the children of Midian. ( Genesis 25:4 ) Eldest son of Reuben, ( Genesis 46:9 ; Exodus 6:14 ; Numbers 26:5 ; 1 Chronicles 5:3 ) and founder of the family of the Hanochites. ( Numbers 26:5 )
哈谷巴 HAKUPHA
代表
尼7:53
ISBE
ha-ku-fa (chaqupha "incitement"). A family name of some of the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon (Ezr 2:51; Neh 7:53).
HDBN
a commandment of the mouth
SBD
(bent ). Bene-Hakupha were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. ( Ezra 2:61 ; Nehemiah 7:63 )
哈賽雅 HAZAIAH
代表
尼11:5
ISBE
ha-za-ya (chazayah, "Jah sees"): Among the inhabitants of Jerusalem mentioned in the list of Judahites in Neh 11:5.
HDBN
seeing the Lord
SBD
(whom Jehovah sees ), a man of Judah of the family of the Shilonites, or descendants of Shelah. ( Nehemiah 11:5 )
哈路抹 HARUMAPH
代表
尼3:10
ISBE
ha-roo-maf (charumaph): Father of Jedaiah who assisted in repairing the walls of Jerusalem under Nehemiah (Neh 3:10).
HDBN
destruction
SBD
(slit-nosed ) father or ancestor of Jedaiah. ( Nehemiah 3:10 )
哈轄斯他利 HAAHASHTARI
代表
代上4:6
ISBE
ha-a-hash-ta-ri (ha-achashtari, possibly a corruption of ha-ashchuri): A descendant of Judah (1 Ch 4:6). The name is probably corrupt. If the emendation suggested above is accepted, it means the Ashurites, and is a description of the preceding names.
HDBN
a runner
SBD
(the courier ), a man or a family immediately descended from Ashur. "father of Tekoa," by his second wife Naarah. ( 1 Chronicles 4:6 ) (B.C. after 1450.)
哈迦利亞 HACHALIAH
代表
尼1:1 尼10:1
HDBN
who waits for the Lord
SBD
(whom Jehovah enlightens ), the father of Nehemiah. ( Nehemiah 1:1 ; 10:1 )
哈迦巴 HAGABA
代表
拉2:45 尼7:48
ISBE
ha-ga-ba, hag-a-ba (chaghabha): Same as the following (Neh 7:48).
SBD
(locust ). Bene Hagaba were among the Nethinim who came back from captivity with Zerubbabel. ( Nehemiah 7:48 ) The name is slightly different in form from
哈述 HASHUB
代表
尼3:11 尼3:23 尼10:23 尼11:15
ISBE
ha-shub, hash-ub.
See HASSHUB.
Easton
intelligent. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (Neh. 11:15; 1 Chr. 9:14). (2.) Neh. 3:23. 3:11.
HDBN
esteemed; numbered
SBD
(intelligent ). A son of Pahath-moab, who assisted in the repair of the wall of Jerusalem. ( Nehemiah 3:11 ) (B.C. 446.) Another who assisted in the same work. ( Nehemiah 3:23 ) One of the heads of the people who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. ( Nehemiah 10:23 ) (B.C. 410.) A Merarite Levite. ( Nehemiah 11:15 )
哈達 HADAD
代表
創36:35 創36:36 代上1:46 代上1:47
ISBE
ha-dad:
(1) (chadhadh, "sharpness"): One of the twelve sons of Ishmael (Gen 25:15, where the King James Version, following a mistake in Hebrew text, has "Hadar"; but "Hadad" is found in parallel passage 1 Ch 1:30; the Revised Version (British and American) reads "Hadad" in both places).
(2) (hadhadh): A king of Edom, son of Bedad (Gen 36:35,36 parallel 1 Ch 1:46,47), "who smote Midian in the field of Moab," and whose "city was Avith."
(3) Another king of Edom, written "Hadar" in Gen 36:39 by a copyists mistake, but "Hadad" in the parallel passage 1 Ch 1:50,51. His city was Pau or Israel.
(4) A member of the royal family of Edom in Davids time, who as a child escaped Joabs slaughter of the Edomites, and fled to Egypt. On Davids death he returned to Edom, where he made trouble for Solomon by stirring up the Edomites against the rule of Israel (1 Ki 11:14-22,25).
(5) The supreme god of Syria, whose name is found in Scripture in the names of Syrian kings, Benhadad, Hadadezer. The god Hadad (= perhaps, "maker of loud noise") is mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions, and called on the monolith of Shalmaneser "the god of Aleppo." In the Assyrian inscriptions he is identified with the air-god Rammon or Rimmon. The union of the two names in Zec 12:11 suggests this identity, though the reference is uncertain, some regarding Hadadrimmon as the name of a place, others as the name of the god--"Hadad (is) Rimmon." The name "Hadad" is found in various other forms: Adad, Dadu, and Dadda. See A. H. Sayce in HDB under the word "Hadad."
George Rice Hovey
Easton
Adod, brave(?), the name of a Syrian god. (1.) An Edomite king who defeated the Midianites (Gen. 36:35; 1 Chr. 1:46). (2.) Another Edomite king (1 Chr. 1:50, 51), called also Hadar (Gen. 36:39; 1 Chr. 1:51). (3.) One of "the king's seed in Edom." He fled into Egypt, where he married the sister of Pharaoh's wife (1 Kings 11:14-22). He became one of Solomon's adversaries. Hadad, sharp, (a different name in Hebrew from the preceding), one of the sons of Ishmael (1 Chr. 1:30). Called also Hadar (Gen. 25:15).
HDBN
joy; noise; clamor
SBD
(mighty ), originally the indigenous appellation of the sun among the Syrians, and thence transferred to the king as the highest of earthly authorities. The title appears to have been an official one, like Pharaoh. It is found occasionally in the altered form Hadar. ( Genesis 25:15 ; 36:39 ) compared with 1Chr 1:30,50 Son of Ishmael. ( Genesis 25:15 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 ) A king of Edom who gained an important victory over the Midianites on the field of Moab. ( Genesis 36:35 ; 1 Chronicles 1:46 ) Also a king of Edom, with Pau for his capital. ( 1 Chronicles 1:50 ) A member of the royal house Or Edom. ( 1 Kings 11:14 ) ff. In his childhood he escaped the massacre under Joab, and fled with a band of followers into Egypt. Pharaoh, the predecessor of Solomons father-in-law, treated him kindly, and gave him his sister-in-law in marriage. After Davids death Hadad resolved to attempt the recovery of his dominion. He left Egypt and returned to his own country.


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary