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每日一詞 主題辭典 聖經人名 聖經地名 聖經英文

搜尋方式: 本搜尋引擎限搜尋一個字,採模糊比對。

目前本系統共收錄了 1,856 個聖經相關人名
以及 HDBN 包含了 2,616 個姓名的意義解釋。


中文名字 英文名字 查詢經文 代表經文 Nave's Topical Bible ISBE Easton HBND SDB
西門 SIMON
代表
約6:71 約1:41 太13:55 可6:3 路6:15 徒1:13 路7:40 可14:3 太27:32 可15:21 徒8:9 徒8:10 徒8:11 徒8:1213 徒8:14 徒8:15 徒8:16 徒8:17 徒8:18 徒8:19 徒8:20 徒8:21 徒8:22 徒8:23 徒8:24 徒9:43 徒10:6 徒10:17 徒10:32
Easton
the abbreviated form of Simeon. (1.) One of the twelve apostles, called the Canaanite (Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:18). This word "Canaanite" does not mean a native of Canaan, but is derived from the Syriac word Kanean or Kaneniah, which was the name of a Jewish sect. The Revised Version has "Cananaean;" marg., "or Zealot" He is also called "Zelotes" (Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13; R.V., "the Zealot"), because previous to his call to the apostleship he had been a member of the fanatical sect of the Zealots. There is no record regarding him. (2.) The father of Judas Iscariot (John 6:71; 13:2, 26). (3.) One of the brothers of our Lord (Matt. 13:55; Mark 6:3). (4.) A Pharisee in whose house "a woman of the city which was a sinner" anointed our Lord's feet with ointment (Luke 7:36-38). (5.) A leper of Bethany, in whose house Mary anointed our Lord's head with ointment "as he sat at meat" (Matt. 26:6-13; Mark 14:3-9). (6.) A Jew of Cyrene, in North Africa, then a province of Libya. A hundred thousand Jews from Palestine had been settled in this province by Ptolemy Soter (B.C. 323-285), where by this time they had greatly increased in number. They had a synagogue in Jerusalem for such of their number as went thither to the annual feasts. Simon was seized by the soldiers as the procession wended its way to the place of crucifixion as he was passing by, and the heavy cross which Christ from failing strength could no longer bear was laid on his shoulders. Perhaps they seized him because he showed sympathy with Jesus. He was the "father of Alexander and Rufus" (Matt. 27:32). Possibly this Simon may have been one of the "men of Cyrene" who preached the word to the Greeks (Acts 11:20). (7.) A sorcerer of great repute for his magical arts among the Samaritans (Acts 8:9-11). He afterwards became a professed convert to the faith under the preaching of Philip the deacon and evangelist (12, 13). His profession was, however, soon found to be hollow. His conduct called forth from Peter a stern rebuke (8:18-23). From this moment he disappears from the Church's history. The term "Simony," as denoting the purchase for money of spiritual offices, is derived from him. (8.) A Christian at Joppa, a tanner by trade, with whom Peter on one occasion lodged (Acts 9:43). (9.) Simon Peter (Matt. 4:18). See PETER
HDBN
that hears; that obeys
SBD
(contracted form of Simeon, a hearing ). Son of Mattathias. [MACCABEES] Son of Onias the high priest, whose eulogy closes the "praise of famous men" in the book of Ecclesiasticus, ch. 4. (B.C. 302-293.) A "governor of the temple" in the time of Seleucus Philopator, whose information as to the treasures of the temple led to the sacrilegious attach of Heliordorus. 2 Macc. 3:4, etc. (B.C. 175.) Simon the brother of Jesus. The only undoubted notice of this Simon occurs in ( Matthew 13:55 ; Mark 6:3 ) He has been identified by some writers with Simon the Canaanite, and still more generally with Symeon who became bishop of Jerusalem after the death of James, A.D. 62. The former of these opinions rests on no evidence whatever, nor is the later without its difficulties. Simon the Canaanite, one of the twelve apostles, ( Matthew 10:4 ; Mark 3:18 ) otherwise described as Simon Zelotes, ( Luke 6:15 ; Acts 1:13 ) (A.D. 28.) The latter term, which is peculiar to Luke, is the Greek equivalent for the Chaldee term preserved by Matthew and Mark. [CANAANITE] Each of these equally points out Simon as belonging to the faction of the Zealots, who were conspicuous for their fierce advocacy of the Mosaic ritual. Simon of Cyrene, a Hellenistic Jew, born at Cyrene, on the north coast of Africa, who was present at Jerusalem at the time of the crucifixion of Jesus, either as an attendant at the feast, ( Acts 2:10 ) or as one of the numerous settlers at Jerusalem from that place. ( Acts 6:9 ) (A.D. 30.) Meeting the procession that conducted Jesus to Golgotha, as he was returning from the country, he was pressed into the service to bear the cross, ( Matthew 27:32 ; Mark 15:21 ; Luke 23:26 ) when Jesus himself was unable to carry it any longer. Comp. ( John 19:17 ) Mark describes him as the father of Alexander and Rufus, perhaps because this was the Rufus known to the Roman Christians, ( Romans 16:13 ) for whom he more especially wrote. Simon, a resident at Bethany, distinguished as "the leper." It is not improbable that he had been miraculously cured by Jesus. In his house Mary anointed Jesus preparatory to his death and burial. ( Matthew 26:6 ) etc.; Mark 14:3 etc.; John 12:1 etc. Simon Magus, a Samaritan living in the apostolic age, distinguished as a sorcerer or "magician," from his practice of magical arts. ( Acts 8:9 ) According to ecclesiastical writers he was born at Gitton, a village of Samaria, and was probably educated at Alexandria in the tenets of the Gnostic school. He is first introduced to us as practicing magical arts in a city of Samaria, perhaps Sychar, ( Acts 8:5 ) comp. John 4:5 and with such success that he was pronounced to be "the power of God which is called great." ( Acts 8:10 ) The preaching and miracles of Philip having excited his observation, he became one of his disciples, and received baptism at his hands, A.D. 36,37. Subsequently he witnessed the effect produced by the imposition of hands, as practiced by the apostles Peter and John, and, being desirous of acquiring a similar power for himself, he offered a sum of money for it. His object evidently was to apply the power to the prosecution of magical arts. The motive and the means were equally to be reprobated; and his proposition met with a severe denunciation from Peter, followed by a petition on the part of Simon, the tenor of which bespeaks terror, but not penitence. ( Acts 8:9-24 ) The memory of his peculiar guilt has been perpetuated in the word simony , as applied to all traffic in spiritual offices. Simons history, subsequent to his meeting with Peter, is involved in difficulties. Early Church historians depict him as the pertinacious foe of the apostle Peter, whose movements he followed for the purpose of seeking encounters, in which he was signally defeated. He is said to have followed the apostle to Rome. His death is associated with this meeting. According to Hippolytus, the earliest authority on the subject, Simon was buried alive at his own request, in the confident assurance that he would rise on the third day. Simon Peter. [PETER] Simon, a Pharisee, in whose house a penitent woman anointed the head and feet of Jesus. ( Luke 7:40 ) Simon the tanner, a Christian convert living at Joppa, at whose house Peter lodged. ( Acts 9:43 ) The house was near the seaside, ( Acts 10:6 Acts 10:32 ) for the convenience of the water. (A.D. 37.) Simon the father of Judas Iscariot. ( John 6:71 ; John 13:2 John 13:26 )
西門彼德 SIMON PETER
代表
路5:8 約1:40 約13:6 約13:24 約13:36 約18:10 約18:15 約18:25 約20:2 約20:6
ISBE
See PETER, SIMON.
西面 SIMEON
代表
路2:25 徒13:1
Easton
hearing. (1.) The second son of Jacob by Leah (Gen. 29:33). He was associated with Levi in the terrible act of vengeance against Hamor and the Shechemites (34:25, 26). He was detained by Joseph in Egypt as a hostage (42:24). His father, when dying, pronounced a malediction against him (49:5-7). The words in the Authorized Version (49:6), "they digged down a wall," ought to be, as correctly rendered in the Revised Version, "they houghed an ox." (2.) An aged saint who visited the temple when Jesus was being presented before the Lord, and uttered lofty words of thankgiving and of prophecy (Luke 2:29-35). (3.) One of the ancestors of Joseph (Luke 3:30). (4.) Surnamed Niger, i.e., "black," perhaps from his dark complexion, a teacher of some distinction in the church of Antioch (Acts 13:1-3). It has been supposed that this was the Simon of Cyrene who bore Christ's cross. Note the number of nationalities represented in the church at Antioch. (5.) James (Acts 15:14) thus designates the apostle Peter (q.v.).
HDBN
that hears or obeys; that is heard
SBD
(heard ). The second of Jacobs son by Leah. His birth is recorded in ( Genesis 29:33 ) The first group of Jacobs children consists, besides Simeon, of the three other sons of Leah --Reuben, Levi, Judah. Besides the massacre of Shechem, ( Genesis 34:25 ) the only personal incident related of Simeon is the fact of his being selected by Joseph as the hostage for the appearance of Benjamin. ( Genesis 42:19 Genesis 42:24 Genesis 42:36 ; 43:23 ) The chief families of the tribe of Simeon are mentioned int he lists of ( Genesis 46:10 ) At the census of Sinai Simeon numbered 59,300 fighting men. ( Numbers 1:23 ) When the second census was taken, at Shittim, the numbers had fallen to 22,200, and it was the weakest of all the tribes. This was no doubt partly due to the recent mortality following the idolatry of Peor, but there must have been other causes which have escaped mention. To Simeon was allotted a portion of land out of the territory of Judah, on its southern frontier, which contained eighteen or nineteen cities, with their villages, spread round the venerable well of Beersheba. ( Joshua 19:1-8 ; 1 Chronicles 4:28-33 ) Of these places, with the help of Judah, the Simeonites possessed themselves, ( Judges 1:3 Judges 1:17 ) and there they were found, doubtless by Joab, residing in the reign of David. ( 1 Chronicles 4:31 ) What part of the tribe took at the time of the division of the kingdom we are not told. The only thing which can be interpreted into a trace of its having taken any part with the northern kingdom are the two casual notices of ( 2 Chronicles 15:9 ) and 2Chr 34:6 which appear to imply the presence of Simeonites there in the reigns of Asa and Josiah. On the other hand the definite statement of ( 1 Chronicles 4:41-43 ) proves that at that time there were still some of them remaining in the original seat of the tribe, and actuated by all the warlike, lawless spirit of their progenitor. A devout Jew, inspired by the Holy Ghost, who met the parents of our Lord in the temple, took him in his arms, and gave thanks for what he saw and knew of Jesus. ( Luke 2:25-35 ) There was a Simeon who succeeded his father Hillel as president of the Sanhedrin about A.D. 13, and whose son Gamaliel was the Pharisee at whose feet St. Paul was brought up. ( Acts 22:3 ) It has been conjectured that he may be the Simeon of St. Luke.
西頓 SIDON
代表
創10:15
Easton
fishing; fishery, Gen. 10:15, 19 (A.V. marg., Tzidon; R.V., Zidon); Matt. 11:21, 22; Luke 6:17. (See ZIDON
HDBN
hunting; fishing; venison
SBD
the Greek form of the Phoenician name Zidon. [ZIDON]
西鹿 SERUG
代表
創11:20 創11:21創11:22 創11:23 代上1:26 路3:35
ISBE
se-rug (serugh; Serouch): Son of Reu and great-grandfather of Abraham (Gen 11:20 ff; 1 Ch 1:26; Lk 3:35).
Easton
branch, the father of Nahor (Gen. 11:20-23); called Saruch in Luke 3:35.
HDBN
branch; layer; twining
SBD
(branch ), son of Reu and great grandfather of Abraham. His age is given in the Hebrew Bible as 230 years. ( Genesis 11:20-23 ) (B.C. 2180.)
託戶 TOHU
代表
撒上1:1 代上6:34 代上6:26
ISBE
to-hu.
See NAHATH.
Easton
one of Samuel's ancestors (1 Sam. 1:1).
HDBN
that lives; that declares
SBD
(lowly ), an ancestor of Samuel the prophet, perhaps the same as TOAH. ( 1 Samuel 1:1 ) comp. 1Chr 6:34
設巴薩 SHESHBAZZAR
代表
拉1:8 拉1:11 拉5:14 拉5:16
ISBE
shesh-baz-ar (shesh-batstsar or sheshbatstsar): Sheshbazzar is the Hebrew or Aramaic form of the Babylonian Shamash-aba-ucur, or Shamash-bana-ucur: "Oh Shamash, protect the father." It is possible that the full name was Shamash-ban-zeri-Babili-ucur, "Oh Shamash, protect the father (builder) of the seed of Babylon." (See Zerubbabel, and Compare the Babylonian names Ashur-banaucur, Ban-ziri, Nabu-ban-ziri, Shamash-ban-apli, Shamash-apil-ucur, Shamash-ban-achi, and others in Tallquists Neubabylonisches Namenbuch, and the Aramaic names on numbers 35, 44, 36, and 45 of Clays Aramaic Dockets.) If this latter was the full name, there would be little doubt that Sheshbazzar may have been the same person as Zerubbabel, since the former is called in Ezr 5:14 the governor of Judah, and the latter is called by the same title in Hag 1:1,14; 2:2,21. It is more probable, however, that Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel were different persons, and that Sheshbazzar was governor of Judah in the time of Cyrus and Zerubbabel in that of Darius. It is possible that Sheshbazzar came to Jerusalem in the time of Cyrus and laid the foundations, and that Zerubbabel came later in the time of Darius Hystaspis and completed the building of the temple (compare Ezr 2:68; 4:2; Hag 1:14).
According to Ezr 1:8 Sheshbazzar was the prince (Hannasi) of Judah into whose hands Cyrus put the vessels of the house of the Lord which Nebuchadnezzar had brought forth out of Jerusalem and had put in the house of his gods. It is further said in 1:11 that Sheshbazzar brought these vessels with them of the captivity which he brought up from Babylon to Jerusalem. In Ezr 5:14 f it is said that these vessels had been delivered by Cyrus unto one whose name was Sheshbazzar, whom he had made governor (pechah), and that Sheshbazzar came and laid the foundations of the house of God which was in Jerusalem.
See SANABASSAR.
R. Dick Wilson
Easton
O sun-god, defend the lord! (Ezra 1:8, 11), probably another name for Zerubbabel (q.v.), Ezra 2:2; Hag. 1:12, 14; Zech. 4:6, 10.
HDBN
joy in tribulation; joy of the vintage
SBD
(worshipper of fire ), the Chaldean or Persian name given to Zerubbabel in ( Ezra 1:8 Ezra 1:11 ; Ezra 6:14 Ezra 6:18 ) [ZERUBBABEL]
許米乃 HYMEN-EUS
代表
提前1:20 提後2:17
該亞法 CAIAPHAS
代表
約44:49 約18:13 太26:3 徒4:6
ISBE
ka-a-fas, ki-a-fas (Kaiaphas; Caiaphas = Kephas (compare Dods in Expositors Greek Test, I, 803), and has also been interpreted as meaning "depression"): Caiaphas was the surname of Joseph, a son-in-law of Annas (compare Jn 18:13), who filled th e post of high priest from about 18-36 AD, when he was deposed by Vitellius (compare Josephus, Ant, XVIII, ii, 2; iv, 3). He is mentioned by Luke as holding office at the time of John the Baptists preaching in the wilderness (Lk 3:2).
Caiaphas took a leading part in the trial and condemnation of Jesus. It was in his court or palace that the chief priests (Sadducees) and Pharisees, who together constituted the Sanhedrin, assembled "that they might take Jesus by subtlety, and kill him" (compare Mt 26:3,4; Jn 11:49). The regal claims of the new Messiah and the growing fame of His works had made them to dread both the vengeance of imperial Rome upon their nation, and the loss of their own personal authority and prestige (compare Jn 11:48). But Caiaphas pointed a way out of their dilemma: let them bide their time till the momentary enthusiasm of the populace was spent (compare Mt 26:5), and then by the single sacrifice of Jesus they could at once get rid of a dangerous rival and propitiate the frowns of Rome (compare Jn 11:49,50; 18:14). The commentary of John upon this (Jn 11:51,52) indicates how the death of Jesus was indeed to prove a blessing not only for Israel but also for all the children of God; but not in the manner which the cold-blooded statecraft of Caiaphas intended. The advice of the high priest was accepted by the Sanhedrin (Jn 11:53), and they succeeded in arresting Jesus. After being led "to Annas first" (Jn 18:13), Jesus was conducted thence in bonds to Caiaphas (Jn 18:24), According to Mt He was led immediately upon His arrest to Caiaphas (Mt 26:57). Mk and Lk do not refer to Caiaphas by name. His conduct at this preliminary trial of Jesus (Mt 26:57-68), its time and its procedure, were almost entirely illegal from the standpoint of then existing Jewish law (compare JESUS CHRIST, THE ARREST AND TRIAL OF; and A. Taylor Innes, The Trial of Jesus Christ). False witnesses were first called, and when Jesus refused to reply to their charges, Caiaphas asked of Him if He were "the Christ, the Son of God " (Mt 26:63). Upon our Lords answering "Thou hast said" (Mt 26:64), Caiaphas "rent his garments, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy: what further need have we of witnesses? behold, now ye have heard the blasphemy" (Mt 26:65). Upon this charge was Jesus found "worthy of death" (Mt 26:66). Caiaphas is also mentioned in Acts 4:6 as being among those who presided over the trial of Peter and John.
C. M. Kerr
Easton
the Jewish high priest (A.D. 27-36) at the beginning of our Lord's public ministry, in the reign of Tiberius (Luke 3:2), and also at the time of his condemnation and crucifixion (Matt. 26:3,57; John 11:49; 18:13, 14). He held this office during the whole of Pilate's administration. His wife was the daughter of Annas, who had formerly been high priest, and was probably the vicar or deputy (Heb. sagan) of Caiaphas. He was of the sect of the Sadducees (Acts 5:17), and was a member of the council when he gave his opinion that Jesus should be put to death "for the people, and that the whole nation perish not" (John 11:50). In these words he unconsciously uttered a prophecy. "Like Saul, he was a prophet in spite of himself." Caiaphas had no power to inflict the punishment of death, and therefore Jesus was sent to Pilate, the Roman governor, that he might duly pronounce the sentence against him (Matt. 27:2; John 18:28). At a later period his hostility to the gospel is still manifest (Acts 4:6). (See ANNAS
SBD
or Ca-iaphas (depression ), in full JOSEPH CAIAPHAS, high priest of the Jews under Tiberius. ( Matthew 26:3 Matthew 26:57 ; John 11:49 ; John 18:13 John 18:14 John 18:24 John 18:28 ; Acts 4:6 ) The procurator Valerius Gratus appointed him to the dignity, He was son-in-law of Annas. [ANNAS]
該南 KENAN
代表
路3:37 路3:38 路3:36
ISBE
ke-nan (qenan; Kainan) : A son of Enosh, the son of Seth (Gen 5:9,10,12,13,14; 1 Ch 1:2). the King James Version form (except in 1 Ch 1:2), is "Cainan."
HDBN
buyer; owner
SBD
(possession ) = CAINAN, the son of Enos. ( 1 Chronicles 1:2 )
該猶 GAIUS
代表
徒19:29 徒10:4 林前1:14 羅16:23 約參1
ISBE
ga-yus (Gaios; Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in Greek, Gaios):
(1) The Gaius to whom 3 Jn is addressed. He is spoken of as "the beloved" (3 Jn 1:1,2,5,11), "walking in the truth" (3 Jn 1:3,4), and doing "a faithful work" "toward them that are brethren and strangers withal" (3 Jn 1:5,6). He has been identified by some with the Gaius mentioned in the Apostolical Constitutions (VII, 46), as having been appointed bishop of Pergamum by John.
(2) Gaius of Macedonia, a "companion in travel" of Paul (Acts 19:29). He was one of those who were seized by Demetrius and the other silversmiths in the riot at Ephesus, during Pauls third missionary journey.
(3) Gaius of Derbe, who was among those who accompanied Paul from Greece "as far as Asia," during his third missionary journey (Acts 20:4). In the corresponding list given in the "Contendings of Paul" (compare Budge, Contendings of the Twelve Apostles, II, 592), the name of this Gaius is given as "Gallius."
(4) Gaius, the host of Paul when he wrote the Epistle to the Roman, and who joined in sending his salutations (Rom 16:23). As Paul wrote this epistle from Corinth, it is probable that this Gaius is identical with (5).
(5) Gaius, whom Paul baptized at Corinth (1 Cor 1:14).
C. M. Kerr
Easton
(1.) A Macedonian, Paul's fellow-traveller, and his host at Corinth when he wrote his Epistle to the Romans (16:23). He with his household were baptized by Paul (1 Cor. 1:14). During a heathen outbreak against Paul at Ephesus the mob seized Gaius and Aristarchus because they could not find Paul, and rushed with them into the theatre. Some have identified this Gaius with No. (2). (2.) A man of Derbe who accompanied Paul into Asia on his last journey to Jerusalem (3.) A Christain of Asia Minor to whom John addressed his third epistle (3 John 1:1).
HDBN
lord; an earthly man
SBD
or Caius (lord )-- A Macedonian who accompanied Paul in his travels, and whose life was in danger from the mob at Ephesus. ( Acts 19:29 ) (A.D. 54.) Of Derbe. He went with Paul from Corinth in his last journey to Jerusalem. ( Acts 20:4 ) (A.D. 54.) Of Corinth, whom Paul baptized and who was his host in his second journey in that city. ( 1 Corinthians 1:14 ; Romans 16:23 ) (These are supposed by some to be only one person.) Johns third epistle is addressed to Christian of this name. We may possibly identify him with No. 2.
該隱 CAIN
代表
創4:1 創4:2 創4:3 創4:4 創4:5 創4:6 創4:7 創4:8 創4:9 創4:10 創4:11 創4:12 創4:13 創4:14 創4:15 創4:16 創4:17 來11:4
ISBE
kan (qayin, "spear" or "smith," resembling in sound the root qanah, "get," "acquire," Gen 4:1 the Revised Version, margin, but not necessarily derived from that root; Septuagint Kain):
1. The Scripture Narrative:
(1) In Gen 4:1-24 Cain is the first son of Adam and Eve. His birth is hailed as a manifestation of Yahwehs help. He becomes "a tiller of the ground," and brings to Yahweh an offering of the produce of the soil, his brother Abel, the shepherd, bringing at the same time the fat of the first-born of his own flock. From Cain and from his offering Yahweh withholds the sign of acceptance which he grants to Abel. That the ground of this difference of treatment is to be found (so Heb 11:4) in Cains lack of right disposition toward Yahweh is shown by his behavior (see ABEL). Instead of humbling himself he gives signs of strong indignation at Yahwehs refusal to favor him. Under the just rebuke of Yahweh he hardens his heart and is further confirmed in impenitence. His jealousy of Abel, unrepented of, increases until it culminates in deliberate murder. Deliberate, for in Gen 4:8 we must restore a clause to the Hebrew text, all the ancient versions bearing witness, and read "And Cain said unto Abel his brother, Let us go into the field," etc. In the vain attempt to conceal his crime Cain adds falsehood to his other sins. He is cursed "from," i.e. away from, that soil upon which he poured out his brothers blood, and must become a fugitive and a wanderer, far from the immediate presence of Yahweh. Although his remonstrance against the severity of his sentence displays no genuine contrition, still Yahweh in pity appoints a "sign" for his protection. Cain takes up his abode in the land of Nod ("wandering"), and there builds a city and becomes the ancestor of a line which includes Jabal, forefather of tent-dwelling cattle-keepers; Jubal, forefather of musicians; Tubal-cain, forefather of smiths; and Lamech, like Cain, a man of violence. In Cains character we see "a terrible outburst of selfwill, pride, and jealousy, leading to a total and relentless renunciation of all human ties and affection." "Among the lessons or truths which the narrative teaches may be instanced: the nature of temptation, and the manner in which it should be resisted; the consequences to which an unsubdued temper may lead a man; the gradual steps by which in the end a deadly crime may be committed; the need of sincerity of purpose lest our offering should be rejected; Gods care for the guilty sinner after he has been punished; the interdependence upon one another of members of the human race; and the duties and obligations which we all owe to each other" (Driver). In Heb 11:4 Cains spiritual deficiency is pointed out; 1 Jn 3:12 observes his envy and jealousy, as "of the wicked one," and Jude 1:11 makes him a very type of the ungodly.
2. Difficulties:
With few and bold strokes the story of Cain as it stands paints for us the character of the first of murderers and the scene of his detection and condemnation. To the religious purpose of the narrative all other things are made tributary. But if we can not refrain from putting the familiar question, Who was Cains wife? it is aIso impossible upon close study of Gen 4, as it stands, to avoid asking what was the nature of the sign of Yahwehs acceptance (verse 4), or of the "sign" appointed for Cain (verse 15); or what we are to think of the introduction in the midst of the narrative, without explanation, of such important institutions as sacrifice (verses 3,4) and blood-revenge (verse 14); who were the persons of whom Cain stood in fear (verse 14); who inhabited the city he built (verse 17); how the wanderer and fugitive could become the city-builder; and why the shepherd life should be represented as beginning with Abel (verse 2) and again with Jabal (verse 20); also whether the narrator means that not only the collection of men in cities (verse 17), but also animal husbandry, music and metal-working (verse 20-22) are to be looked upon with disfavor as having sprung from Cain or from his descendants? Most of these questions find their answers in one consideration: the narrative is not exhaustively complete and is not intended to be so. That a large body of racial traditions existed, from which, with the severest condensation, the author of Gen selected his material, is the conclusion forced by close examination of the Gen narrative and comparison of it with the most ancient extant traditions. "In Gen 4 these old stories are not told for their own sakes. The incompleteness and the difficulties left unsolved do not allow this assumption to be made. They form simply the material foundation, to which higher ideas and doctrines are attached" (Dillmann).
3. Critical Theories:
Without going outside the Scripture text we may find strong evidence that the narrative under consideration is founded in part upon ancient sources. Let the line of Cain (Gen 4:17-24) be compared with that of Seth (Gen 5:1-29):
The Hebrew forms of the names show even more clearly that Cain = Kenan, Irad = Jared, Methushael = Methuselah; a single transposition, that of the first and third names after Cain, brings the two Enochs together, and likewise the similar names Mehujael and Mahalalel. Thus we have six names nearly or quite identical; seven ancestors in one list and ten in the other, ending in both cases with a branching into three important characters. Resemblances equally certain, though not by any means so obvious, exist between the names in this double list and the names of the ten kings of Babylonia who reigned before the Flood, as the latter are given by Berosus, the Babylonian historian of the 3rd century BC (see Skinner, Driver, Sayce as below). Thus one source of which the author in Gen 4 made use appears to have been an ancient list in genealogical form, by which the first of mankind was linked with the beginnings of civilized institutions and articles Another part of his material was the story of a brothers murder of a brother (4:1-16). Many maintain at this point that the narrative must be based upon the doings of tribes, rather than of individuals. It is true that not seldom in the Old Testament tribal history is related under individual names (compare Gen 49;, Jgs 1, and the tables of tribes in Gen 25:1-4; 36); yet the tribe referred to can hardly be the Kenites of the Old Testament, who appear as the close allies of Israel, not especially bloodthirsty or revengeful, and haunted by no shadow of early crime against a brother tribe (see KENITES). The indications in Gen 4:1-16 of a developed state of society and a considerable population may go to show that the narrative of the murder was not originally associated with the sons of the first man. Thus there is room to suppose that in the process of condensation and arrangement Cain, son of Adam; Cain, the murderer; and Cain, city-builder and head of a line of patriarchs, have been made one. The critical conclusions here epitomized are indeed reached by a delicate and difficult process; but it is asserted in their favor that they make possible the removal of difficulties which could be explained in no other manner. The question which will arise with many, What theory of inspiration can be held consistently with the application of such critical processes? is dealt with at length by most modern commentators (see CRITICISM; INSPIRATION).

LITERATURE.
A. Dillmann, Genesis (English translation); S. R. Driver, Genesis ("Westminster Commentaries"); H. E. Ryle, Early Narratives of Genesis; J. Skinner, Genesis (ICC); A. H. Sayce, "Archaeology of the Book of Genesis," The Expositor T, August, 1910, June, 1911.
(2) In Josh 15:57, the Revised Version (British and American) KAIN, which see.
See also KENITES.
F. K. Farr
Easton
a possession; a spear. (1.) The first-born son of Adam and Eve (Gen. 4). He became a tiller of the ground, as his brother Abel followed the pursuits of pastoral life. He was "a sullen, self-willed, haughty, vindictive man; wanting the religious element in his character, and defiant even in his attitude towards God." It came to pass "in process of time" (marg. "at the end of days"), i.e., probably on the Sabbath, that the two brothers presented their offerings to the Lord. Abel's offering was of the "firstlings of his flock and of the fat," while Cain's was "of the fruit of the ground." Abel's sacrifice was "more excellent" (Heb. 11:4) than Cain's, and was accepted by God. On this account Cain was "very wroth," and cherished feelings of murderous hatred against his brother, and was at length guilty of the desperate outrage of putting him to death (1 John 3:12). For this crime he was expelled from Eden, and henceforth led the life of an exile, bearing upon him some mark which God had set upon him in answer to his own cry for mercy, so that thereby he might be protected from the wrath of his fellow-men; or it may be that God only gave him some sign to assure him that he would not be slain (Gen. 4:15). Doomed to be a wanderer and a fugitive in the earth, he went forth into the "land of Nod", i.e., the land of "exile", which is said to have been in the "east of Eden," and there he built a city, the first we read of, and called it after his son's name, Enoch. His descendants are enumerated to the sixth generation. They gradually degenerated in their moral and spiritual condition till they became wholly corrupt before God. This corruption prevailed, and at length the Deluge was sent by God to prevent the final triumph of evil. (See ABEL
HDBN
possession
SBD
(possession ). Gen. 4. He was the eldest son of Adam and Eve; he followed the business of agriculture. In a fit of jealousy, roused by the rejection of his own sacrifice and the acceptance of Abels, he committed the crime of murder, for which he was expelled from Eden, and led the life of an exile. He settled in the land of Nod, and built a city, which he named after his son Enoch. His descendants are enumerated together with the inventions for which they were remarkable. (B.C. 4000.)
謁巴力 ETHBAAL
代表
王上16:31
ISBE
eth-ba-al, eth-ba-al (ethba`al, "with Baal"): "King of the Sidonians," and father of Jezebel whom Ahab king of Israel took to wife (1 Ki 16:31).
HDBN
toward the idol
SBD
(with Baal ), king of Sidon and father of Jezebel. ( 1 Kings 16:31 ) Josephus represents him as a king of the Tyrians as well as of the Sidonians. We may thus identify him with Eithobalus, who, after having assassinated Pheles, usurped the throne of Tyre for thirty-two years. The date of Ethbaals reign may be given as about B.C. 940-908.
謝拉 ZERAH
代表
創36:13 創38:30 代上2:6 太1:3 創46:12 代上4:24 代上1:37 代上6:21 代下14:9 代下14:10 代下14:11 代下14:12 代下14:13 代下14:14 代下14:15
ISBE
ze-ra (zerach, meaning uncertain):
(1) In Gen 38:30; 46:12; Nu 26:20; Josh 7:1,18,24; 22:20; 1 Ch 2:4,6; 9:6; Neh 11:24; Mt 1:3, younger twin-son of Judah and Tamar, and an ancestor of Achan. In Nu 26:20; Josh 7:17 f he is the head of the Zerahites (also 1 Ch 27:11,13). the King James Version has "Zarah" in Gen 38:30; 46:12, and "Zarhites" for "Zerahites" in Numbers, Joshua and 1 Chronicles. See Curtis (Chronicles, 84 f) for identification of Ezrahite with Zerahite.
(2) Edomites: (a) an Edomite chief (Gen 36:13,17; 1 Ch 1:37); (b) father of an Edomite king (Gen 36:33; 1 Ch 1:44).
(3) Levites: (a) 1 Ch 6:21 (Hebrew verse 6); (b) 1 Ch 6:41 (Hebrew verse 26).
(4) Head of the Zerahites (Nu 26:13, the King James Version "Zarhites"; 1 Ch 4:24). In Nu 26:13 = "Zohar" of Gen 46:10; Ex 6:15.
See ZOHAR, (2).
(5) Cushite king (2 Ch 14:9). See the next article
David Francis Roberts
Easton
sunrise. (1.) An "Ethiopian," probably Osorkon II., the successor of Shishak on the throne of Egypt. With an enormous army, the largest we read of in Scripture, he invaded the kingdom of Judah in the days of Asa (2 Chr. 14:9-15). He reached Zephathah, and there encountered the army of Asa. This is the only instance "in all the annals of Judah of a victorious encounter in the field with a first-class heathen power in full force." The Egyptian host was utterly routed, and the Hebrews gathered "exceeding much spoil." Three hundred years elapsed before another Egyptian army, that of Necho (B.C. 609), came up against Jerusalem. (2.) A son of Tamar (Gen. 38:30); called also Zara (Matt. 1:3). (3.) A Gershonite Levite (1 Chr. 6:21, 41).
HDBN
same as Zarah
SBD
(rising (of the sun)). A son of Reuel, son of Esau, ( Genesis 36:13 ; 1 Chronicles 1:37 ) and one of the "dukes" or phylarchs of the Edomites. ( Genesis 36:17 ) (B.C. after 1760.) Less properly, Zarah, twin son, with his elder brother Pharez, of Judah and Tamar. ( Genesis 38:30 ; 1 Chronicles 2:4 ; Matthew 1:3 ) (B.C. about 1728.) His descendants were called Zarhites, Ezrahites and Izrahites. ( Numbers 26:20 ; 1 Kings 4:31 ; 1 Chronicles 27:8 1 Chronicles 27:11 ) Son of Simeon, ( 1 Chronicles 4:24 ) called ZOHAR in ( Genesis 46:10 ) (B.C. 1706.) A Gershonite Levite, son of Iddo or Adaiah. ( 1 Chronicles 6:21 1 Chronicles 6:41 ) (B.C. 1043.) The Ethiopian or Cushite, an invader of Judah, defeated by Asa about B.C. 941. [ASA] Zerah is probably the Hebrew name of Usarken I., second king of the Egyptian twenty-second dynasty; or perhaps more probably Usarken II his second successor. In the fourteenth year of Asa, Zerah the Ethiopian, with a mighty army of or million, invaded his kingdom, and advanced unopposed in the field as far as the valley of Zephathah at Mareshah. The Egyptian monuments enable us to picture the general disposition of Zerahs army. The chariots formed the first corps in a single or double line; behind them, massed in phalanxes, were heavy-armed troops; probably on the flanks stood archers and horsemen in lighter formations. After a prayer by Asa, his army attacked the Egyptians and defeated them. The chariots, broken by the charge and with horses made unmanageable by flights of arrows must have been forced back upon the cumbrous host behind. So complete was the overthrow that the Hebrews could capture and spoil the cities around Gerah which must have been in alliance with Zerah. The defeat of the Egyptian army is without parallel in the history of the Jews. On no other occasion did an Israelite army meet an army of one of the great powers and defeat it.
谷何西 COLHOZEH
代表
尼11:5 尼3:15
HDBN
every prophet
買南 MENNA
代表
路3:31
ISBE
men-a (Menna Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in Greek, Tregelles, Tischendorf; Mainan Textus Receptus of the New Testament; the King James Version Menan): An ancestor of Jesus, a great-grandson of David (Lk 3:31).
SBD
In the Revised Version of ( Luke 3:31 ) for Menan.
賀得 HODESH
代表
代上8:9 代上8:10
ISBE
ho-desh (chodhesh, "new moon"): One of the wives of Shaharaim, a Benjamite (1 Ch 8:9).
HDBN
a table; news
SBD
(new moon ), a woman named in the genealogies of Benjamin, ( 1 Chronicles 8:9 ) as the wife of Shaharaim.
賓內 BINNUI
代表
拉8:33 拉10:30 拉10:34 拉10:38 尼3:24 尼10:9 尼12:8
ISBE
bin-u-i (binnuy, a proper name, "a building up"):
(1) A Levite, living in the time of Ezra (Ezr 8:33; Neh 10:9; 12:8).
(2) One of the bene Pachath-moabh who had taken foreign wives (Ezr 10:30--Balnuus of 1 Esdras 9:31) and one of the bene Bani (Ezr 10:38) who had also intermarried.
(3) The son of Henadad, who built part of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh 3:24), and sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh 10:9). In all probability he is identical with "Bavvai, the son of Henadad" mentioned in Neh 3:18. "Bavvai" is either a corruption of "Binnui," or is the name of the Levitical house of which Bavvai was the chief representative. Binnui is mentioned in Neh 10:9 as a leading Levite, and, besides, the names in these verses are obviously those of priests and Levites; so the former theory is probably correct.
(4) Head of a family who returned with Zerubbabel (Neh 7:15; Ezr 2:10).
H. J. Wolf
HDBN
building
賓哈 BIMHAL
代表
代上7:33
ISBE
bim-hal (bimhal): A descendant of Asher (1 Ch 7:33).
SBD
(circumcised ), one of the sons of Japhlet in the line of Asher. ( 1 Chronicles 7:33 )
HEN
代表
亞16:10 亞16:14
Easton
common in later times among the Jews in Palestine (Matt. 23:37; Luke 13:34). It is noticeable that this familiar bird is only mentioned in these passages in connection with our Lord's lamentation over the impenitence of Jerusalem.
HDBN
grace; quiet; rest
SBD
(rest ), probably a son of Zephaniah, and apparently the same who is called JOSIAH in ( Zechariah 6:10 )
HETH
代表
代上1:13
Easton
dread, a descendant of Canaan, and the ancestor of the Hittites (Gen. 10:18; Deut. 7:1), who dwelt in the vicinity of Hebron (Gen. 23:3, 7). The Hittites were a Hamitic race. They are called "the sons of Heth" (Gen. 23:3, 5, 7, 10, 16, 18, 20).
HDBN
trembling; fear
SBD
(terror ), the forefather of the nation of the Hittites. In the genealogical tables of ( Genesis 10:15 ) and 1Chr 1:13 Heth is a son of Canaan. ( Genesis 24:3 Genesis 24:4 ; Genesis 28:1 Genesis 28:2 )
路加 LUKE
代表
提後4:11
Easton
the evangelist, was a Gentile. The date and circumstances of his conversion are unknown. According to his own statement (Luke 1:2), he was not an "eye-witness and minister of the word from the beginning." It is probable that he was a physician in Troas, and was there converted by Paul, to whom he attached himself. He accompanied him to Philippi, but did not there share his imprisonment, nor did he accompany him further after his release in his missionary journey at this time (Acts 17:1). On Paul's third visit to Philippi (20:5, 6) we again meet with Luke, who probably had spent all the intervening time in that city, a period of seven or eight years. From this time Luke was Paul's constant companion during his journey to Jerusalem (20:6-21:18). He again disappears from view during Paul's imprisonment at Jerusalem and Caesarea, and only reappears when Paul sets out for Rome (27:1), whither he accompanies him (28:2, 12-16), and where he remains with him till the close of his first imprisonment (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14). The last notice of the "beloved physician" is in 2 Tim. 4:11. There are many passages in Paul's epistles, as well as in the writings of Luke, which show the extent and accuracy of his medical knowledge.
HDBN
luminous; white
SBD
(light-giving ), or Lucas, is an abbreviated form of Lucanus. It is not to be confounded with Lucius, ( Acts 13:1 ; Romans 16:21 ) which belongs to a different person. The name Luke occurs three times in the New Testament-- ( Colossians 4:14 ; 2 Timothy 4:11 ); Phle 1:24 --and probably in all three the third evangelist is the person spoken of. Combining the traditional element with the scriptural we are able to trace the following dim outline of the evangelists life. He was born at Antioch in Syria, and was taught the science of medicine. The well known tradition that Luke was also a painter, and of no mean skill, rests on the authority of late writers. He was not born a Jew, for he is not reckoned among those "of the circumcision" by St. Paul. Comp. ( Colossians 4:11 ) with ver. 14. The date of his conversion is uncertain. He joined St. Paul at Troas, and shared his Journey into Macedonia. The sudden transition to the first person plural in ( Acts 16:9 ) is most naturally explained after all the objections that have been urged, by supposing that Luke the writer of the Acts, formed one of St. Pauls company from this point. As far as Philippi the evangelist journeyed with the apostle. The resumption of the third person on Pauls departure from that place, ( Acts 17:1 ) would show that Luke was now left behind. During the rest of St. Pauls second missionary journey we hear of Luke no more; but on the third journey the same indication reminds us that Luke is again of the company, ( Acts 20:5 ) having joined it apparently at Philippi, where he had been left. With the apostle he passed through Miletus, Tyre and Caesarea to Jerusalem. ch. Acts 20:6; 21:18 As to his age and death there is the utmost uncertainty. He probably died a martyr, between A.D. 75 and A.D. 100. He wrote the Gospel that bears his name, and also the book of Acts.
路哈瑪 RUHAMAH
代表
何2:1
ISBE
roo-ha-ma, roo-ha-ma: See LO-RUHAMAH, the symbolical name of Hoseas daughter (Hos 1:6,8).
Easton
having obtained mercy, a symbolical name given to the daughter of Hosea (2:1).
HDBN
having obtained mercy
SBD
or Ruhamah (having obtained mercy ). ( Hosea 2:1 ) The name if name it be, is symbolical, and is addressed to the DAUGHTERS of the people, to denote that they were still the objects of love and tender compassion.
路得 RUTH
代表
得1:1 得1:2 得1:3 得1:4 得1:5 得4:13 得4:14 得4:15 得4:16 得4:17
ISBE
rooth (ruth; Rhouth): The name Ruth is found in the Old Testament only in the book which is so entitled. It is a contraction for reuth perhaps signifying "comrade," "companion" (feminine; compare Ex 11:2, "every woman of her neighbor"). OHL, 946, explains the word as an abstract noun = "friendship." The Book of Ruth details the history of the one decisive episode owing to which Ruth became an ancestress of David and of the royal house of Judah. From this point of view its peculiar interest lies in the close friendship or alliance between Israel and Moab, which rendered such a connection possible. Not improbably also there is an allusion to this in the name itself.
1. History:
The history lies in the period of the Judges (Ruth 1:1), at the close of a great famine in the land of Israel. Elimelech, a native of Bethlehem, had, with his wife Naomi and two sons, taken refuge in Moab from the famine. There, after an interval of time which is not more precisely defined, he died (Ruth 1:3), and his two sons, having married women of Moab, in the course of a further ten years also died, and left Orpah and Ruth widows (Ruth 1:5). Naomi then decided to return to Israel, and her two daughters-in-law accompanied her on her way (Ruth 1:7). Orpah, however, turned back and only Ruth remained with Naomi, journeying with her to Bethlehem, where they arrived "in the beginning of barley harvest" (Ruth 1:22). The piety and fidelity of Ruth are thus early exhibited in the course of the narrative, in that she refused to abandon her mother-in-law, although thrice exhorted to do so by Naomi herself, on account of her own great age and the better prospects for Ruth in her own country. Orpah yielded to persuasion, and returned to Moab; but Ruth remained with Naomi.
At Bethlehem Ruth employed herself in gleaning in the field during the harvest and was noticed by Boaz, the owner of the field, a near kinsman of her father-in-law Elimelech. Boaz gave her permission to glean as long as the harvest continued; and told her that he had heard of her filial conduct toward her mother-in-law. Moreover, he directed the reapers to make intentional provision for her by dropping in her way grain from their bundles (Ruth 2:15 f). She was thus able to return to Naomi in the evening with a whole ephah of barley (Ruth 2:17). In answer to questioning she explained that her success in gleaning was due to the good-will of Boaz, and the orders that he had given. She remained accordingly and gleaned with his maidens throughout the barley and wheat harvest, making her home with her mother-in-law (Ruth 2:23). Naomi was anxious for the remarriage of Ruth, both for her sake and to secure compliance with the usage and law of Israel; and sent her to Boaz to recall to him his duty as near kinsman of her late husband Elimelech (Ruth 3:1 f). Boaz acknowledged the claim and promised to take Ruth in marriage, failing fulfillment of the legal duty of another whose relationship was nearer than that of Boaz himself (Ruth 3:8-13). Naomi was confident that Boaz would fulfill his promise, and advised Ruth to wait in patience.
Boaz then adopted the customary and legal measures to obtain a decision. He summoned the near kinsman before ten elders at the gate of the city, related to him the circumstances of Naomis return, with her desire that Ruth should be married and settled with her father-in-laws land as her marriage-portion, and called upon him to declare his intentions. The near kinsman, whose name and degree of relationship are not stated, declared his inability to undertake the charge, which he renounced in legal form in favor of Boaz according to ancient custom in Israel (Ruth 4:6 ff). Boaz accepted the charge thus transferred to him, the elders and bystanders bearing witness and pronouncing a formal blessing upon the union of Boaz and Ruth (4:9-12). Upon the birth of a son in due course the women of the city congratulated Naomi, in that the continuance of her family and house was now assured, and the latter became the childs nurse. The name of Obed was given to the boy; and Obed through his son Jesse became the grandfather of David (compare Mt 1:5,6; Lk 3:31,32).
2. Interest and Importance of the Narrative:
Thus, the life and history of Ruth are important in the eyes of the narrator because she forms a link in the ancestry of the greatest king of Israel. From a more modern point of view the narrative is a simple idyllic history, showing how the faithful loving service of Ruth to her mother-in-law met with its due reward in the restored happiness of a peaceful and prosperous home-life for herself. Incidentally are illustrated also ancient marriage customs of Israel, which in the time of the writer had long since become obsolete. The narrative is brief and told without affectation of style, and on that account will never lose its interest. It has preserved moreover the memory of an incident, the national significance of which may have passed away, but to which value will always be attached for its simplicity and natural grace.
For the literature, see RUTH, THE BOOK OF.
A. S. Geden
Easton
a friend, a Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, whose father, Elimelech, had settled in the land of Moab. On the death of Elimelech and Mahlon, Naomi came with Ruth, her daughter-in-law, who refused to leave her, to Bethlehem, the old home from which Elimelech had migrated. There she had a rich relative, Boaz, to whom Ruth was eventually married. She became the mother of Obed, the grandfather of David. Thus Ruth, a Gentile, is among the maternal progenitors of our Lord (Matt. 1:5). The story of "the gleaner Ruth illustrates the friendly relations between the good Boaz and his reapers, the Jewish land system, the method of transferring property from one person to another, the working of the Mosaic law for the relief of distressed and ruined families; but, above all, handing down the unselfishness, the brave love, the unshaken trustfulness of her who, though not of the chosen race, was, like the Canaanitess Tamar (Gen. 38:29; Matt. 1:3) and the Canaanitess Rahab (Matt. 1:5), privileged to become the ancestress of David, and so of 'great David's greater Son'" (Ruth 4:18-22).
HDBN
drunk; satisfied
SBD
(a female friend ) a Moabitish woman, the wife, first of Mahlon, second of Boaz, the ancestress of David and Christ,and one of the four women who are named by St. Matthew in the genealogy of Christ. A severe famine in the land of Judah induced Elimelech, a native of Bethlehem --ephratah, to emigrate into the land of Moab, with his wife Naomi, and his two sons, Mahlon and Chilion. This was probably about the time of Gideon, B.C. 1250. At the end of ten years Naomi now left a widow and childless, having heard that there was plenty again in Judah, resolved to return to Bethlehem, and her daughter-in-law Ruth returned with her. They arrived at Bethlehem just at the beginning of barley harvest, and Ruth, going out to glean, chanced to go into the field of wheat, a wealthy man and a near kinsman of her father-in-law, Elimelech. Upon learning who the stranger was, Boaz treated her with the utmost kindness and respect, and sent her home laden with corn which she had gleaned. Encouraged by this incident, Naomi instructed Ruth to claim at the hand of Boaz that he should perform the part of her husbands near kinsman, by purchasing the inheritance of Elimelech and taking her to be his wife. With all due solemnity, Boaz took Ruth to be his wife, amidst the blessings and congratulations of their neighbors. Their son, Obed, was the father of Jesse, who was the father of David.
路德 LUD
代表
創10:22 結27:10 結30:5
Easton
(1.) The fourth son of Shem (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17), ancestor of the Lydians probably. (2.) One of the Hamitic tribes descended from Mizraim (Gen. 10:13), a people of Africa (Ezek. 27:10; 30:5), on the west of Egypt. The people called Lud were noted archers (Isa. 66:19; comp. Jer. 46:9).
HDBN
Ludim
SBD
(strife ) the fourth name in the list of the children of Shem, ( Genesis 10:22 ) comp. 1Chr 1:17 supposed to have been the ancestor of the Lydians.


ISBE - 國際標準聖經百科全書 (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia)
Easton - Easton's Bible Dictionary
HBND - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary
SBD - Smith's Bible Dictionary